Urdhva, Ūrdhva: 11 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Urdhva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व) is a Sanskrit word referring to “upwards”. It is used in Yoga.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व, “zenith”) represents one of the “two directions above and below” (paṭidisā in Pali), itself part of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Ūrdhva, Upariṣṭāt or Upariṣṭhā is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as uddhaṃ or uparimā, in Tibetan as steṅ and in Chinese as chang.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व, “upwards”) or Ūrdhvavyatikrama refers to “exceeding the limits for movement set in the upwards directions”, representing one of the five transgressions (aticara) of the “vow of directional limits” (digvirati): one of the seven supplementary vows (śīlavrata), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 28.—What is meant by exceeding the limit of upwards direction (ūrdhva-vyatikrama)? To go on hills or fly above the limits set for upwards movements is exceeding the limits of upwards directions.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ūrdhva.—cf. s-ādha-ūrdhva (IE 8-5), ‘[what is] above the surface of the ground’; same as uddeśa. Cf. ūrdhva-dina-pāṭikāyām (LP), ‘for the series of days afterwards.’ Note: ūrdhva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—ad (S) Above, up, on high, in the heavens.

--- OR ---

ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—m (S) Gasping or heaving. 2 By eminence. The gasping of the dying hour. 3 The zenith.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—ad Above. m Gasping. The zenith. The gasping of the dying hour.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—a. Erect, upright, above; °केश (keśa) &c.; rising or tending upwards.

2) Raised, elevated, erected; हस्तः, °पादः (hastaḥ, °pādaḥ) &c.

3) High, superior, upper.

4) Not sitting (opp. āsīna).

5) Torn (as hair).

6) Thrown up.

-rdhvam Elevation, height.

-rdhvam -ind.

1) Upwards, aloft, above. अधश्चोर्ध्वं च प्रसृतम् (adhaścordhvaṃ ca prasṛtam) Muṇḍ. Up.2.2.11; अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखाः (adhaścordhvaṃ prasṛtāstasya śākhāḥ) Bg.15.1.

2) In the sequel (= upariṣṭāt).

3) In a high tone, aloud.

4) Afterwards, subsequent to (with abl.); शरीरभेदादूर्ध्वमुत्क्रम्य पुनः (śarīrabhedādūrdhvamutkramya punaḥ) Ait. Up.4.6. ते त्र्यहादूर्ध्वमाख्याय (te tryahādūrdhvamākhyāya) Ku.6.93; ऊर्ध्वं संवत्सरात् (ūrdhvaṃ saṃvatsarāt) Ms.9.77; Y.1.53; R.14.66; Bk.18.36; पितुरूर्ध्वम् (piturūrdhvam) Ms.9.14 after the father's death; अत ऊर्ध्वम् (ata ūrdhvam) hence forward, hereafter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—(?) , adj. (in fig. sense), exalted, lofty, great, of power: Mahāvastu i.116.3 adhivāsanaṃ viditvā rājāsya durjayor- dhva- (mss. °yorddha-, or °yoddha-, see prec.) bala (mss. balam) eva. Senart's note suggests em. durjayarddhi-bala. For this meaning of ūrdhva may be compared Pali uddhehi vatthehi Jātaka (Pali) iv.154.15, in rich, lofty clothes ([Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], doubtfully); but Dutoit's translation(s) understands with up- lifted garments (presumably to wipe his eyes; the person is weeping).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—i. e. ṛdh + va, adj., f. . 1. Erect, [Hiḍimbavadha] 3, 2. 2. Raised (as dust), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 110. 3. Upper, Mahābhārata 1, 1034. 4. The name of a kind of flying, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 57. vam, adv. 1. Upwards, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 8, 5. 2. Above, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 92. 3. After, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 4; after death, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 104.

— Cf. ; [Latin] arduus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व).—[adjective] going upwards, raised, elevated, upright, erect, high (mostly °—).

— [neuter] eminence, height; as [adverb] & [preposition] upwards, aloft, in(to) heaven ([with] gam die), above ([ablative]); in the sequel, afterwards, later; beyond, from, since, after ([ablative]); later than i.e. after the death of ([genetive]); in a high tone, aloud. — Cf. atas & itas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व):—mf(ā)n. (√vṛdh, [Boehtlingk & Roth’s Sanskrit-Woerterbuch]; perhaps [from] √), rising or tending upwards, raised, elevated, erected, erect, upright, high, above, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc. (in class. Sanskṛt occurring generally in compounds)

2) n. height, elevation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) anything placed above or higher (with [ablative]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Ūrdhvā (ऊर्ध्वा):—[from ūrdhva] also f. the upper region (zenith), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Ūrdhva (ऊर्ध्व):—cf. [Greek] ὀρθός; [Latin] arduus; Gaël. ard.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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