Sushena, Suṣeṇā, Suṣeṇa, Susenā: 24 definitions


Sushena means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Suṣeṇā and Suṣeṇa can be transliterated into English as Susena or Sushena, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is the name of an author of books dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā as quoted by Raghunātha in his 17th century Bhojanakutūhala.—It is a noticeable fact that Āyurveda and its tradition, stood as the champions for the development of critical notions of dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India. [...] Bhojanakutūhala records many earlier important treatises [...] and quotes many other scholars like [...] Suṣeṇa. Ravindra Kumar Panda states that Suṣeṇa has written a work on food science known as Vyañjanavarga.

2) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) or Suṣeṇaśikhariṇi refers to a variety of the Śikhariṇi curd preparation, as mentioned in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana). Śikhariṇīs [viz., Suṣeṇa] are drinks prepared from curd. Raghunātha, the author of Bhojanakutūhala, discusses as the important varieties.

Suṣeṇa-śikhariṇi I: (Ingredients): sweet lime, wood-apple, wood sorrel, tamarind, gooseberry, pomegranate, sugar, mustard, dry ginger, pepper, cumin seeds, cardamom seeds, bhūstṛṇa and wet ginger .

(Cooking instructions): Sweet lime, wood-apple, wood sorrel, tamarind, gooseberry and pomegranate along with sugar and mustard must be held in a clean piece of cloth. The rasālā, that is prepared by using dry ginger, pepper, cumin seeds, cardamom seeds(caturjātaka) and a kind of spreading grass namely bhūstṛṇa along with wet ginger are added skilfully to it. The liquid flown through this cloth is collected which is known by the name suṣeṇaśikhariṇi. This tasty variety of śikhariṇi was believed to be first prepared by Suṣeṇa. This śikhariṇī does not have curds as an ingredient.

Suṣeṇa-śikhariṇi II: (Ingredients): curds, ghee, jaggery, cumin seeds, dry ginger, wet ginger and cardamom seeds (caturjātaka).

(Cooking instructions): The text also describes another suṣeṇaśikhariṇī with a different preparation which is also ascribed to Suṣeṇa. This is prepared in the following manner. Different ingredients like ghee, jaggery, cumin seeds, dry ginger, wet ginger along with powdered ingredients of cardamom seeds (caturjātaka) are mixed together and put the mixture into curd.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is another name (synonym) for Vetasa, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Salix caprea (goat willow). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 9.106), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Vetasa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A nāga born in the Dhṛtarāṣṭra dynasty. The nāga was burnt to death at the serpent yajña of Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16).

2) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma in the great war. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 34).

3) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A king of the Pūru dynasty. He was the grandson of Avikṣit and son of Parīkṣit. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 52).

4) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A son of Sage Jamadagni. The Sage asked Suṣeṇa to kill his mother, but he did not obey his father. Jamadagni, therefore, cursed him and Paraśurāma redeemed him from the curse. (Vana Parva, Chapter 116).

5) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—Father in-law of Bāli, the monkey king. Suṣeṇa, father of Tārā, deputed one thousand crore monkeys to search for Sītā. (Vana Parva, Chapter 283, Verse 2). Suṣeṇa, an expert in the science of medicine and the art of warfare, was the son of the monkey called Dharma. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

In the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war Suṣeṇa fought the Rākṣasa forces and killed Vidyunmālī. Lakṣmaṇa swooned on being hit by the arrows of Rāvaṇa who fought with redoubled vigour following the death of Indrajit. Many monkeys also swooned. Then Suṣeṇa, the medical expert, brought back to consciousness the swooned folk with the help of Viśalyakaraṇī, Sauvarṇyakaraṇī, Śañjīvanī and other herbs.

Suṣeṇa also attended the coronation ceremony of Śrī Rāma. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Chapters 101, 123, 154).

6) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A son of Karṇa, He fought with Nakula in the great war. Uttamaujas killed him in battle. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 13).

7) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—Another son of Karṇa. Nakula killed him in the great war. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 49).

8) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A king of the Bharata dynasty. He was the son of Dhṛṣa and father of Sunītha. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

9) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A king, who married Rambhā. (See under Rambhā, Para 5).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—A son of Kṛṣṇa and Rukmiṇī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 14. 31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 1.

