Gaja, Gajā: 25 definitions
Gaja means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Gaja (गज) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “elephant”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Gaja is part of the sub-group named Ānupamṛga, refering to animals “who live in marshy land”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Gaja (गज)—Sanskrit word for the animal “elephant” (Elephas maximus). This animal is from the group called Kūlacara (‘shore-dwellers’). Kūlacara itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).
The flesh of the Elephant tends to produce a state of extreme parchedness in the system, and is liquefacient and heat-making in its potency. It vitiates the Pittam and has a palatable acid and saline taste, and destroys the Vāyu and Kapham.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
1) Gaja (गज):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the 2nd century Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
Gaja is also mentioned in a list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, being part of the group named Lalita, containing 25 unique temple varieties.
Gaja is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 63, where it is listed in the group named Nāgara, containing 20 different prāsādas (temples/buildings).
Gaja is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Maṇika, featuring oval-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.
2) Gajā (गजा, “elephant”) refers to the seventh of eight yoni (womb), according to the Mānasāra. It is also known by the name Dantī. Yoni is the fourth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular yoni (e.g., gajā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The first, third, fifth and seventh yonis are considered auspicious and therefore to be preferred, and the rest, inauspicious and to be avoided.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Gaja (गज, “elephant-form”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Gajavināyaka, Gajagaṇeśa and Gajavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Gaja is positioned in the Northern corner of the fifth circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Rajadarwaja, Bharbhuteshvara, K 54/ 44”. Worshippers of Gaja will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the giver of strength and wealth”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18810, Lon. 83.00611 (or, 25°11'17.2"N, 83°00'22.0"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Gaja, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Gaja (गज).—A powerful monkey King who fought on the side of Śrī Rāma against Rāvaṇa. (Vana Parva, Chapter 283, Verse 3).
2) Gaja (गज).—Younger brother of Śakuni, the son of Subala. He, along with his brother fought in the great war against the Pāṇḍavas and got killed by Irāvān. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 90).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Gaja (गज) refers to the “elephant” and represents the mount of Indra, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.36. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Indra mocked at Viṣṇu who was engrossed in his own arguments. He, the bearer of the thunderbolt, was desirous of fighting Vīrabhadra along with the other devas. Then Indra rode on his elephant (gaja), the fire-god rode on a goat, Yama rode on his buffalo and Nirṛti rode on a ghost”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Gaja (गज).—The name of an asura.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 12. 6.
1b) A pupil of Rathītara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 4.
1c) A son of Uttama Manu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 39.
1d) A son of Mṛga (Nāga).*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 332.
2) Gajā (गजा).—A chief Vānara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 241.
Gaja (गज) refers to “elephants” (living in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh Rāma! Antelopes, lions, elephants (gaja), tigers, Śarabhas (legendary animal with eight legs), birds, yaks and all others which roam in the forest, run away after seeing your form, since they have never seen your figure before. When there is cause for fear, who would not have fear?’”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Gaja (गज) or Gajahasta refers to “elephant trunk” and represents one of the four Elirkai gestures, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., gaja-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Gaja (गज) refers to the animal “Elephant” (Elephas maximus indicus).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Gaja] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
1) Gaja (गज) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Gajī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Gaja] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
2) Gajā (गजा) is also the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Gaja forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jñānacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Gajā] and Vīras are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation
Gaja (गज, “elephant”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—The gaja is an elephant of unsurpassable power.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Gaja (गज) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Gaja] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Gaja.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: gaja is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
gaja : (m.) an elephant.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Gaja, (Sk. gaja) an elephant J.IV, 494; Miln.2, 346; DhsA.295 (applied to a kind of thought).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
gaja (गज).—m (S) An elephant. gajamastakārūḍha Mounted upon the head of an elephant, i. e. exceedingly haughty or proud. gaja- skandhīṃ basaṇēṃ (To sit upon the shoulder of an elephant. ) To forget, in newly acquired dignities, one's former acquaintance; to be puffed up.
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gaja (गज).—m ( P) A measure of length, a measure of about 2 feet or 24 tasū. 2 A measuring rod of this length. 3 A quantity (of cloth &c.) measured by one gaja. 4 A ramrod. 5 A bar as fixed in a grate, window, railing. 6 The border or raised edge of a well or tank.
