Durmukha, Dur-mukha: 24 definitions


Durmukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) refers to the thirtieth of the sixty-year cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The five years of the next yuga are—1. Nandana, 2. Vijaya, 3. Jaya, 4. Manmatha, 5. Durmukha: during the first three years there will be happiness in the land; in Manmatha mankind will feel neither happy, nor miserable and in the year Durmukha they will feel miserable”.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) or Durmukhi refers to the thirtieth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘durmukha’ is cruel, of cheating nature, is endowed with reprehensible or blameworthy mentality, is avaricious, has a curved mouth and curved hands and feet, remains engrossed in sins, has ideas which are opposed to those of others and is extremely villainous and wicked.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year durmukha (2016-2017 AD) will be void of virtue and wealth and will be immoral.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Jyotisha from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Durmukha in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Durmukha (दुर्मुख, “ugly joy”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Durmukhavināyaka, Durmukhagaṇeśa and Durmukhavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Durmukha is positioned in the Western corner of the seventh circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Near No. 52 (durmukha), CK 34 / 60”. Worshippers of Durmukha will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the relief giver from the depression by ugly face”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18662, Lon. 83.00638 (or, 25°11'11.8"N, 83°00'23.0"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Durmukha, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A minister of Mahiṣāsura. Once he was sent to Bhadrakālī with a message by his master. (Devī Bhāgavata, Pañcama Skandha).

2) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. The following information about him is gathered from the Mahābhārata.

2) He was present at the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 1).

2) During the procession to Dvaitavana, Gandharvas took him captive. (Vana Parva, Chapter 242, Verse 12).

2) In the great war he fought with Sahadeva. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 25).

2) He killed Arjuna’s charioteer. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 12).

2) He defeated Śrutakarman. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 35).

2) He was defeated by Abhimanyu. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 42).

2) A duel was fought between Durmukha and Ghaṭotkaca. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 13).

2) Duel fought between Durmukha and Dhṛṣṭadyumna. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 26).

2) He fought with Purujit. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 13).

2) He was defeated in fight with Sahadeva. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 25).

2) Bhīmasena killed him in war. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 134, Verse 20).

2) After the war his beautiful palace was occupied by Sahadeva. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 12).

3) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A King who flourished in the assembly of Yudhiṣṭhira. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 21).

4) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A Rākṣasa, who was a member in Rāvaṇa’s assembly. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter, 9, Verse 13). According to the Uttararāmāyaṇa he was the son of a Rākṣasa called Mālyavān by his wife Sundarī, and he had Vajramuṣṭi, Virūpākṣa, Suptaghna, Yajñakośa, Matta and Unmatta as brothers and Nalā and Ketumatī as sisters.

5) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A serpent. It was also present among the serpents, which had come to Prabhāsakṣetra to receive Balarāma who, after death, went to Pātālaloka. (Mausala Parva, Chapter, 4, Verse 16).

6) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—An asura on the side of Mahiṣāsura. Tāmra, finance minister of Mahiṣāsura sent Durmukha with Bāṣkala to fight against Devī, who killed him. (Devībhāgavata, Skandhas 5, 13). In his previous life he was one of the Paulastyas. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 61).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—A Rākṣasa killed in the Laṅkā war.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 18.

1b) A Kādraveya Nāga.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 35; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 41; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 71.

1c) A son of Khaśa and a Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 136; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 167.

1d) A Vighnanāyaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 27. 81.

1e) A son of Suhotrī, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 127.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.83) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Durmukha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) or Durmukhatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Durmukha-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) (lit. “one who is ugly faced”) is a synonym (another name) for the Horse (Aśva), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Durmukha (दुर्मुख): A chariot-borne warrior on the Kaurava side.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) (Tibetan. bźin mi sdug pa, “ugly-faced”) refers to the head of Māra’s five-hundred sons, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, ‘At that time, Durmukha who was the head of five hundred sons of the Māra, lacking faith and desiring the non-dharma, said: ‘Even though our father produced the thought of awakening, we should strive against this exposition of the dharma’. Then the Lord said this to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, elucidate the verse of knowledge-mantras by which the evil ones as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Gaṅga are subjugated and established in awakening’. The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja thereupon pronounced the words of knowledge-mantras as follows: ‘[...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Durmukha] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a (S) Of a sullen or sour countenance or temper. 2 Foul-mouthed, scurrilous, vituperative. Ex. durmukhī strīcā tyāga karūna || sanyāsa grahaṇa karāvā ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a Of a sullen or sour counte- nance or temper. Foul-mouthed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—a.

1) having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bhartṛhari 1.9.

2) foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bhartṛhari 2.69. (-khaḥ) 1 a horse.

2) Name of Śiva.

3) Name of a serpent king (Nm.)

4) Name of a monkey (Nm.)

5) Name of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle).

Durmukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dur and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—name of a (brahmanical) sage (ṛṣi): Divyāvadāna 211.24; 217.19; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.93.15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—mfn.

(-khaḥ-khā-khī-khaṃ) 1. Scurrilous, foul-mouthed. 2. Hideous ugly. m. (khaḥ) 1. One of the monkey chiefs. 2. One of the principal Nagas or serpents. 3. A horse. 4. An Asura. E. dur bad, ill, mukha mouth or face.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—I. adj., f. khī. 1. hideous, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 89. 2. foul-mouthed, scurrilous, ib. 2, 59. Ii. m. a proper name, Mahābhārata 2, 116.

Durmukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dus and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख).—[feminine] ī having an ugly face or a foul mouth; [masculine] a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Durmukha (दुर्मुख):—[=dur-mukha] [from dur] mf(ī)n. ugly-faced, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous, [Bhartṛhari ii, 59]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a serpent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the 29th year of the cycle of Jupiter (lasting 60 years), [Varāha-mihira; Sūryasiddhānta]

6) [v.s. ...] of a prince of the Pañcālas, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa viii, 23]

7) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata i etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] of an astronomer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

10) [v.s. ...] of a Rakṣas, [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] of a Yakṣa, [Brahma-purāṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] of a general of the Asura Mahiṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Durmukha (दुर्मुख):—[dur-mukha] (khaḥ-khā-khaṃ) a. Scurrilous; hideous. m. A monkey; a serpent chief; a horse; a demon.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Durmukha (दुर्मुख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dummuha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Durmukha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Durmukha (ದುರ್ಮುಖ):—

1) [adjective] having an ugly face.

2) [adjective] speaking foul, offensive language.

--- OR ---

Durmukha (ದುರ್ಮುಖ):—

1) [noun] he who uses offensive language.

2) [noun] he who or that whose face is ugly.

3) [noun] he who dislikes, abhors good suggestion or advice.

4) [noun] name of the thirtieth year in the cycle of sixty years.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of durmukha in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: