Durmukha, aka: Dur-mukha; 11 Definition(s)

Introduction

Durmukha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख) or Durmukhi refers to the thirtieth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘durmukha’ is cruel, of cheating nature, is endowed with reprehensible or blameworthy mentality, is avaricious, has a curved mouth and curved hands and feet, remains engrossed in sins, has ideas which are opposed to those of others and is extremely villainous and wicked.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year durmukha (2016-2017 AD) will be void of virtue and wealth and will be immoral.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख, “ugly joy”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Durmukhavināyaka, Durmukhagaṇeśa and Durmukhavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Durmukha is positioned in the Western corner of the seventh circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Near No. 52 (durmukha), CK 34 / 60”. Worshippers of Durmukha will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the relief giver from the depression by ugly face”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18662, Lon. 83.00638 (or, 25°11'11.8"N, 83°00'23.0"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Durmukha, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purāṇa

1) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A minister of Mahiṣāsura. Once he was sent to Bhadrakālī with a message by his master. (Devī Bhāgavata, Pañcama Skandha).

2) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. The following information about him is gathered from the Mahābhārata.

2) He was present at the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 1).

2) During the procession to Dvaitavana, Gandharvas took him captive. (Vana Parva, Chapter 242, Verse 12).

2) In the great war he fought with Sahadeva. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 25).

2) He killed Arjuna’s charioteer. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 12).

2) He defeated Śrutakarman. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 35).

2) He was defeated by Abhimanyu. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 42).

2) A duel was fought between Durmukha and Ghaṭotkaca. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 13).

2) Duel fought between Durmukha and Dhṛṣṭadyumna. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 26).

2) He fought with Purujit. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 13).

2) He was defeated in fight with Sahadeva. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 25).

2) Bhīmasena killed him in war. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 134, Verse 20).

2) After the war his beautiful palace was occupied by Sahadeva. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 12).

3) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A King who flourished in the assembly of Yudhiṣṭhira. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 21).

4) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A Rākṣasa, who was a member in Rāvaṇa’s assembly. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter, 9, Verse 13). According to the Uttararāmāyaṇa he was the son of a Rākṣasa called Mālyavān by his wife Sundarī, and he had Vajramuṣṭi, Virūpākṣa, Suptaghna, Yajñakośa, Matta and Unmatta as brothers and Nalā and Ketumatī as sisters.

5) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A serpent. It was also present among the serpents, which had come to Prabhāsakṣetra to receive Balarāma who, after death, went to Pātālaloka. (Mausala Parva, Chapter, 4, Verse 16).

6) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—An asura on the side of Mahiṣāsura. Tāmra, finance minister of Mahiṣāsura sent Durmukha with Bāṣkala to fight against Devī, who killed him. (Devībhāgavata, Skandhas 5, 13). In his previous life he was one of the Paulastyas. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 61).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A Rākṣasa killed in the Laṅkā war.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 18.

1b) A Kādraveya Nāga.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 35; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 41; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 71.

1c) A son of Khaśa and a Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 136; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 167.

1d) A Vighnanāyaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 27. 81.

1e) A son of Suhotrī, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 127.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.83) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Durmukha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख) or Durmukhatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Durmukha-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख): A chariot-borne warrior on the Kaurava side.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Durmukha] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

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durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a (S) Of a sullen or sour countenance or temper. 2 Foul-mouthed, scurrilous, vituperative. Ex. durmukhī strīcā tyāga karūna || sanyāsa grahaṇa karāvā ||.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a Of a sullen or sour counte- nance or temper. Foul-mouthed.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

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Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a.

1) having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bh.1.9.

2) foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bh.2.69. (-khaḥ) 1 a horse.

2) Name of Śiva.

3) Name of a serpent king (Nm.)

4) Name of a monkey (Nm.)

5) Name of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle).

Durmukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dur and mukha (मुख).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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