Parvata, Pārvata: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Parvata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

1) Parvata (पर्वत):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Suprabhedāgama, which describes a list of 13 types. This list represents the earliest form of the classification of temples in the South Indian Vāstuśāstra literature.

2) Parvata (पर्वत) refers to a variety of prāsāda (‘superstructure’, or, upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (5th-century guidebook on Dravidian architecture). It is part of the Dvitala (two-storey) group of prāsādas.

The Parvata variety has the following specifications and decorative motif components:

Number of talas (levels): 2;
Shape of grīva (neck) and śikhara (head): Circular;
Number of śālas: 4;
Number of kūṭas: 8;
Number of alpanāsis: 56;

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Parvata (पर्वत).—A sage who was the nephew of Nārada. Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu—Brahmā—Marīci—Paurṇamāsa—Parvata. (See full article at Story of Parvata from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Parvata (पर्वत).—It is believed that in Kṛtayuga all mountains had wings. They flew all over the world with the swiftness of Garuḍa or Vāyu. All beings including ṛṣis and devas lived in a state of suspense since at any moment any mountain might fly and land down on their heads. They complained to Indra and Indra asked the mountains to remain at one place which they flatly refused. Indra got angry and started cutting down the wings of the mountains with his Vajrāyudha. No mountain was able to escape from this punishment; but Vāyubhagavān carried away his bosom friend, the mountain Maināka, and put it in the ocean without anybody noticing it. So Maināka alone did not lose its wings. It was this Maināka which rose from the ocean and gave a resting point to Hanūmān, son of Vāyu, when he took a leap from the shores of Bhārata to Laṅkā. This was but an expression of gratitude to Vāyu whose son Hanūmān was, for the help he had given when Indra was cutting off the wings of all mountains. (Sarga 1, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Parvata (पर्वत).—Called on Bhīṣma lying on his death-bed.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 9. 6.

1b) A son of Kaśyapa; brother of Nārada and a devaṛṣi;1 a sage born in Nārada hill in Plakṣa.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 85; 70. 79.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 95; III. 7. 27; 8. 86; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 86; 49. 8.

1c) A god of the Haritā gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 84.

1d) A son of Prajāpati.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 64.

1e) The son of Paurṇamāsa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 6.

1f) Hills sprang out of the scatterings of the Pralayāgni after the earth was rescued by the Varāha; for having sat firm (acalās); Parvatas with slopes (Parvas) swallowed in and hence giri; stony and hence śila.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 6. 30-32.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Parvata (पर्वत) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.48.8, I.53) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Parvata) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Parvata (पर्वत) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Parvata (पर्वत) is synonymous with Mountain (śaila) and is mentioned in a list of 24 such synonyms according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Parvata], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Parvata (पर्वत) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Parvata).

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Parvata (पर्वत) refers to a “mountain” and represents one of the items held in the right hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, parvata]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Parvata (पर्वत) refers to the “eight mountains” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 125):

  1. Yugaṃdhara (the Yoke-bearer mountain),
  2. Īśādhara (the Bearing of the Supreme mountain),
  3. Khadiraka (the Acacia mountain),
  4. Sudarśana (the Beautiful mountain),
  5. Vinataka (the Bending mountain),
  6. Aśvakarṇa (the Horse’s Ear mountain),
  7. Nemiṃdhara (the Wheel-Bearing mountain),
  8. Sumeru (the Excellent mountain).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., parvata). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Pārvata (पार्वत) refers to one of the sixteen classes of Vidyādharas derived from their respective Vidyās (in this case, from Pārvatī-vidyā), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] After making [the two rows of Vidyādhara-cities], many villages and suburbs, they established communities [viz., the Pārvatas] according to the suitability of place. [...] Dharaṇendra instructed them about the law as follows: ‘If any insolent persons show disrespect or do injury to the Jinas, or the Jinas’ shrines, or to those who will attain mokṣa in this birth, or to any ascetics engaged in pratimā, the Vidyās [viz., Pārvatīs] will abandon them at once, just as wealth abandons lazy people. Whoever kills a man with his wife, or enjoys women against their will, the Vidyās will abandon him at once’.”

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parvata.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘seven’. Note: parvata is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parvata (पर्वत).—m (S) A mountain or hill. 2 Applied figuratively; as kāmācā parvata A load of business; duḥkhācā parvata A peck of troubles; karjācā parvata A load of debt. 3 (Better paravata q. v.) Dealings with or dealing.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parvata (पर्वत).—m A mountain or hill. Applied figu- ratively; as kāmācā parvata A load of busi- ness; duḥkhācā parvata A peck of troubles; karjācā parvata A load of debt. (Better paravata q. v.) Dealings with or dealing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parvata (पर्वत).—[parv-atac; parvāṇi bhāgāḥ santyasya vā; cf. P.V.2.122 Vārt.]

