Vamana, Vāmana: 52 definitions
Vamana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: The Garuda puranam
The Vāmana stone is of a round and puny size and Sureshvara has a circular mark on its left side.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Vāmana (वामन).—An incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu. General information. There are ten main incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Of these, the incarnation of Vāmana is the fifth. (See full article at Story of Vāmana from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Vāmana (वामन).—One of the eight elephants supporting the universe. This elephant was one of the four sons of Irāvatī. Airāvata, Supratīka and Añjana were the other three. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 3: 7: 292). This Vāmana was the conveyance of a famous giant in the army of Ghaṭotkaca during the battle of Bhārata. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 56).
3) Vāmana (वामन).—A holy place situated on the borders of Kurukṣetra. By bathing in the particular spot called Viṣṇupāda, in this holy place and worshipping Vāmana, one could enter the world of Viṣṇu. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 86, Stanza 103).
4) Vāmana (वामन).—A holy place. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 13, that those who worship Hari (Viṣṇu) in this place will never become miserable.
5) Vāmana (वामन).—A mountain in the Krauñca Island. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Vāmana (वामन) refers to “dwarfish”, according the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] obeisance to the golden one, the great lord, of golden body; obeisance to Bhīma, Bhīmarūpa, obeisance to one engaged in terrible deeds. Obeisance to one who has smeared his body with ashes, decorated himself with Rudrākṣa; and is of short long dwarfish height (i.e., vāmana—hrasvāya dīrghāya vāmanāya)”.
2) Vamana (वमन) refers to “vomitting”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.2 (“The birth of Śiva’s son”).—Accordingly, after Śiva spoke to the Gods: “Accepting this command with bent head Viṣṇu and the other gods immediately vomitted (vamana) it out after duly remembering Śiva the imperishable. The semen of Śiva lustrous and golden in colour falling on the ground seemed to touch the heaven as it was as huge as a mountain”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Vamana (वमन).—One of the two gods forming a boat to cross the ocean of saṃsāra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 37; 111. 72.
2a) Vāmana (वामन).—(also Vāmanaka): the fifteenth incarnation of Hari to do good to Indra. Second of the avatārs (m.p.).1 Son of Aditi and Kaśyapa: wife was Kīrtī and son Bṛhatśloka: Born on the Vijaya dvādaśi of Bhādrapada (bright) fortnight under the star Śravaṇa at the abhijit hour. After manifesting his true form to Brahmā and Aditi, he changed it to a Brāhmaṇa Brahmacārin. At his initiation ceremony all the gods were present and gave him presents;2 went to the sacrificial hall of Bali; after welcoming him, Bali wanted to know what his desire was. He asked for three feet of ground, and commended him as a worthy descendant of Prahlāda. Notwithstanding Śukra dissuading him, Bali made the desired gift when Vāmana assumed the Viśvarūpa form, and measured the earth with one foot and the svarga with the other. The Gods washed the uplifted foot of Hari and celebrated a great festivity. This brought joy to Jāmbavān. The Asuras began to attack but were roughly handled by Hari's attendants. Finding Bali unable to keep his word, Vāmana said that he should go to hell;3 Praised by Bali, by Prahlāda, Vindyāvali, and Brahmā: blessed Bali and assured Prahlāda of future bliss: asked Śuka to complete the sacrifice started by Bali and bestowed the kingdom on his brother Indra: anointed Lord of all the worlds and became known as Upendra. Taken to Heaven in a celestial car when the universe was given to Indra;4 According to Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa this is the second avatār;5 Details of the avatār;6 Icon of: temple of, in Kurukṣetra.7
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 19; II. 7. 17-18; V. 24. 18 and 23; X. 40. 19; XI. 4. 20. Matsya-purāṇa 47. 42-46; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 42-3; V. 5. 17.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 6; X. 3. 42; VI. 18. 8-9; VIII. 18. 5-17.
- 3) Ib. VIII. 18. 20-32; chh. 19-21 (whole) ; X. 62. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 47. 72.
