Rajas: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Rajas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Rajas (रजस्).—One of the three guṇas, representing the quality of love and hate. These three qualities are to be seen as all-pervading and interpenetrating all beings. The Sanskrit word rajas is a technical term used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.28: “What is mixed with pain and brings unhappiness to the soul,—know that to be ‘rajas’, imperceptible and constantly attracting embodied beings”.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.32: “Proneness to undertake work, impatience, commission of improper acts, constant addiction to sensual objects are the characteristics of the quality of ‘rajas’”.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.36: “When, by a certain act, the man desires great fame in this world, and does not mind failure—this should be understood to partake of the quality of ‘rajas’”.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Rajas (रजस्):—Sanskrit word for a unit of measurement of weight, according to the Rasa-darpaṇa (Sanskrit work on rasaśāstra, or Medical Alchemy). Six yūkās constitute one rajas.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Rajas (रजस्).—One of the three elements constituting all objects as conceived by the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Rajas (रजस्):—Another name for vaṃśī (unit of weight), according to the Cintāmaṇi.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Rajas (रजस्) denotes the region of the atmosphere between heaven and earth in the Rigveda and later. The atmosphere, like the sky (div), is divided into three regions, but more normally into two, the ‘earthly’ (pārthiva) and the ‘heavenly’ (divya or divaḥ). In some passages the word refers in the plural to the dusty fields on earth.

2) Rajas (रजस्) in one passage of the Yajurveda-saṃhitās clearly means ‘silver’, like Rajata. It is also taken in this sense in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, but this interpretation is doubtful.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rajas is associated with concepts of energy, activity, ambition, and passion; so that, depending on how it is used, it can either have a supportive or hindering effect on the evolution of the soul.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Rajas (रजस्, “dusty”) refers to one of the “twenty form objects” (rūpa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 34). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., rajas). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—n. [rañj-asun nalopaḥ Uṇ.4.224]

1) Dust, powder, dirt; धन्यास्तदङ्गरजसा मलिनीभवन्ति (dhanyāstadaṅgarajasā malinībhavanti) Ś.7.17; आत्मोद्धतैरपि रजोभिरलङ्घनीयाः (ātmoddhatairapi rajobhiralaṅghanīyāḥ) 1.8; R.1.42;6.33.

2) The dust or pollen of flowers; भूयाद् कुशेशयरजोमृदुरेणुरस्याः (bhūyād kuśeśayarajomṛdureṇurasyāḥ) (panthāḥ) Ś. 4.11; Me.35,67; Śi.7.42.

3) A mote in a sun-beam, any small particle (of matter); cf. Ms.8.132; जाल- सूर्यमरीचिस्थं त्रसरेणू रजः स्मृतम् (jāla- sūryamarīcisthaṃ trasareṇū rajaḥ smṛtam) Y.1.362.

4) A ploughed or cultivated land, arable field.

5) Gloom, darkness.

6) Foulness, passion, emotion, moral or mental darkness; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि श्रुतवन्तोऽपि रजोनिमीलिताः (apathe padamarpayanti hi śrutavanto'pi rajonimīlitāḥ) R.9. 74.

7) The second of the three Guṇas or constituent qualities of all material substances (the other two being sattva and tamas; rajas is supposed to be the cause of the great activity seen in creatures; it predominates in men, as Sattva and Tamas predominate in gods and demons); अन्तर्गतमपास्तं मे रजसोऽपि परं तमः (antargatamapāstaṃ me rajaso'pi paraṃ tamaḥ) Ku.6.6; Bg.6. 27; रजोजुषे जन्मनि (rajojuṣe janmani) K.; Māl.1.2.

8) Menstrual discharge, menses; रजसाभिप्लुतां नारी नरस्य ह्युपगच्छतः । प्रज्ञा तेजो बलं चक्षुरायुश्चैव प्रहीयते (rajasābhiplutāṃ nārī narasya hyupagacchataḥ | prajñā tejo balaṃ cakṣurāyuścaiva prahīyate) || Ms.4.41;5.66.

9) Safflower.

1) Tin.

11) Ved. Air, atmosphere.

12) A division of the world.

13) Vapour.

14) Cloud or rain-water.

15) Sin (pāpa); प्रायश्चित्तं च कुर्वन्ति तेन तच्छाम्यते रजः (prāyaścittaṃ ca kurvanti tena tacchāmyate rajaḥ) Rām.4. 18.34.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—n.

(-jaḥ) 1. The second of the three primary qualities of nature the quality or property of passion: that which produces sensual desire, worldly coveting, pride, and falsehood, and is the cause of pain. 2. Dust. 3. The dust or pollen of a flower. 4. Any particle of matter. 5. The menstrual evacuation. 6. Cultivated fields. 7. A mole in a sun-beam. E. rañj to colour, to be attached to, Unadi aff. asun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—I. i. e. rañj + as, n. (the original signification was probably ‘Dimness;’ cf. rajani and [Gothic.] riquis). 1. Sky, Chr. 289, 7 = [Rigveda.] i. 50, 7. 2. Dust, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 110. 3. The pollen of a flower, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 26. 4. The menses, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 41. Ii. i. e. perhaps ṛj + as (cf. ), n. The quality of passion, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—[neuter] atmosphere, air, [especially] the lower region of clouds and vapours ([opposed] div or rācana); the sky (conc. also as twofold, rajasī) mist, gloom (i.[grammar]); dust, pollen of flowers, any small particle of matter; foulness, impurity, [especially] the menstrual secretion, darkness or soul-darkening passion (ph.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rajas (रजस्):—[from raj] n. ‘coloured or dim space’, the sphere of vapour or mist, region of clouds, atmosphere, air, firmament (in Veda one of the divisions of the world and distinguished from div or svar, ‘the sphere of light’, and rocanā divaḥ, ‘the ethereal spaces’, which are beyond the rajas, as ether is beyond the air; often rajas, = ‘the whole expanse of heaven or sky’, divided into a lower and upper stratum, the rajas uparam or pārthivam and the rajas uttamam or paramam or divyam; hence [dual number] rajasī, ‘the lower and higher atmospheres’; sometimes also three and, [Ṛg-veda i, 164, 6] even six such spheres are enumerated, hence [plural] rajāṃsi, ‘the skies’), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] vapour, mist, clouds, gloom, dimness, darkness, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] impurity, dirt, dust, any small particle of matter, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (cf. go-r)

4) [v.s. ...] the dust or pollen of flowers, [Kālidāsa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] cultivated or ploughed land (as ‘dusty’ or ‘dirty’), arable land, fields, [Ṛg-veda]

6) [v.s. ...] the impurity id est. the menstrual discharge of a woman, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] the ‘darkening’ quality, passion, emotion, affection, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) the second of the three Guṇas or qualities (the other two being sattva, goodness, and tamas, darkness; cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 85]; rajas is sometimes identified with tejas q.v.; it is said to predominate in air, and to be active, urgent, and variable), [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] ‘light’ or ‘day’ or ‘world’ or ‘water’ [Nirukta, by Yāska iv, 19]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of plant (= parpaṭa), [Bhāvaprakāśa]

11) [v.s. ...] tin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] autumn, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] sperm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] safflower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Ṛṣi (son of Vasiṣṭha), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] ἔ-ρεβος; [Gothic] riqis.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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