Krodha, aka: Krodhā; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Krodha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Krodha (क्रोध) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in jurisdiction, referring to “anger”. It is mentioned as one of the causes for giving false evidence. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.120)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)

2) Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Krodhā (क्रोधा) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Krodhā has a frequency of 310.0747Hz.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as insolence, abusive language, quarrel, altercation, opposing [persons or objects] and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as swollen nose, upturned eyes, bitten lips, throbbing cheeks and the like.

Anger (krodha) is of five kinds, viz.,

  1. anger caused by enemies,
  2. anger caused by superior persons,
  3. anger caused by lovers,
  4. anger caused by servants,
  5. feigned anger.
(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Purana

Krodha (क्रोध) refers to “anger” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (eg., krodha) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

1a) Krodha (क्रोध).—Issue from the brows of Brahmā.1 Śukra's homily to Devayānī, when she was angry with Śarmiṣṭhā, and her answer.2 Vasiṣṭha on the folly of.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 26; Matsya-purāṇa 3. 10.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 28. 1-13.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 1. 17-19.

1b) Born of Lobha and Nikṛti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 8. 3.

1c) A Bhairava god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 78.

1d) A son of Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Krodha (क्रोध) is the Sanskrit name of a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

Krodha has the following eight manifestations:

  1. Krodha
  2. Piṅgalekṣaṇa,
  3. Abhrarūpa,
  4. Dharāpāla,
  5. Kuṭila,
  6. Mantranāyaka,
  7. Rudra,
  8. Pitāmaha.

All these have a smoke color and should carry khaḍga, kheṭaka, a long sword and paraśu.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Krodhā (क्रोधा, “wrathful”).—Illustration of Krodhā-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā with both hands. The colour of her bodice is dark-red. Her scarf is rosy with red dots; the lower garment is sky-blue with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Krodhā) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of ten types of manifestly active defilements (paryavasthāna) according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13.—The Bodhisattvas (accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata) excelled in destroying various these ten manifestly active defilements (eg., Krodha).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

General definition (in Buddhism)

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., krodha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Krodha also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, krodha).

(Source): archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”).—The renunciation of anger (krodha-pratyākhāna) refers to one of the contemplations of the vow of truthfulness (satyavrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.5.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

krōdha (क्रोध).—m (S) Anger, wrath, passion.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

krōdha (क्रोध).—m Anger, wrath. krōdhaṇēṃ, krōdhāvaṇēṃ v i Be angry.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—[krudh-bhāve ghañ]

1) Anger, wrath; कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते (kāmātkrodho'bhijāyate) Bg.2.62; so क्रोधान्धः, क्रोधानलः (krodhāndhaḥ, krodhānalaḥ) &c.

2) (In Rhet.) Anger considered as the feeling which gives rise to the raudra sentiment.

3) Name of the mystic syllable हुम् (hum) or ह्रुम् (hrum).

4) (also krodhana) Name of the 59th year of the संवत्सर (saṃvatsara) cycle.

-dhā Name of a daughter of Dakṣa.

Derivable forms: krodhaḥ (क्रोधः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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