- 4) Ib. VIII. chh. 22 and 23. (whole); Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 137. 97. 73, 103; 98. 74-87.
- 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 37. 5; 72. 73, 77 and 105; 73. 77; IV. 34. 79.
- 6) Matsya-purāṇa chh. 244-6; 259. 2.
- 7) Ib. 244. 2-3; 285. 6.
2d) A 1000 hooded snake.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 41.
2e) A son of Bhadra, the elephant.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 213.
2f) A son of Vāmadeva; his wife was Angadā; two sons; Añjanaśyāma and Sāmna who were good looking animals fit for riding by men.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 223-4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 339.
2g) The purāṇa of 10000 verses, with the Māhātmya of Trivikrama and dealing with Trivarga in the Kūrma Kalpa; he who gives it in the viṣu of Śarad attains Vaiṣṇavahood (see vāmanapurāṇa).*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 53. 45-6.
Vāmana (वामन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.6, I.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vāmana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Vāmana (वामन) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Vāmana: Musti with both hands, one upwards and the otherdownwards, and towards the right side.Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)
Vāmana (वामन) or Vāmanāvatāra refers to one of the Daśāvatāra (“ten incarnations”) (of Lord Viṣṇu) to which are assign various hand gestures (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Hindu scriptures, different stories are found, related to lord Viṣṇu, where we find the magnanimity of different incarnations of lord Viṣṇu. Moreover, a great influence of these ten incarnations of lord Viṣṇu (e.g., Vāmana-avatāra) seems to fall in the field of Dance also.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
1) Vāmana (वामन, “short, dwarf”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. The meaning of this title is “Saviour of Indra, he who produces joy in others”. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Dayā.
2) Vāmana (वामन):—One of the eight guardians of Vaikuṇṭha, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These eight guardians are part of the celestial entourage of Viṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Vāmana (वामन) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.316b-319.—Accordingly, “He (Vāmana) conquers always the mighty ignorance, which is ferocious and associated with the group of sense organs and is like ten thousand suns; (doing this) by himself remaining in the heart of wise men who are afraid of worldly life with sympathy, with (the help of) punishment through regulations (of conduct). He gives within a short time the bliss of Brahman for their happiness. He shall be meditated upon as having short limbs, dark eyes resembling the petals of the lotus, as having the worlds placed within (Him) and as adorned with matted hair and dark dress holding the umbrella in the left hand and the bamboo stick in the other”.
These Vibhavas (e.g., Vāmana) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Vamana (वमन, “emesis”):—One of the five pañcakarma (or ‘five measures’) which are employed for Śodhana, an Ayurvedic method for purification of the body by eliminating malas.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
1) Vāmana (वामन) is the great-grandfather of Hemādri: the author of the Āyurvedarasāyana: a commentary on the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā: one of the three great works of Vāgbhaṭa.—Hemādri was the son of Kāmadeva, grandson of Vāsudeva, and great-grandson of Vāmana. Besides the Caturvargacintāmaṇi and Āyurvedarasāyana, he wrote several other works (Śrāddhapaddhati, Hemādriprayoga, Nānāśāntayaḥ, Tristhalīvidhi) and commentaries (on Vopadeva’s Muktāphala and Śaunaka’s Pravaṇakalpa); but he is different from Bhaṭṭa Hemādri, the son of Īśvarasūri and author of the Raghuvaṃśadarpaṇa.
2) Vamana (वमन) refers to “vomitive”, and is mentioned in verse 1.25 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā.—The terms basti (“clyster”), vireka (“cathartic”), and vamana (“vomitive”) have been paraphrased by mas-btaṅ (“moving-downward drug”), bkru-sman (“washing-off drug”) and slon-sman (“thrusting-out drug”) respectively. Instead of mas-btaṅ, CD read mas-gtoṅ throughout.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Vamana (वमन) is another name for Śaṇa, a medicinal plant identified with Crotalaria juncea Linn. (“Indian hemp”) from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.75-76 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Vamana and Śaṇa, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci
Vamana (वमन) refers to one of the five topics of the Pañcakarma section, and is dealt with in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—It describes Pañcakarma as one separate branch from Kāyacikitsā. This may be the only book which describes Pañcakarma as an independent branch. In Pañcakarma section, there is one stanza and preparation described for each Karma. [...] Paste of Indrayava, Pippalī and Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum Retz.) mixed with Yaṣṭimadhu decoction is described for Vamana.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Vamana (वमन):—Therapeutic emesis.Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Vāmana (वामन) (lit. “one who is crooked”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vāmana (वामन) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Triviṣṭapa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Triviṣṭapa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Vāmana) that are to be octangular in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Vāmana (वामन).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In the Vāmana incarnation, assuming the form of a Brāhmaṇa-dwarf, he traversed the earth, air and heaven in three strides and gained the earth from Bali, the lord of the demons.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
Vāmana (वामन) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Vāmana is round in shape (vartula); deep-blue in colour like atasi flower; spots (bindu); avery small cakra on the left side (vāma-cakra) or two tiny cakras; lines on the right side. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Vāmana stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Vāmana (वामन) or Vāmanāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. The hasta for Vāmana (dwarf) avatāra is depicted when the left hand in muṣṭi-hasta is raised till the shoulder level and the right hand in muṣṭi-hasta is lowered till the thigh level. The left hand holds an umbrella and the right hand holds a kamaṇḍalu for vāmana-hasta. In iconography, Viṣṇu in the form of a Brahmin dwarf is seen carrying an umbrella in his left hand and a vase in his right hand. The position of the hands is similar in dance and in iconography for Vāmana-avatāra.Source: academia.edu: Dvādaśa-mūrti in Tamil Tradition (iconography)
Vāmana (वामन) refers to one of the Dvādaśa-mūrti or “twelve sacred names of Viṣṇu”, whose iconographical details are mentioned in the Śrītattvanidhi (verse 2.19-42) citing the Pāñcarātrāgama-Kriyapāda.—Vāmana is white like the jasmine flower (mallikā), and eyes long like lotus-flowers (kayal-viḻi in Tamil tradition, aṅkayaṟ-kaṇ-mīnākṣī Rajarajan & Jeyapriya 2013). According to the Caturviṃśatimūrtilakṣaṇa, Vāmana is fitted with the Śaṅkha, Gāda, Cakra and Padma, in that particular order.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vāmana (वामन).—Name of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृत्ति (vṛtti) upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य (jayāditya). There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर (viśrāntavidyādhara), together with उणादि-सूत्रवृत्ति (uṇādi-sūtravṛtti) and लिङ्गानुशासन (liṅgānuśāsana).
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Indian National Science Academy: Annual Report 2015-16 (rasashastra)
Vamana (वमन, “emesis”) refers to one of the five Pañcakarma for Rasaśāstra as introduced (as a new set) in the Āyurvedaprakāśa: an exclusive text on Rasaśāstra the pharmaceutical wing of Ayurveda that concentrates on preparation of herbo-mineral medicaments, written in 17th Century AD by Mādhava Upādhyaya.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Vāmana (वामन) refers to “one who is dwarfish”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is not a Siddha: “He is excessively tall, bald, deformed, short, dwarfish [i.e., vāmana], his nose is ugly or he has black teeth and is wrathful. Some of his limbs are missing and is deceitful, cripple and deformed, foolish, inauspicious, envious, deluded, badly behaved, and violent; without any teacher, he is devoid of the rites, he maligns the Krama without cause, he is not devoted to the Siddhas, he (always) suffers and is without wisdom. He is (always) ill and one should know that he is (always) attached (to worldly objects) and has no scripture. He has no energy and is dull and lazy. Ugly, he lives by cheating and, cruel, he is deluded, and devoid of (any) sense of reality. Such is the characteristic of one who is not accomplished (asiddha) in a past life”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Vāmana (वामन) refers to a form of Viṣṇu, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.1-9, while describing the appearance and worship of Viṣṇu]—“Or, [the Mantrin] worships a very handsome, eight-armed, yellow Deva. [...] He remembers [Viṣṇu’s] many forms. Thus, he thinks [of him] with a collection of many faces, many weapons and [many] arms [i.e., the cosmic Viṣṇu], reclining, taking a wife, joined with Lakṣmī, alone, [as] Narasiṃha, Varāha, or Vāmana, Kapila, or an honorable man, unadorned, or even without parts. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch
