Rajas: 30 definitions


Rajas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Rajas (रजस्):—Sanskrit word for a unit of measurement of weight, according to the Rasa-darpaṇa (Sanskrit work on rasaśāstra, or Medical Alchemy). Six yūkās constitute one rajas.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Rajas (रजस्) referrs to “silver”, and is used in the treatment of rat-poison such as those caused by the Ugra-rats, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments is mentioned as follows: “Must take a tablet or Gulikā made from pearl and silver (rajas). Fruit and powder of the roots of Śvetaśarapuṅkha and Kaṇṭhapuṅkha garnished with the bark of Pūtikā. Victim must be given a drink of gruel made of barley, Puṅkha and Ākhukarṇikā. The same can be used as ointment as well. Fumigation with jaggery and hair of mongoose prescribed. Curd must be taken”.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Rajas (रजस्) refers to the “dust (of ivory)”, which is used by certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, such as turning plants into creepers, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “Musa paradisiaca tree with its root pierced with a golden rod heated in fire of dust of ivory (dantīdanta-rajas), turns into a creeper producing fruits for a long time (or fruits of large size). Musa paradisiaca creeper produces wealth in the form of plantains as big as elephant's teeth if the roots are pierced with an iron needle which is heated in the fire made of dry cow dung and bones of pig, elephant and horse”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Rajas (रजस्):—1. One of the three qualities (sattva, Rajas and Tamas) or constituents of everything in creation. 2. Initiation, Mobility, Activity 3. The menstrual discharge of a woman. ; The quality of passion, one of the three ‘property’ of manas and conceived as the fundamental substratum of the universe.

Source: Ayushdhara: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Vijayadi - Vati on Kashtartava (Primary Dysmenorrhoea)

Rajas (रजस्) refers to “menstrual blood” according to the principles of Ayurveda: a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with health, medicine, anatomy, etc.—According to Ayurveda in menstrual cycle bleeding phase is mainly dominated by Vayu, as the excretion of Rajah (menstrual blood) is one of the actions of Apana vata. Due to consumption of Vata prakopaka ahara – vihara, (diet and lifestyle that aggravates Vata dosha) Vata gets aggravated.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Rajas (रजस्).—One of the three guṇas, representing the quality of love and hate. These three qualities are to be seen as all-pervading and interpenetrating all beings. The Sanskrit word rajas is a technical term used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.28: “What is mixed with pain and brings unhappiness to the soul,—know that to be ‘rajas’, imperceptible and constantly attracting embodied beings”.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.32: “Proneness to undertake work, impatience, commission of improper acts, constant addiction to sensual objects are the characteristics of the quality of ‘rajas’”.

According to the Manusmṛti XII.36: “When, by a certain act, the man desires great fame in this world, and does not mind failure—this should be understood to partake of the quality of ‘rajas’”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Rajas (रजस्).—One of the three elements constituting all objects as conceived by the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Rajas (रजस्) refers to “grain of dust (unit of measurement) § 2.1.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Rajas (रजस्) refers to the “female seed”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—The god explains in the Kularatnoddyota that when the male and female seed (rajas) are generated by the union of Śiva and Śakti: “There, O beloved, the (male) seed and the female (rajas) are mixed. The great and immortal Point originated there, O fair-faced one, energized and shining, its light was like that of tens of millions of suns. O mistress of the gods, endowed with four energies, (its) form is round. (Everything) was engulfed (kadambīkṛta) in every way within the mass of (its) rays and flames. O goddess, one should know that to be the Kadamba tree (taught) in the Kula teaching. ”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rajas (रजस्) refers to “dust storms”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It treats of the prediction of immediate rain from surrounding phenomena; of judging the nature of the future crops from the growth of plants and flowers; of the halos round the sun and moon; of lines of clouds crossing the solar disc at rising and setting; of the winds; of meteoric falls; of false fires; of earthquakes; of the red sky immediately before sunrise and after sunset; of the fanciful shapes of clouds; of dust storms [i.e., rajas]; of thunderbolts; of the price of food grains; of gardening; [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Rajas (रजस्) refers to “female generative fluid”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “Know bindu to be of two kinds, male and female. Semen (bīja) is said to be the male [bindu] and rajas (female generative fluid) is female. As a result of their external union people are created. When they are united internally, then one is declared a yogi. [...]

