Mahapadma, Maha-padma, Mahāpadma: 29 definitions
Mahapadma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Triviṣṭapa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Triviṣṭapa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Mahāpadma) that are to be octangular in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Mahāpadma is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Kailāśa, featuring circular-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—The first King of the Nanda dynasty. According to Vāyu Purāṇa and Matsya Purāṇa, Mahāpadma was the son of Mahānandī, the last King of the Śiśunāga dynasty. He was the son of Mahānandī by a Śūdra woman. He killed his father and founded the Nanda dynasty.
2) Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—An elephant in Ghaṭotkaca’s elephant army during the Bhārata Yuddha. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 51).
3) Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—One of the Aṣṭadiggajas. (The eight elephants guarding the eight cardinal points). (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 57).Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a Nāga whose story was related to Gonanda by Bṛhadaśva according to the Nīlamata-purāṇa .—When the Nāga Mahāpadma approached Nīla and besought him for a dwelling place in Kaśmīra as his family was being devoured by Garuḍa, the Nāga king allotted to him the place which was formerly occupied by Ṣaḍaṅgula and where, after the banishment of Ṣaḍaṇgula, was constructed the city Candrapura ruled over by king Viśvagaśva.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 40; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 70. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 21.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 17; Matsya-purāṇa 126. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 17; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 13.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 20. 54; 33. 36.
- 4) Matsya-purāṇa 163. 56.
1b) An elephant.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 346.
1c) The son of Mahānandi by a Śūdra woman; he was the universal emperor and brought the earth under his umbrella; ruled for 88 (28 Viṣṇu-purāṇa) years; from him all kings became unrighteous; he was a scourge of the Kṣatriyas, and just like Paraśurāma rooted out their families; he had eight sons, Sumālya (Sumātī Viṣṇu-purāṇa, Sukalpa Matsya-purāṇa) and others, all of whom ruled altogether for 100 (12 Matsya-purāṇa) years; then a Brahmana Kauṭalya Matsya-purāṇa) brought about their fall;1 from Parīkṣit to Mahāpadma is 1050 years; from Mahāpadma to Puloma Andhra is 836 years.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 9-12; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 139-42, 228; Matsya-purāṇa 272. 18-22; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 326-31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 20-3 and 26.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 273. 36-37.
1d) One of the eight nidhis of Kubera.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 10.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Kathā
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—One of the eight kulas (‘families’) of nāgas mentioned by Soḍḍhala in his Udayasundarīkathā. Mahāpadma, and other nāgas, reside in pātāla (the nether world) and can assume different forms at will. Their movement is unobstructed in the all the worlds and they appear beautiful, divine and strong.
The Udayasundarīkathā is a Sanskrit work in the campū style, narrating the story of the Nāga princess Udayasundarī and Malayavāhana, king of Pratiṣṭhāna. Soḍḍhala is a descendant of Kalāditya (Śilāditya’s brother) whom he praises as an incarnation of a gaṇa (an attendant of Śiva).
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to one of the eight primordial snakes, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). This is followed by a brief description of the origin of snakes. A mythological story is narrated in this context. It is said that in the beginning, there were only 8 snakes, Ananta, Gulika, Vāsuki, Śaṅkhapālaka, Takṣaka, Mahāpadma, Padma and Karkoṭaka and that all other snakes originated from these.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a Nāga mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Mahāpadma).Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—Serpent deity (nāga) of the north-eastern cremation ground.—In the Śmaśānavidhi 13, Mahāpadma is “lovely like the moon”, witha trident (triśūla) on his hood, making the usual añjali.Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a serpent (nāga) associated with Aṭṭaṭṭahāsa: the north-eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These nāga-kings (e.g., Mahāpadma) are variously known as nāgarāja, nāgeśa, nāgendra and bhujageśa and are depicted as wearing white ornaments according to Lūyīpāda’s Śmaśānavidhi. They have human tosos above their coiled snaketails and raised hoods above their heads. They each have their own color assigned and they bear a mark upon their raised hoods. They all make obeisance to the dikpati (protector) who is before them and are seated beneath the tree (vṛkṣa).Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to one of the eight serpent king (nāgendra) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Mahāpadma is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Aṭṭahāsa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Vaṭa; with the direction-guardians (dikpāla) named Īśāna and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Ghana.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a hell according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXII).—Accordingly, “Twenty stays in the Puṇḍarīka hell equals one stay in the Mo ho po t’eou mo (Mahāpadma) hell. Kokālika has fallen into the Mahāpadma hell”.
2) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to one of the “eight hells of cold water” forming part of the sixteen utsadas (secondary hells) sitauted outside of the eight great hells, according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “the Mahāpadma hell is the dwelling-place of Kiu kia li (Kokalīka)”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to the “great red-lotus hell” and represents one of the “eight cold hells” (śīta-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 122). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., mahā-padma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.Source: academia.edu: The Chronological History of Buddhism
The Gilgit manuscript of Vinayavastu (Pravrajyavastu) tells us that when Buddha was born (around 1945 BC) King Mahapadma in Rajagriha of Magada Kingdom. Bimbisara was the son of Mahapadma. Bimbisara did not like the Samanta (feudatory) status of his father. He invaded Champa, the capital of Anga kingdom and killed the king. Thus, Bimbisara became the king of Champa. When his father Mahapadma died, he became the king of Anga and Magadha kingdoms.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—Name of a lake situated on top of the Mahāhimavat mountain range. There are seven such mountain ranges (or, varṣadharaparvatas) located in Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Mahāpadma has at its centre a large padmahrada (lotus-island), which is home to the Goddess Hrī. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) refers to one of the nine treasures mentioned in chapter 1.4 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly: “[...] At the end of the four days’ fast, the nine famous treasures approached him (i.e., King Bharata), each always attended by one thousand Yakṣas, Naisarpa, Pāṇḍuka, Piṅgala, Sarvaratnaka, Mahāpadma, Kāla, Mahākāla, Māṇava, Śaṅkhaka. They were mounted on eight wheels, eight yojanas high, nine yojanas broad, twelve yojanas long, their faces concealed by doors of cat’s-eye, smooth, golden, filled with jewels, marked with the cakra, sun, and moon. [...]”.
2) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a lake situated on the Mahāhimavat mountain, which resided in the Bhārata zone of Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.—Accordingly, “[...] On Mahāhimavat is a lake named Mahāpadma, twice the length and width of the lake Padma. [...] In all the lakes, [e.g., Mahāpadma, etc.], there are full-blown lotuses buried 10 yojanas in the water. Moreover, here are (the goddesses) Śrī, Hrī, Dhṛti, Kīrti, Buddhi, and Lakṣmī respectively, with life-periods of a palya, together with Sāmānikas, gods of the councils, bodyguards, and armies”.
3) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a southern province situated in West-Videha in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.—Accordingly, “[...] East of the Devakurus and Uttarakurus, they are called East Videhas, and to the west, West Videhas, like different countries to each other. In each, there are 16 provinces, inaccessible to each other, separated by rivers and mountains, suitable to be conquered by a Cakrin. [viz., Mahāpadma, etc.] are the southern provinces of West Videha. [...]”.
4) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of an ancient king from Puṇḍarīkiṇī, according to chapter 3.7 [suvidhinātha-caritra].—Accordingly, “There is a city Puṇḍarīkiṇī in the rich province Puṣkalāvatī in the East Videhas in the half of Puṣkaravaradvīpa. In this city Mahāpadma was king, deep as the pool Mahāpadma on Mount Mahāhima. Dharma, accepted from birth, increased gradually in his childhood and youth along with physical beauty. [...]”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is a lake lying on top of mount Mahāhimavān (Mahāhimavat), situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. There is a giant lotus (puṣkara) in the centre of the lakes (e.g., Mahāpadma). In these lotuses live the nymphs (e.g., Hrī, ‘modesty’ for the Mahāpadma lake), whose lifetime is one pit-measured period (playa) and who live with Sāmānikas (co-chiefs) and Pāriṣadas (counsellors). A sāmānika is a deity who is equal to Indra in life-span, power and enjoyment but lack grandeur. The pāriṣadas (counsellors) are friendly deities who are members of Indra’s council.
Jambūdvīpa (where lies the Mahāpadma lake) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a sacred spot mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Mahāpadma is the famous Volur lake in the western portion of Kaśmīra valley.
2) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a Nāga mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Mahāpadma, it is stated, occupied the city of Candrapura, after getting it in charity through trickery from the king Viśvagaśva.Source: eScholarship: Gāruḍa Medicine (history)
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—In the Nīlamatapurāṇa (verses 1021, 1024, and 1387), mahāpadmasara is the proper name of a specific lake inhabited by the great nāga named Mahāpadma. This lake northwest of Srinagar in Kashmir is now known as Wular.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
mahāpadma (महापद्म).—m (S) A million of millions. 2 One of the nidhi or treasures of the god kubēra.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
mahāpadma (महापद्म).—m A million of millions.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) a particular high number.
2) Name of Nārada.
3) Name of one of the nine treasures of Kubera.
4) Name of the southernmost elephant supporting the world.
5) an epithet of Nanda.
6) a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-dmam) 1 a white lotus.
2) Name of a city. °पतिः (patiḥ) Name of Nanda.
Derivable forms: mahāpadmaḥ (महापद्मः).
Mahāpadma is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and padma (पद्म).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—m. (compare Padma 5), name of a cold hell: Mahāvyutpatti 4936; Dharmasaṃgraha 122; Divyāvadāna 67.23; 138.8; Avadāna-śataka i.4.9 etc.; °padumo (n. sg.) Śikṣāsamuccaya 75.10 (prose).