Vamana (वमन) refers to the “emission (of the abdominal breath)”, according to the Pātañjalayogaśāstra (i.e., the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali) 1.34.—Accordingly, while discussing Prāṇāyāma and Samādhi: “Or [stability of mind is attained] through exhalation and retention of the breath”.—[Commentary]—“Exhalation is the emission (vamana) of the abdominal breath through the nostrils with particular care, and retention is stopping the breath. Through both [of these], one should accomplish stability of mind”.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Vāmana (वामन, “dwarf”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the tretāyuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: A Guide to Sanskrit Metrics and Figures of Speech
Vāmana was the author of a well-known work on poetics called the Kāvyālaṅkārasūtravṛtti. It consists of sūtras and a vṛtti, both composed by Vāmana. His orderly presentation of poetic theory was the most well-thought-out scheme of poetics up to that point in time. He argued that rīti (a particular stylistic arrangement of words) was the soul of petry. His theory embraced major topics such as literary flaws (doṣa), poetic qualities (guṇa), and embellishments (alaṅkāra). He is believed to have been a minister to Jayāpīda (779-813 CE), the king of Kashmir.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Bali, the son of Prahalada, had obtained powerful boons and had conquered all the three worlds. Vishnu was born as a dwarf, Vamana, the son of Aditi and sage Kashyapa to restore the Devas to their rightful place.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Avatar of Viṣnu. Vamana, the dwarf, appeared in the Treta Yuga. The fourth descendant of Hiranyakashyap, Bali, with devotion and penance was able to defeat Indra, the god of firmament. This humbled the other deities and extended his authority over the three worlds. The gods appealed to Vishnu for protection and he descended as the dwarf Vamana. During a yajna of the king, Vamana approached him in the midst of other Brahmins. Bali was happy to see the diminutive holy man, and promised whatever he asked. Vamana asked for three paces of land. Bali agreed, and the dwarf then changed his size to that of a giant. He stepped over heaven in his first stride, and the netherworld with the second. Bali realized that Vamana was Vishnu incarnate. In deference, the king offered his head as the third place for Vamana to place his foot. The avatar did so and thus granted Bali immortality. Then in appreciation to Bali and his grandfather Prahlada, Vamana made him ruler of Pathala, the netherworld. Bali is believed to have ruled Kerala and Tulunadu. He is still worshiped there as the king of prosperity and recalled before the time of harvest.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature (h)
Vāmana (वामन) refers to the fifth of ten avatars (daśāvatāra) of Lord Viṣṇu, as described by Vāsudeva in his Vṛttagajendramokṣa verse 108. All the incarnations have been described with their respective contexts in 10 different verses in 10 different metres; Vāmana has been described in the Pramitākṣarā metre.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Vāmana (वामन) is the reverse of a Kubja body (i.e., “dwarfish body”) and represents the fourth of the six caturasra-susaṃsthana (“symmetrical bodies”), according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—(cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 155, p. 150. Sthānāṅgasūtra 495, pp. 357-8.)Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Vāmana (वामन) (or Pārśva, Dharaṇendra) is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Pārśvanātha: the twenty-third of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Pārśvanātha is one of the greatest Tīrthaṃkaras or Prophets of Jainism. [...] From all sources, we gather his emblem or cognizance is a snake. In sculpture, snake seems to be everything with him. Not only do we find snake in the usual place of the symbol, we find, snakes canopy him with three or seven or eleven hoods. His Yakṣa is called Pārśva or Vāmana or Dharaṇendra and Yakṣiṇī is called Padmāvatī. The king, who stands by his side as a Chowri-bearer is known as Ajitarāja. The Devadāru (Deodar) or Dhātaki is his Kevala-tree.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Vāmana (वामन, “dwarf”) refers to one of the six types of Saṃsthāna (structure karma), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by dwarf (vāmana) body (saṃsthāna) body-making (nāma) karma? The karmas rise of which causes the dwarf structure of the body accomplished are called dwarf body body-making karma.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
Vāmana (वामन) is mentioned in the Paṭṭaṇakuḍi plates of Avasara II.—“This royal order was clearly written by the poet, the illustrious Devapāla, son of the illustrious Vāmana, the illustrious Nāgara-Sāndhivigrahika, by the permission of his Lord, and it was incised in (all its) details by Vajjaḍa”.
