Krodha, Krodhā: 29 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Krodha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Krodha (क्रोध) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in jurisdiction, referring to “anger”. It is mentioned as one of the causes for giving false evidence. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.120)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)

2) Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Krodhā (क्रोधा) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Krodhā has a frequency of 310.0747Hz.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as insolence, abusive language, quarrel, altercation, opposing [persons or objects] and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as swollen nose, upturned eyes, bitten lips, throbbing cheeks and the like.

Anger (krodha) is of five kinds, viz.,

  1. anger caused by enemies,
  2. anger caused by superior persons,
  3. anger caused by lovers,
  4. anger caused by servants,
  5. feigned anger.
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Krodha (क्रोध) refers to “anger” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., krodha) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Krodha (क्रोध).—A famous Asura born to Kaśyapa by his wife Kālā. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 35).

2) Krodha (क्रोध).—It is stated in Bhāgavata that Krodha was born from the eye-brow of Brahmā. There is a story about this Krodha in the “Jaimini-Aśvamedha Parva”:—Once, while the hermit Jamadagni was performing sacrificial offerings to the Manes, Krodha came there and secretly put poison in the pudding prepared from the milk of the sacrificial cow. Even though the hermit knew this he did not get angry. Seeing this, Krodha became afraid of the hermit and approaching him said "Oh, hermit! I thought that the Bhārgavas (those born of the family of Bhṛgu) would get angry quickly. Now I understand that it is wrong." Jamadagni pardoned him and said: "But you have to appease the anger of the Manes". The Manes cursed him that he would have to take birth as a mongoose. But he was given remissiom that he would be liberated from the curse, when he narrated the story of the Brahmin Uñcchavṛtti at the palace of Dharma in the presence of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Thus Krodha regained his former form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Krodha (क्रोध).—Issue from the brows of Brahmā.1 Śukra's homily to Devayānī, when she was angry with Śarmiṣṭhā, and her answer.2 Vasiṣṭha on the folly of.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 26; Matsya-purāṇa 3. 10.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 28. 1-13.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 1. 17-19.

1b) Born of Lobha and Nikṛti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 8. 3.

1c) A Bhairava god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 78.

1d) A son of Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Krodha (क्रोध) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.34, I.65, I.61.55) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Krodha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Krodhā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.12, I.65, I.60.58).

Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Krodha (क्रोध) refers to “anger” (which is to be abandoned by forest-dwellers), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] Anger (krodha) and greed (lobha) are to be abandoned by the dwellers of forest. Devotion is to be bestowed on asceticism. What needs to be feared, should not be feared. Hence, living in a forest is a suffering’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Krodha (क्रोध) is the Sanskrit name of a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

Krodha has the following eight manifestations:

  1. Krodha
  2. Piṅgalekṣaṇa,
  3. Abhrarūpa,
  4. Dharāpāla,
  5. Kuṭila,
  6. Mantranāyaka,
  7. Rudra,
  8. Pitāmaha.

All these have a smoke color and should carry khaḍga, kheṭaka, a long sword and paraśu.

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Krodhā (क्रोधा, “wrathful”).—Illustration of Krodhā-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā with both hands. The colour of her bodice is dark-red. Her scarf is rosy with red dots; the lower garment is sky-blue with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Krodhā) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Krodha (क्रोध) is the thirty-eighth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Krodha], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of ten types of manifestly active defilements (paryavasthāna) according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13.—The Bodhisattvas (accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata) excelled in destroying various these ten manifestly active defilements (e.g., Krodha).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Krodha (क्रोध) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Krodha).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., krodha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Krodha also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

Source: Google Books: The Fruits of True Monkhood

Krodha (“anger”) in Buddhism refers to one of the sixteen upakilesa (subtle defilements).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, krodha).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Krodha (क्रोध, “anger”).—The renunciation of anger (krodha-pratyākhāna) refers to one of the contemplations of the vow of truthfulness (satyavrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.5.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

krōdha (क्रोध).—m (S) Anger, wrath, passion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

krōdha (क्रोध).—m Anger, wrath. krōdhaṇēṃ, krōdhāvaṇēṃ v i Be angry.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—[krudh-bhāve ghañ]

1) Anger, wrath; कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते (kāmātkrodho'bhijāyate) Bg.2.62; so क्रोधान्धः, क्रोधानलः (krodhāndhaḥ, krodhānalaḥ) &c.

2) (In Rhet.) Anger considered as the feeling which gives rise to the raudra sentiment.

3) Name of the mystic syllable हुम् (hum) or ह्रुम् (hrum).

4) (also krodhana) Name of the 59th year of the संवत्सर (saṃvatsara) cycle.

-dhā Name of a daughter of Dakṣa.

Derivable forms: krodhaḥ (क्रोधः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—m. (Sanskrit krodha, personified, wrath), (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 25.26, or Krodha-rāja(n), (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 22.8 et passim; 547.6 (°rājā), epithet of Yamāntaka; in Dharmasaṃgraha 11 are listed ten personified Krodha, the first of which is Yamāntaka. Cf. mahākrodha(-rājan).

--- OR ---

Krodha (क्रोध) or Mahākrodha or Mahākrodharājan.—(-rājan) : °krodhaiḥ (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 11.25; °krodha-rājan, epithet of Yamāntaka, (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 16.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—m.

(-dhaḥ) Anger, wrath. E. krudh to be angry, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—i. e. krudh + a, I. m. 1. Anger, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 25. 2. A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 2543. Ii. f. dhā, A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 2520.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krodha (क्रोध).—[masculine] anger, wrath.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Krodha (क्रोध):—[from krudh] a m. anger, wrath, passion, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxx, 14; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc. f(ā). ), [Amaru-śataka]

3) [v.s. ...] Anger (personified as a child of Lobha and Nikṛti; or of Death; or of Brahmā), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Dānava, [Mahābhārata i, 2543; Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] of the mystic syllable hum or hrūṃ, [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]

6) Krodhā (क्रोधा):—[from krodha > krudh] f. Name of one of the thirteen daughters of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa, [Mahābhārata i, 2520; Harivaṃśa]

7) Krodha (क्रोध):—[from krudh] n. Name of the fifty-ninth year of the sixty years' Bṛhaspati cycle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

8) b etc. See √1. krudh.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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