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gajā (गजा).—m (Gaja.) A narrow piece of cloth worn round the waist in the way of a dhotar.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
gaja (गज).—m An elephant. A measure of tasū. A measuring rod of this length. A quantity (of cloth &c.) measured by one gaja. A bar as fixed in a grate, window, railing.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Gaja (गज).—[gaj-made ac]
1) An elephant; कचाचितौ विश्वगिवागजौ गजौ (kacācitau viśvagivāgajau gajau) Ki.1.36.
2) The number 'eight'.
3) A measure of length, a Gaja or yard, (thus defined :-- sādhāraṇanarāṅgulyā triṃśadaṅgulako gajaḥ).
4) A demon killed by Śiva.
5) One of the eight elephants of the quarters.
-jī A female elephant; वितृषोऽपि पिबन्त्यम्भः पाययन्तो गजा गजीः (vitṛṣo'pi pibantyambhaḥ pāyayanto gajā gajīḥ) Bhāg.4.6.26.
Derivable forms: gajaḥ (गजः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-jaḥ) 1. An elephant. 2. A measure of length, the Gaz, a yard, a measure of two cubits. 3. A mound of earth sloping on both sides, on which a house may be creatad. 4. A small hole in the ground for a fire, over which to prepare medicines. E. gaj to sound, to roar, affix ac.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gaja (गज).—for original garj + a, I. m. An elephant, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 296. Ii. f. jī, A female elephant, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 6, 26.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gaja (गज).—[masculine] elephant ([feminine] ī); a man’s name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Gaja (गज):—[from gaj] m. an elephant, [ṢaḍvBr. v, 3; Manu-smṛti] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 57, 7])
2) [v.s. ...] (= dig-g) one of the 8 elephants of the regions, [Horace H. Wilson]
3) [v.s. ...] (hence) the number ‘eight’ [Sūryasiddhānta]
4) [v.s. ...] a measure of length (commonly Gaz, equal to two cubits = 1 3/4 Or 2 Hastas), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] a mound of earth (sloping on both sides) on which a house may be erected, [Jyotiṣa]
6) [v.s. ...] = -puṭa q.v.
7) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure
8) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Mahābhārata vi, 3997]
9) [v.s. ...] of an Asura (conquered by Śiva), [Kāśī khaṇḍa, from the skanda-purāṇa lxviii]
10) [v.s. ...] of an attendant on the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) Gajā (गजा):—[from gaja > gaj] f. = -vīthi, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā ix, 1 ff. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
12) Gāja (गाज):—n. a multitude of elephants, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi 83 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+224): Gaja Hasta, Gaja-mrigaya-vihara, Gaja-sahani, Gajaba, Gajabahu, Gajabaja, Gajabajanem, Gajabajita, Gajabandha, Gajabandhana, Gajabandhani, Gajabandhini, Gajabava, Gajabhadra, Gajabhaksha, Gajabhakshaka, Gajabhakshya, Gajabhara, Gajabhattiya, Gajabhongali.
Ends with (+37): Achyutangaja, Acyutangaja, Agaja, Angaja, Aragaja, Aranyagaja, Ashagaja, Ashtadiggaja, Augaja, Balagaja, Bangaja, Bhringaja, Cakragaja, Chakragaja, Dhasamagaja, Diggaja, Dikgaja, Dishagaja, Dushtagaja, Edagaja.
Full-text (+271): Gajaputa, Gajadvayasa, Gajavaja, Gajavraja, Gajayutha, Gajadana, Gajakanda, Gajavadana, Gajayodhin, Gajadaghna, Diggaja, Nabhogaja, Tasu, Gajoshana, Aranyagaja, Dushtagaja, Gajabhaksha, Gajadanta, Gajahva, Vanagaja.
Search found 48 books and stories containing Gaja, Gajā, Gāja; (plurals include: Gajas, Gajās, Gājas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 6 - Incineration of the essence of tuttha and that of sasyaka < [Chapter V - Uparasa (5-6): Tuttha and Sasyaka (copper sulphate)]
Part 3 - Incineration of bimala < [Chapter III - Uparasa (3): Bimala or Vimala (pyrites with red tints)]
Part 4 - Process for creation of Dhanya-abhra (paddy mica) < [Chapter I - Uparasa (1): Abhra or Abhraka (mica)]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 3: Gajasukumāla < [Chapter X - The recovery of draupadī]
Part 3: War between the Rākṣasas and Vānaras < [Chapter VII - The killing of Rāvaṇa]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 1: Initiation, Mercury and Laboratory (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
The Mirror of Gesture (abhinaya-darpana) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)