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Mahāpadmā (महापद्मा).—name of a medicinal or magic herb: Gaṇḍavyūha 497.24.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-dmaḥ) 1. One of the principal Nagas or serpents of Patala. 2. One of Kuvera'S Nidhis or treasures. 3. A large number, one hundred thousand millions. 4. A Kinnara or attendant on Kuve- Ra. n.
(-dmaṃ) The large white lotus. E. mahā great, and padma a lotus.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mahāpadma (महापद्म).—I. m. 1. one of the Nāgas. 2. one of Kuvera's treasures. 3. a Kiṃnara, or attendant on Kuvera. 4. a large number, one hundred thousand millions, Mahābhārata 2, 2143. 5. the name of a lake, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 68; 103. Ii. n. the white lotus.
Mahāpadma is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and padma (पद्म).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Mahāpadma (महापद्म) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—kāvya. Rādh. 21.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म):—[=mahā-padma] [from mahā > mah] m. ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) or n. a [particular] high number, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Līlāvatī of bhāskara]
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of one of the 9 treasures of Kubera, [Catalogue(s); cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) Name of a [particular] treasure inhabited by a Nāga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] of one of the 8 t° connected with the Padminī magical art, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] of a hell, [Divyāvadāna] (one of the 8 cold hells, [Dharmasaṃgraha 122])
6) [v.s. ...] a kind of serpent, [Suśruta]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of a Nāga dwelling in the Mahā-padma treasure mentioned above, [Harivaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] of the southernmost of the elephants that support the earth, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] ([Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 432])
9) [v.s. ...] of Nanda, [Purāṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] of a son of N°, [Buddhist literature]
11) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [Harivaṃśa]
12) [v.s. ...] a Kiṃ-nara or attendant on Kubera, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
13) [v.s. ...] a species of esculent root, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] n. a white lotus flower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] the figure of a wh° l° fl°, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]
16) [v.s. ...] a [particular] compound of oil, [Caraka]
17) [v.s. ...] Name of a city on the right bank of the Ganges, [Mahābhārata]
18) [v.s. ...] m. or n. (?) Name of a Kāvya
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) (*m.) n. eine best. hohe Zahl. —
2) m. — a) *einer der 9 Schätze Kubera's. — b) *einer der Schätze bei den Jaina (in dem ein gleichnamiger Schlangendämon haust). — c) einer der 8 Schätze , die zu der Zauberkunst Padminī in Beziehung stehen. — d) eine best. Hölle. — e) Beiname Nanda's. — f) Nomen proprium — α) eines Schlangendämons. — β) eines Dānava. — γ) des Weltelephanten im Süden. — δ) *eines Sohnes des Nanda. —
3) n. — a) eine weisse Lotusblüthe. — b) die Gestalt einer weissen Lotusblüthe. — c) eine best. Oelmixtur [Carakasaṃhitā 6,27.] — d) Nomen proprium einer Stadt.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+62): Mahapadmasaras, Mahapadmapati, Nidhi, Ashtanaga, Mahapadmasalila, Mahahimavat, Sumalya, Mahapadmanidhi, Mahadevabhisheka, Ekachatra, Hri, Sahanandi, Navananda, Padma, Sukalpa, Pundarika, Jagati, Puranajna, Shrisara, Nanda.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Mahapadma, Maha-padma, Mahāpadma, Mahā-padma, Mahāpadmā; (plurals include: Mahapadmas, padmas, Mahāpadmas, Mahāpadmās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter LIII - Traits of conduct of men marked by the several kinds of Nidhis < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter LVIII - Positions and dimensions of the sun and other planets < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter XIX - The Garudi Vidya which is the cure for all kinds of snake-bite < [Agastya Samhita]
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 28 - Shuka in his turn enumerates the Enemy < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
Chapter 40 - Sagara’s sons search for the horse < [Book 1 - Bala-kanda]
Chapter 70 - The Death of Devantaka, Trishiras, Mahodara and Mahaparshva < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
The Nilamata Purana (by Dr. Ved Kumari)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 5: Story of Namuci and Viṣṇukumāra < [Chapter VIII - Śrī Mahāpadmacakricaritra]
Part 4: Birth of Mahāpadma < [Chapter VIII - Śrī Mahāpadmacakricaritra]
Part 1: Incarnation as Mahāpadma < [Chapter VII - Suvidhināthacaritra]
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 8b - Oceans, rivers and lakes (found in the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita) < [Chapter IV - Socio-cultural study of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 5 - Śrīkaṇṭhacarita - Summary of contents < [Chapter II - The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The eight cold hells < [The world of transmigration]
The sixteen utsadas annexed to the eight great hells < [The world of transmigration]
Courses through the five destinies (pañcagati) < [The world of transmigration]