1b) A chief of the Krodhāvaśa group of serpents.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 24. 29.

1c) A son of Manu (Svārociṣa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 19.

1d) A son of Vṛṣṭimat, and father of Sunītha (Nṛcakṣu, ).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 41; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 81; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 21. 12.

1e) A son of Vasudeva and Devakī; killed by Kaṃsa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 54; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 174; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 13. Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 172; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 26-27.

1f) The Gandharva presiding over the month of Tapas.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 39.

1g) A grāmaṇi with the Śarat sun.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 14.

1h) A marut of the second gaṇa;1 a kinnara with a human face.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 93; Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 124.
  • 2) Ib. 69. 35.

1i) The father of Tāra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 219, 232.

1j) A son of Antarikṣa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 271. 9.

1k) A son of Śucidratha.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 272.

1l) An Yakṣa who resides in the Sun's chariot during the month of Āśvayuja.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 11.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.6) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Suṣeṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) refers to one of the sons of Kroṣṭā and grandson of Yadu, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Nahuṣa married Virajā (the daughter of Pitṛ) and was blessed with five sons of whom Yayāti was the most famous. Yayāti had two wives—Devayānī and Śarmiṣṭhā. Devayānī gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu. [...] The Son of Yadu was Kroṣṭā in whose race the most glorious kings were born. The text only names them as [viz., Suṣeṇa].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Sushena in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is the name of an ancient king, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 28. Accordingly, “there was a young king named Suṣeṇa on the mountain of Citrakūṭa, who was created like another God of Love by the Creator to spite Śiva. He made at the foot of that great mountain a heavenly garden, which was calculated to make the gods averse to dwelling in the garden of Nandana”.

2) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is the name of a Vidyādhara, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 50. Accordingly, after Sūryaprabha got up and went and paid compliments to his head wives: “... Suṣeṇa came, announced by the warder, and after doing homage said to that triumphant king: ‘Your Highness, I have been sent here by all the princes of the Vidyādharas, the lord of Trikūṭa and others’.”.

3) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is the son of king Karmasena from Ujjayinī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 103. Accordingly, as king Karmasena communicated to Mṛgāṅkadatta: “... I know that you will not come to Ujjayinī, so I will send to you my own son Suṣeṇa; he will bestow on you with due ceremonies his sister Śaśāṅkavatī: so you ought not, blameless one, to marry her in an irregular manner, if you value my friendship”.

4) Suṣeṇā (सुषेणा) is the wife of Śūrasena from Śrāvastī, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 111. Accordingly, as Gomukha said to Naravāhanadatta: “... in that town there dwelt a Rājput, who was in the service of the monarch, and lived on the proceeds of a village. His name was Śūrasena, and he had a wife named Suṣeṇā, who was a native of Mālava. She was in every respect well suited to him, and he loved her more than life”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Suṣeṇa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sushena (सुषेन): A monkey chief ; at siege of Lanka.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Suṣeṇa).

2) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is also the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Suṣeṇā (सुषेणा) is the mother of Saṃbhava according to Digambara (according to Śvetāmbara she is named Senā), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Saṃbhava is the third of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Suṣeṇā is Jitari. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Suṣena (सुषेन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Suṣena] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Suṣeṇā (सुषेणा) is mentioned as the mother of Sambhavanātha: the third of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The tree under which Sambhavanātha received the Kevala knowledge and of which the mention is made in the Jaina books is the Indian Śāla tree (Sharia robusta)—his bearer is called Satyavīrya. The Jina’s parentage has come down to our knowledge through Jaina history. His father was a king named Dṛḍharāja and his mother was called Suṣeṇā. His birth place is Śrāvasti.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) is the general of Cakravartin Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), according to chapter 1.4 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly: “[...] then the cakra-jewel, preceding the army, attended by a thousand Yakṣas advanced in the sky like the sun’s orb. Following it, the bearer of the staff-jewel, the general-jewel named Suṣeṇa, mounted the horse-jewel and set out, like the cakra”.