These copper plates (mentioning Vāmana) were obtained from Tonappa Parisa Upadhye, the priest of the Jain basti of Paṭṭaṇakudi, who claims that they have been preserved as heirloom in his family. The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Śilāra (i.e. Śilāhāra) king Avasara II, ruling from Balinagara. The inscription is dated in the expired Śaka year 910 (expressed in words), the cyclic year being Sarvadhārin, on Monday, the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight of Kārttika.Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)
Vāmana (वामन) refers to “short in stature” and was commonly found in the city of Mathurā at some point in time in ancient India, according to Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] On page 55.11 f., there is a description of poor home (aṇāha-maṇḍava) in the city of Mathurā. In its population there was a sprinkling of disabled persons: [e.g., Short in stature (vāmana)] [...]. The invaders of the orphan home exchange their views as to which sin may be washed at which holy place. [...]
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
vamana : (nt.) vomiting; discharged food. || vāmana (m.), a dwarf. (adj.) dwarfish.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Vamana, (nt.) (fr. vam) an emetic D. I, 12; A. V, 219; cp. J. P. T. S. 1907, 452. (Page 601)
— or —
Vāmana, (adj.) (fr. vāma1, cp. Ger. linkisch=uncouth) dwarfish; m. dwarf Vin. I, 91; DA. I, 148. (Page 609)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vamana (वमन).—n (S) Vomiting.
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vāmana (वामन).—m or a (S) A dwarf or dwarfish. 2 Vishn̤u in his character of the dwarf, in which he appeared in his fifth avatar, to prevent Bali from obtaining the dominion of the three worlds. 3 The baṭu or Brahman-boy invited to the meal on vāmana- dvādaśī. 4 (Because of the character and deeds of Vishn̤u under this avatar.) A term for a deceiver, rogue, cheat.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vāmana (वामन).—m or a A dwarf or dwarfish. > rogue. Vishnu in his fifth avatāra.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Ejecting, vomiting.
2) Drawing out, taking or getting out as in स्वर्गाभिष्यन्दवमनम् (svargābhiṣyandavamanam) R.15.29; Kumārasambhava 6.37.
3) An emetic; also वमनद्रव्यम् (vamanadravyam).
4) Offering oblations.
-nī 1 A leech.
2) The cotton shrub.
Derivable forms: vamanam (वमनम्).
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1) (a) Short in stature, dwarfish, pigmy; छलवामनम् (chalavāmanam) Śiśupālavadha 13.12. (b) (Hence) Small, short, little, reduced in length; वामनार्चिरिव दीपभाजनम् (vāmanārciriva dīpabhājanam) R.19.51; कथं कथं तानि (kathaṃ kathaṃ tāni) (dināni) च वामनानि (ca vāmanāni) N.22.57.
2) Bent down, bent low (namra); शिरसि स्म जिघ्रति सुरारिबन्धने छलवामनं विनय- वामनं तदा (śirasi sma jighrati surāribandhane chalavāmanaṃ vinaya- vāmanaṃ tadā) Śiśupālavadha 13.12.
3) Vile, low, base.
4) Venerable; मध्ये वामनमासीनं विश्वेदेवा उपासते (madhye vāmanamāsīnaṃ viśvedevā upāsate) Kaṭh.5.3.