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Rajas (रजस्) refers to the “dust (of the earth)”, according to the Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma: an influential 15th-century Sanskrit manual on Hatha-Yoga dealing with techniques to channel one’s vital energy.—Accordingly, while discussing methods for conquering the mind: “Acquiring spiritual knowledge, associating with the wise, abandoning habitual tendencies and stopping the movement of the breath; according to tradition, [all] these methods are effective in conquering the mind. The [mind] is quickly overcome by these [methods of restraint] like the dust of the earth (bhū-rajas) by streams [of water]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Rajas (रजस्):—Another name for vaṃśī (unit of weight), according to the Cintāmaṇi.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Rajas (रजस्) denotes the region of the atmosphere between heaven and earth in the Rigveda and later. The atmosphere, like the sky (div), is divided into three regions, but more normally into two, the ‘earthly’ (pārthiva) and the ‘heavenly’ (divya or divaḥ). In some passages the word refers in the plural to the dusty fields on earth.

2) Rajas (रजस्) in one passage of the Yajurveda-saṃhitās clearly means ‘silver’, like Rajata. It is also taken in this sense in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, but this interpretation is doubtful.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rajas is associated with concepts of energy, activity, ambition, and passion; so that, depending on how it is used, it can either have a supportive or hindering effect on the evolution of the soul.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Rajas (रजस्) refers to the “dust (of the earth)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “Present time (pratyutpanna) is like a ball of clay (mṛnpiṇḍa), past time (atīta) like the dust of the earth (pṛthivī-rajas) and future time (anāgata) like the vase (ghata). Since time is eternal (nitya), the past does not make the future, for according to your texts, time is a single substance (ekadravya). This is why the past does not make the future or the present, for they are confused with the past. In the past there is no future. That is why there is no future or present”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Rajas (रजस्) refers to “(atomic-sized) dust”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] The Śāriputra the Elder addressed himself to the Lord: ‘O Lord, how long the thought of awakening will be continued after the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja produced it?’. [...] The Lord said: ‘It is like this, Śāriputra, as if the world-spheres as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Gaṅgā are filled with the atomic-sized dust of Buddha-fields as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Gaṅgā, as if all the atomic-sized dust (paramāṇu-rajas) is put into a single dust-grain of a field during many hundreds of thousands of aeons, in the same way of calculating and establishing distinguishing marks, even though all the dust would be exhausted, the thought of incomparable complete awakening, which was produced by the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, for the uncountable hundreds, thousands, millions, billions of ages, would never be exhausted’ [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Rajas (रजस्, “dusty”) refers to one of the “twenty form objects” (rūpa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 34). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., rajas). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—n. [rañj-asun nalopaḥ Uṇādi-sūtra 4.224]

1) Dust, powder, dirt; धन्यास्तदङ्गरजसा मलिनीभवन्ति (dhanyāstadaṅgarajasā malinībhavanti) Ś.7.17; आत्मोद्धतैरपि रजोभिरलङ्घनीयाः (ātmoddhatairapi rajobhiralaṅghanīyāḥ) 1.8; R.1.42;6.33.

2) The dust or pollen of flowers; भूयाद् कुशेशयरजोमृदुरेणुरस्याः (bhūyād kuśeśayarajomṛdureṇurasyāḥ) (panthāḥ) Ś. 4.11; Meghadūta 35,67; Śiśupālavadha 7.42.

3) A mote in a sun-beam, any small particle (of matter); cf. Manusmṛti 8.132; जाल- सूर्यमरीचिस्थं त्रसरेणू रजः स्मृतम् (jāla- sūryamarīcisthaṃ trasareṇū rajaḥ smṛtam) Y.1.362.

4) A ploughed or cultivated land, arable field.

5) Gloom, darkness.

6) Foulness, passion, emotion, moral or mental darkness; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि श्रुतवन्तोऽपि रजोनिमीलिताः (apathe padamarpayanti hi śrutavanto'pi rajonimīlitāḥ) R.9. 74.

7) The second of the three Guṇas or constituent qualities of all material substances (the other two being sattva and tamas; rajas is supposed to be the cause of the great activity seen in creatures; it predominates in men, as Sattva and Tamas predominate in gods and demons); अन्तर्गतमपास्तं मे रजसोऽपि परं तमः (antargatamapāstaṃ me rajaso'pi paraṃ tamaḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.6; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 6. 27; रजोजुषे जन्मनि (rajojuṣe janmani) K.; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.2.