2) Susenā (सुसेना) is the name of a courtesan (in service of King Ghanaratha?), according to chapter 5.4 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

3) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) refers to one of the warriors fighting in Rāma’s army, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.7 [The killing of Rāvaṇa].—Accordingly, “[...] When the battle had been going on for a long time, the army of the Rākṣasas was broken by the Vānaras like a forest by winds. [...] Then Sugrīva and the others made seven walls with four gates around the two Rāghavas by means of a vidyā. [...] On the north Aṅgada, Kūrma, Aṅga, Mahendra, Vihaṅgama, Suṣeṇa, Candraraśmi stood in turn at the gates.  [...]. Making the two Kākutsthas in the center in this way, Sugrīva and the others, powerful, were devoted to watching, intent as yogis. [...].”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Sushena in India is the name of a plant defined with Calamus rotang in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Palmijuncus monoecus (Roxb.) Kuntze (among others).

2) Sushena is also identified with Carissa carandas It has the synonym Damnacanthus esquirolii H. Lév. (etc.).

3) Sushena is also identified with Carissa spinarum It has the synonym Jasminonerium dulce (Schumach. & Thonn.) Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1996)
· Adansonia (1970)
· Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (1993)
· Flora Indica (1820)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2004)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Sushena, for example diet and recipes, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, extract dosage, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—

1) Name of a tree (karamarda).

2) Name of Viṣṇu.

3) A cane or ratan.

Derivable forms: suṣeṇaḥ (सुषेणः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—(1) name of a Bodhisattva: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 576.18; (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 64; ((3) name of a mountain: Mahā-Māyūrī 254.4; occurs in Sanskrit, Kirfel 98, tho not in [Boehtlingk and Roth], [Boehtlingk].)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A fruit, (Carissa Carondas) “karamcā” 2. Vishnu. 3. The physycian of the monkey chief Sugriva. 4. A cane or reed, the ratan. f. (-ṇī) A plant, commonly Teori, (Convolvolus turpethum.) E. su excellent, senā a host or cluster.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण).—[adjective] having a good missile; [masculine] [Name] of a Gandharva etc., [feminine] ā [Name] of a princess.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a medical author. Named instead of his work B. 4, 250: Annapānavidhi. Āyurvedamahodadhi. Guṇāguṇī. Vṛttamāṇikyamālā med.

2) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण):—Annapānavidhi from his Āyurvedamahodadhi. Śārīraka, see under his pseudonym Śrīsukha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Suṣeṇa (सुषेण):—[=su-ṣeṇa] [from su > su-ṣaṃsad] mfn. having a good missile (said of Kṛṣṇa and Indra), [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] m. ‘having beautiful clusters’, Carissa Carandas, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Calamus Rotang, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] of a Gandharva, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a Yakṣa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] of a Vidyā-dhara, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

9) [v.s. ...] of a monkey-chief (son of Varuṇa or Dhanvantari, father of Tārā, and physician of Su-grīva), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] of a son of the second Manu, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Harivaṃśa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a king of Śūra-sena, [Raghuvaṃśa]

13) [v.s. ...] of a son of Parīkṣit, [Mahābhārata]

14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, [ib.]

15) [v.s. ...] of a son of Viśva-garbha, [Harivaṃśa]

16) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] of a son of Śambara, [Harivaṃśa]

18) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vṛṣṭi-mat (or Vṛṣṇi-mat), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] of a son of Karma-sena, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

20) [v.s. ...] of a physician of Prabhākara-vardhana, [Vāsavadattā, [Introduction]]

21) [v.s. ...] (with kavirājamiśra) of a grammarian, [Catalogue(s)]

22) Suṣeṇā (सुषेणा):—[=su-ṣeṇā] [from su-ṣeṇa > su > su-ṣaṃsad] f. Name of a princess, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

23) Susena (सुसेन):—[=su-sena] [from su > su-saṃyata] [wrong reading] for -ṣeṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण):—[su-ṣeṇa] (ṇaḥ) 1. m. A fruit, Carissa Carondas; Vishnu; physician of Sugriva; a cane. f. (ī) Plant, Teori.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Suṣeṇa (सुषेण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Suseṇa, Suseṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sushena in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Suseṇa (सुसेण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Suṣeṇa.

2) Suseṇā (सुसेणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Suṣeṇā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

Discover the meaning of sushena or susena in the context of Prakrit from relevant books on Exotic India

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