-naḥ 1 A dwarf, pigmy; प्रांशुलभ्ये फले मोहादुद्बाहुरिव वामनः (prāṃśulabhye phale mohādudbāhuriva vāmanaḥ) R.1.3; 1.6; सहस्रं वामनान् कुब्जान् (sahasraṃ vāmanān kubjān) ...... दृष्ट्वा ततोऽस्मयत वै तदा (dṛṣṭvā tato'smayata vai tadā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.56.8.
2) Name of Viṣṇu in his fifth incarnation, when he was born as a dwarf to humble the demon Bali, (see bali); छलयसि विक्रमणे बलिमद्भुतवामन पदनखनीरज- नितजनपावन । केशव धृतवामनरूप जय जगदीश हरे (chalayasi vikramaṇe balimadbhutavāmana padanakhanīraja- nitajanapāvana | keśava dhṛtavāmanarūpa jaya jagadīśa hare) | Gītagovinda 1; Śi. 13.12.
3) Name of the elephant that presides over the south.
4) Name of the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti, a commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras.
5) The tree called अङ्कोट (aṅkoṭa).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Vomiting, ejecting any thing from the mouth. 2. Causing, vomiting, an emetic. 3. Pain. 4. Offering oblations to fire. m.
(-naḥ) Hemp. f. (-nī) A leech. E. vam to vomit, aff. lyuṭ .
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(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Short, dwarfish, a dwarf. 2. Depressed, pressed flat or down. 3. Low, vile, base. m.
(-naḥ) 1. Vishnu in his character of the dwarf, in which he appeared on his fifth descent from heaven, to prevent Bali from obtaining dominion of the three worlds. 2. The elephant that supports the south quarter. 3. A tree, (Alangium hexapetalum.) f. (-nī) 1. A female dwarf. 2. A sort of woman; also vāmanikā . 3. A disease of the vagina. 4. A mare. E. vam to eject from the mouth, and lyu or lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vamana (वमन).—[vam + ana], I. n. 1. Vomiting, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 17, 4; taking, getting. [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 15, 29. 2. An emetic. 3. Paining. Ii. f. nī, A leech.
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Vāmana (वामन).— (from vāma), I. adj. 1. Dwarfish, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 96, 79; a dwarf, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 95, 63; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 19, title. 2. Pressed flat or down, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 830 (vāmanī-kṛta, Pressed down). 3. Vile, low. Ii. m. 1. A name of Viṣṇu (on account of his avatāra in the shape of a dwarf, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 19). 2. The elephant that supports the south quarter, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 6, 23. Iii. f. nā, The name of an Apsaras, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 50, 23. Iv. f. nī, A female dwarf.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vamana (वमन).—[neuter] vomiting, ejecting, giving forth.
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Vāmana (वामन).—1. [adjective] dwarfish, short, small, [abstract] tā† [feminine], tva† [neuter]
— [masculine] dwarf, [Epithet] of Viṣṇu etc., [Name] of [several] men.
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Vāmana (वामन).—2. [adjective] relating to a dwarf of Viṣṇu.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Vāmana (वामन) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Gadādhara (Pāraskaragṛhyasūtrabhāṣya). L. 832.
2) Vāmana (वामन):—an authority on Mīmāṃsā is quoted by Cāritrasiṃha Hall. p. 166.
3) Vāmana (वामन):—poet, a minister under Jayāpīḍa. Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 496. Verses of his are given in [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] He is quoted by Kṣīrasvāmin, Abhinavagupta, Vardhamāna, by Sāyaṇa (both as a grammarian and a writer on poetics) in the Dhātuvṛtti, and a host of others: Aviśrāntavidyādharavyākaraṇa. Kāvyālaṃkārasūtra and vṛtti. Kāśikāvṛtti partly. Whether the Sūtrapāṭha, Uṇādisūtra, Liṅgasūtra belong to the same Vāmaṇa is by no means certain. Peters. 3, 40^a. 111. He quotes the Pañjikā and Jainendra.