8) Menstrual discharge, menses; रजसाभिप्लुतां नारी नरस्य ह्युपगच्छतः । प्रज्ञा तेजो बलं चक्षुरायुश्चैव प्रहीयते (rajasābhiplutāṃ nārī narasya hyupagacchataḥ | prajñā tejo balaṃ cakṣurāyuścaiva prahīyate) || Manusmṛti 4.41;5.66.

9) Safflower.

1) Tin.

11) Ved. Air, atmosphere.

12) A division of the world.

13) Vapour.

14) Cloud or rain-water.

15) Sin (pāpa); प्रायश्चित्तं च कुर्वन्ति तेन तच्छाम्यते रजः (prāyaścittaṃ ca kurvanti tena tacchāmyate rajaḥ) Rām.4. 18.34.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—n.

(-jaḥ) 1. The second of the three primary qualities of nature the quality or property of passion: that which produces sensual desire, worldly coveting, pride, and falsehood, and is the cause of pain. 2. Dust. 3. The dust or pollen of a flower. 4. Any particle of matter. 5. The menstrual evacuation. 6. Cultivated fields. 7. A mole in a sun-beam. E. rañj to colour, to be attached to, Unadi aff. asun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—I. i. e. rañj + as, n. (the original signification was probably ‘Dimness;’ cf. rajani and [Gothic.] riquis). 1. Sky, Chr. 289, 7 = [Rigveda.] i. 50, 7. 2. Dust, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 110. 3. The pollen of a flower, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 26. 4. The menses, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 41. Ii. i. e. perhaps ṛj + as (cf. ), n. The quality of passion, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्).—[neuter] atmosphere, air, [especially] the lower region of clouds and vapours ([opposed] div or rācana); the sky (conc. also as twofold, rajasī) mist, gloom (i.[grammar]); dust, pollen of flowers, any small particle of matter; foulness, impurity, [especially] the menstrual secretion, darkness or soul-darkening passion (ph.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rajas (रजस्):—[from raj] n. ‘coloured or dim space’, the sphere of vapour or mist, region of clouds, atmosphere, air, firmament (in Veda one of the divisions of the world and distinguished from div or svar, ‘the sphere of light’, and rocanā divaḥ, ‘the ethereal spaces’, which are beyond the rajas, as ether is beyond the air; often rajas, = ‘the whole expanse of heaven or sky’, divided into a lower and upper stratum, the rajas uparam or pārthivam and the rajas uttamam or paramam or divyam; hence [dual number] rajasī, ‘the lower and higher atmospheres’; sometimes also three and, [Ṛg-veda i, 164, 6] even six such spheres are enumerated, hence [plural] rajāṃsi, ‘the skies’), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] vapour, mist, clouds, gloom, dimness, darkness, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] impurity, dirt, dust, any small particle of matter, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (cf. go-r)

4) [v.s. ...] the dust or pollen of flowers, [Kālidāsa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] cultivated or ploughed land (as ‘dusty’ or ‘dirty’), arable land, fields, [Ṛg-veda]

6) [v.s. ...] the impurity id est. the menstrual discharge of a woman, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] the ‘darkening’ quality, passion, emotion, affection, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) the second of the three Guṇas or qualities (the other two being sattva, goodness, and tamas, darkness; cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 85]; rajas is sometimes identified with tejas q.v.; it is said to predominate in air, and to be active, urgent, and variable), [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] ‘light’ or ‘day’ or ‘world’ or ‘water’ [Nirukta, by Yāska iv, 19]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of plant (= parpaṭa), [Bhāvaprakāśa]

11) [v.s. ...] tin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] autumn, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] sperm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] safflower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Ṛṣi (son of Vasiṣṭha), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] ἔ-ρεβος; [Gothic] riqis.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rajas (रजस्):—(jaḥ) 5. n. The quality, passion, or sensual feelings; dust; desire; pollen; menses.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rajas (रजस्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Raya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rajas in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rajas in Hindi refers in English to:—(a) born of or appropriate to [rajoguna]; passionate; see [rajasi] (nm) arrogance; rage; excitement..—rajas (राजस) is alternatively transliterated as Rājasa.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Rajas (ரஜஸ்) noun < rajas.

1. The quality of passion manifested in one’s activity. See இரசோகுணம். [irasogunam.]

2. Dust; புழுதி. [puzhuthi.]

3. Menstrual discharge; பூப்புநீர். [puppunir.]

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Rajas is another spelling for राजस [rājasa].—n. 1. passion; emotion; anger; 2. throne of the king; 3. the authority or rule; adj. relating to the quality of passion;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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