1) A mountain, hill; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् (paraguṇaparamāṇūn parvatīkṛtya nityam) Bh.2.78; न पर्वताग्रे नलिनी प्ररोहति (na parvatāgre nalinī prarohati) Mk.4.17.

2) A rock.

3) An artificial mountain or heap.

4) The number 'seven'.

5) A tree.

6) A kind of vegetable.

7) A cloud (mountain-like)

8) Name of a Ṛiṣi (associated with Nārada).

Derivable forms: parvataḥ (पर्वतः).

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Pārvata (पार्वत).—a. (- f.) [पर्वते भवः अण् (parvate bhavaḥ aṇ)]

1) Being or living on a mountain.

2) Growing on or coming from a mountain.

3) Mountainous; प्रतिश्रयार्थं सेवेत पार्वती वा पुनर्गुहाम् (pratiśrayārthaṃ seveta pārvatī vā punarguhām) Mb.14.46.26.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parvata (पर्वत).—(1) probably error (but see s.v. parvan!) for parva(n), joint of a plant: Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 18.4 -gaṇḍa-parvata- pattra-palāśa-puṣpa-; (2) name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu i.54.5 (compare Parvataś(i)rī); (3) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 64. (Also name of the well-known brahmanical sage, associate of Nārada: Mahāvastu iii.401.9.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parvata (पर्वत) or Parvvata.—m.

(-taḥ) 1. A mountain, a hill. 2. A tree. 3. A sort of potherb. 4. A kind of fish, (Silurus pabda, Ham.) 5. One of the divine Rishis, a friend and rival of Narada, and mentioned in the Mahabharata. 6. The number “Seven.” E. parva to fill, Unadi aff. atac.

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Pārvata (पार्वत) or Pārvvata.—mfn.

(-taḥ-tī-taṃ) Mountain, produced in the mountains. m.

(-taḥ) A tree called the large Nimb, (Melia sempervirens.) f. (-tī) 1. A name of Durga, in her capacity of daughter of Himalaya, the sovereign of the snowy mountains. 2. Draupadi the wife of the Pandu princes. 3. A female cowherd or Gopi. 4. The olibanum tree, (Boswellia thurifera.) 5. Another tree, (Celtis orientalis.) 6. A red clay, commonly called Saurashtri, or Surat earth. 7. A name applied to several rivers. E. parvata a mountain, aṇ aff. of descent or relation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parvata (पर्वत).—i. e. parvant (the original form of parvan) + a, m. 1. A mountain, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 23. 2. A proper name.

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Pārvata (पार्वत).—i. e. parvata + a. I. adj., f. , Mountain, produced or consisting in mountains, etc., Mahābhārata 1, 3654. Ii. f. . 1. A name of Durgā. 2. The name of several plants.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parvata (पर्वत).—[adjective] knotty, rugged (of a mountain). —[masculine] mountain (also [figuratively] of a cloud), height, hill, rock, stone, [Name] of [several] men, [especially] of a Ṛṣi (cf. nārada); [feminine] parvatī rock, stone.

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Pārvata (पार्वत).—[feminine] ī belonging to or coming from a mountain, mountainous; [feminine] ī a mountain stream or the daughter of the mountain (Himavant), i.e. Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parvata (पर्वत):—[from parv] mfn. ([from] parvan cf. [Pāṇini 5-2, 122], [vArttika] 10, [Patañjali]) knotty, rugged (said of mountains), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] (according to, [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]] = parutka, parva-vat)

2) [v.s. ...] m. a mountain, mountain-range, height, hill, rock (often personified; ifc. f(ā). ), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. an artificial mound or heap (of grain, salt, silver, gold etc. presented to Brāhmans cf. -dāna)

4) [v.s. ...] the number 7 (from the 7 principal mountain-ranges), [Sūryasiddhānta]

5) [v.s. ...] a fragment of rock, a stone (adrayaḥ parvatāḥ, the stones for pressing Soma), [Ṛg-veda]

6) [v.s. ...] a (mountain-like) cloud, [ib.] (cf. [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 10])

7) [v.s. ...] a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a species of pot-herb, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a species of fish (Silurus Pabda), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a Vasu, [Harivaṃśa]

11) [v.s. ...] of a Ṛṣi (associated with Nārada and messenger of the gods, supposed author of [Ṛg-veda viii, 12; ix, 104, 105], where he has the [patronymic] Kāṇva and Kāśyapa), [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]

12) [v.s. ...] of a son of Paurṇamāsa (son of Marīci and Sambhūti), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] of a minister of king Purū-ravas, [Vikramorvaśī]

14) [v.s. ...] of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa]

15) [v.s. ...] of one of the 10 religious orders founded by Śaṃkarācārya’s pupils (whose members add the word parvata to their names), [Horace H. Wilson]

16) Pārvata (पार्वत):—mf(ī)n. ([from] parvata) being in or growing on or coming from or consisting of mountains

17) mountainous, hilly, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa] (cf. [Pāṇini 4-2, 67, [Scholiast or Commentator]])

18) m. Melia Bukayun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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