4) Vāmana (वामन):—Upādhinyāyasaṃgraha.
5) Vāmana (वामन):—Khādiragṛhyasūtrakārikā.
6) Vāmana (वामन):—Tājikatantra. Tājikasāroddhāra. Vāmanajātaka. Strījātaka.
7) Vāmana (वामन):—Nighaṇṭu. See Vāmananighantu.
8) Vāmana (वामन):—of the Vatsa race, father of Vāsudeva, father of Kāmadeva, father of Hemādri, wrote a Balikathāgāthā. Mentioned in Pariśeṣakhaṇḍa 1, 4.
9) Vāmana (वामन):—father of Cakradhara (Yantracintāmaṇi).
10) Vāmana (वामन):—Vedastutiṭīkā Kalpalatā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vamana (वमन):—[from vam] m. hemp, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a people, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
3) [from vam] n. the act of vomiting or ejecting from the mouth, [Suśruta]
4) [v.s. ...] emitting, emission, [Kālidāsa]
5) [v.s. ...] ‘causing vomiting’, an emetic, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Suśruta] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] offering oblations to fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] pain, paining, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) Vāmana (वामन):—mf(ā)n. (of doubtful derivation) dwarfish, small or short in stature, a dwarf, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.
9) small, minute, short (also of days), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
10) bent, inclined, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]
11) relating to a dwarf or to Viṣṇu (cf. below), treating of him, [Purāṇa]
12) descended from the elephant Vāmana (See below), [Rāmāyaṇa]
13) m. ‘the Dwarf’, Name of Viṣṇu in his fifth Avatāra or descent (undertaken to humble the pride of the Daitya Bali [q.v.]; the germ of the story of this incarnation seems to be contained in the 1st book of the [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]; the later legend is given in [Rāmāyaṇa i, 32, 2])
14) Name of a [particular] month, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
15) of Śiva, [Mahābhārata xiv, 193]
16) a dwarfish bull, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā]
17) a goat with [particular] marks, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
18) a person born under a [particular] constellation, [ib.]
19) = kāṇḍa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) Alangium Hexapetalum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) Name of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]
22) of a son of Garuḍa, [ib.]
23) of a son of Hiraṇya-garbha, [Harivaṃśa]
24) of one of the 18 attendants of the Sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) of a Dānava, [Harivaṃśa]
26) of a Muni, [Catalogue(s)]
27) of a poet (minister under Jayāpīḍa), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
28) (also with bhaṭṭa, ācārya etc.) of various other scholars and authors etc. ([especially] of one of the authors of the Kāśikā-vṛtti, the other being Jayāditya, and of the author of the Kāvyālaṃkāra-vṛtti)
29) of the elephant that supports the south (or west) quarter, [Mahābhārata]
30) of a mountain, [Mahābhārata]
31) ([plural]) Name of a people, [ib.] ([Bombay edition] ambaṣṭha)
32) Vāmanā (वामना):—[from vāmana] f. Name of an Apsaras ([varia lectio] rāmaṇā), [Rāmāyaṇa]
33) Vāmana (वामन):—n. = vāmana-purāṇa and nopapurāṇa (q.v.)
34) Name of a place of pilgrimage (called after the dwarf form of Viṣṇu), [Mahābhārata]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vamana (वमन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Vomiting; emetic; pain; oblation to fire.
2) Vāmana (वामन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Short, dwarfish. m. Vishnu in his 5th incarnation; elephant of the south; a tree, Alangium. f. Female dwarf.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Vamana (वमन) [Also spelled vaman]:—(nm) vomiting, puke; —[karanā] to vomit, to puke; —[karane kī icchā] nausea, qualm.
2) Vāmana (वामन) [Also spelled vaman]:—(nm) a dwarf, dwarfish/short-statured person; a pigmy; the name of the fifth incarnation of Vishnu wherein he assumed the form of a dwarf; (a) dwarfish, short-statured.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Vamaṇa (वमण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Vamana.
2) Vāmaṇa (वामण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Vāmana.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the act or process of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth; vomit.
2) [noun] a substance that causes vomiting; an emetic.
3) [noun] an offering of an oblation.
4) [noun] the condition of undergoing pain.
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Vāmana (ವಾಮನ):—[adjective] small or short in stature; dwarfish.
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1) [noun] the quality or fact of being short in stature; dwarfishness.
2) [noun] a man who is much smaller than normal men; a dwarf.
3) [noun] the third major incarnation of Viṣṇu, in which he took the form of a dwarfish brāhmaṇa boy.
4) [noun] name of a celestial elephant which is the regent of the South direction.
5) [noun] the tree Alangium hexapetalum of Alangiaceae family.
6) [noun] one of the eighteen major Purāṇas, which has, among others, the store of Vāmana, the fifth incarnation of Viṣṇu.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+53): Vamana acarya, Vamana bhatta, Vamana bhatta bana, Vamana mishra, Vamana Sutta, Vamana-mudra, Vamanabhattabana, Vamanacarya, Vamanaci, Vamanacitracaritra, Vamanadandi, Vamanadatta, Vamanadeva, Vamanadi, Vamanadirupa, Vamanadravya, Vamanadvadashi, Vamanadvadashikatha, Vamanadvadashivrata, Vamanagangamahatmya.
Ends with (+26): Abhishyandavamana, Apavamana, Avamana, Bahishpavamana, Batuvamana, Bhavamana, Cavamana, Dadhivamana, Davamana, Devamana, Dhavamana, Dhuvvamana, Dravamana, Havamana, Janavamana, Javamana, Jivamana, Kubjavamana, Kuvamana, Niravamana.
Full-text (+762): Vamanavatara, Vamanem, Vamanajataka, Dashavatara, Udvamana, Udbahu, Vamanakarika, Vaman, Udgarbha, Vamanata, Katava, Pindakshara, Masrinatva, Agniman, Karnavatamsa, Mugdhiman, Anudeshin, Vamanakriti, Vamanapurana, Lokaviruddha.
Search found 117 books and stories containing Vamana, Vāmana, Vāmanā, Vamaṇa, Vāmaṇa; (plurals include: Vamanas, Vāmanas, Vāmanās, Vamaṇas, Vāmaṇas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 1.5.21 < [Chapter 5 - The Lord’s Appearance]
Verse 1.11.40 < [Chapter 11 - Description of Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra’s Birth]
Verse 1.13.20 < [Chapter 13 - The Liberation of Pūtanā]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 6 - Kāvyālaṃkārasūtravṛtti of Vāmana < [Chapter 2 - A General Outlines of Sanskrit Poetics]
Part 2 - Genisis of Kāvyapuruṣa (kāvyapuruṣotpatti) < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Introduction to Kāvyaśāstra and Alaṃkāraśāstra < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.1.74 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Verse 2.4.142-144 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.4.155-157 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Tiruvaymoli (Thiruvaimozhi): English translation (by S. Satyamurthi Ayyangar)
Pasuram 8.10.3 < [Section 10 - Tenth Tiruvaymoli (Netumarku atimai)]
Pasuram 2.6.1 < [Section 6 - Sixth Tiruvaymoli (Vaikunta Manivannane)]
Pasuram 6.4.8 < [Section 4 - Fourth Tiruvaymoli (Kuravai aycciyarotu)]
The Markandeya Purana (Study) (by Chandamita Bhattacharya)
1.5: Divisions of the Purāṇas < [Chapter 1]
1.6: Number of Purāṇa < [Chapter 1]
The philosophy of Vaiṣṇavism < [Chapter 4]
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Part 1.3 - Incarnations of Viṣṇu < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 3 - Art in the Matsyapurāṇa < [Chapter 7 - Art and Architecture in the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 5 - Pañca-lakṣaṇa (the five characteristics) and the Matsyapurāṇa < [Chapter 1 - Introduction]
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