Kali, Kālī, Kāli: 42 definitions
Kali means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Kālī (काली):—One of the wifes of Bhīma (one of the sons of Pāṇḍu). She bore to him a son named Sarvagata. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.30-31)Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Kālī (काली) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Kālī) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kali (कलि).—Incarnation of sin, the Sin-god. Birth. Kaśyapaprajāpati, son of Brahmā, begot of his wife Muni sixteen sons and Kali was the fifteenth son. He was a deva-gandharva. The other sons of Kaśyapa were: Bhīmasena, Ugrasena, Suparṇa, Varuṇa Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Gopati, Suvarcas, Satyavāk, Arkaparṇa, Prayuta, Viśruta, Citraratha, Śāliśiras, Parjanya and Nārada. (4 Ślokas from verse 43, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva). (See full article at Story of Kali from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Kali (कलि).—A synonym of Sūrya. (Sloka 20, Chapter 3, Vana Parva).
3) Kali (कलि).—A synonym of Śiva. (Śloka 79, Chapter 17, Anuśāsana Parva).
4) Kālī (काली).—A synonym of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa. (See under Adrikā and Satyavatī).
5) Kālī (काली).—An aspect or form of Pārvatī. (See under Pārvatī).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Kālī (काली) is another name for Śivā: the Goddess-counterpart of Śiva who incarnated first as Satī and then Pārvatī, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] the great goddess Śivā is of the three natures. Śivā became Satī and Śiva married her. At the sacrifice of her father she cast off her body which she did not take again and went back to her own region. Śivā incarnated as Pārvatī at the request of the Devas. It was after performing a severe penance that she could attain Śiva again. Śivā came to be called by various names [such as Kālī,...]. These various names confer worldly pleasures and salvation according to qualities and action. The name Pārvatī is very common.
2) Kālī (काली) refers to one of the “nine Durgās” (Navadurgā), participating in Vīrabhadra campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [viz., Kālī]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—Ḍākinī, Śākinī, Bhūtas, Pramathas, Guhyakas, Kūṣmāṇḍas, Parpaṭas, Caṭakas, Brahma-Rākṣasas, Bhairavas and Kṣetrapālas and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.
3) Kālī (काली) is the name of a deity who fought on Vīrabhadra’s side in his campaign to destroy Dakṣa’s sacrifice, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.37. Accordingly:—“[...] Vīrabhadra took up all the great miraculous weapons for his fight with Viṣṇu and roared like a lion. [...] A noisy terrible fight ensued between the Gaṇas and the guardians of the quarters, both roaring like lions. [...] Desirous of gobbling up the leading Devas, Kālī split them and drank their blood. Kṣetrapāla too did the same”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Kali (कलि).—Born of Krodha and Hīṃsā. Married Durukti who gave birth to Bhaya and Mṛtyu.1 Personified as king but śūdra by birth, kicking a cow and bull. Vanquished by Parīkṣit. Kali fell at his feet when Parīkṣit asked him to leave Brahmāvarta. Asked for a place to reside, Parīkṣit appointed him to five unrighteous spheres—wine, dice, gold, women and slaughter. Father of adharma, heroic in the midst of children and cowardly before the valiant.2 His rule in yugāntara described.3
1b) A Mauneya Gandharva; a son of Brahmadhana.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 4; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 3, 133.
1c) A son of Varuṇa and Śunādevī (Sāmudri, Vāyu-purāṇa.); father of Jaya and Vijaya; one wife of Kali, Surā, mother of Mada; other wives, Tvāṣṭri, Hiṃsā and Nikṛti; other sons of Kali, all cannibals, Nāka, Vighna, Śadrama and Vidhama.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 6-10.
1d) A door-keeper of Mahākāla.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 18.
2a) Kāli (कालि).—A manneya.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 2.
2b) R. a sacred river.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 20.
3a) Kālī (काली).—One of the wives of Bhīmasena, and mother of Sarvagata.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 31.
3c) A doorkeeper of Mahākāla.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 18.
3d) The Dāśeyī brought forth Vicitravīrya by Śantanu.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 50. 45.
3f) The wife of Parāśara and mother of Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 84.
Kali (कलि) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.43, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kali) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Kālī is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.72.12) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Kālī (काली) is the name of the Himavat’s daughter, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Satī’s rebirth as Kālī, the daughter of Himavat, her penance for getting Śiva as her husband, the appointment of Madana (Kāma) by the gods to create passion in diva’s mind, the burning of Madana to ashes, Kālī’s eulogy of Śiva so that the latter is pleased to grant the desired boon and revive, Kāma in a formless state (anaṅga), Kālī’s description of the knowledge of Māheśvara to father, Himavat, arrangement for the marriage of Śiva and Kālī; the description of marriage maṇḍapa, Kālī’s marriage with Śiva, the birth of Skanda, Skanda’s fight with Indra and his appointment as the commander in chief of the army of Gods; the killing of Tārakāsura—are described in chapters fifty-three to sixty-three.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
1) Kālī (काली, “blackness, night”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.
Her mantra is as follows:
ॐ काल्यै नमः
oṃ kālyai namaḥ.
A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.
2) Kālī (काली, “the power of time”):—The first of the ten Mahāvidyās. She represents the power of time. She is the also the embodiment of all fear, while she herself is beyond fear and protects those from fear who invoke her. In Hindu iconology, she represents the supreme night, which devours all that exists. She is depicted as a fearful goddess with four arms, standing over the corpse of Śiva. The ten Mahāvidyās are the emanations of Mahākālī, the Goddess of time and death.Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Kālī (काली) refers to one of the eight sacred fields (kṣetra), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The man of knowledge should mark the sacred fields located in the towns. [...] Now listen (to how it is) in the home. [...] Starting with the dish in due order, one should not touch these with one's feet, if one wants the best for oneself. One should stay far away from a broom and the wind produced by a winnowing fan. Obstacles (vighna), Siddhas and Yoginīs that have penetrated the wind enter the adept having identified (his) weak spot, and lay hold of the best (within him) for no reason. (The adept) abides in (each) place in the (eight) sacred fields, (namely) Gaṇikā, Śiras, Kālī, Kāla, Ālaya, Śiva, Kāliñjara, and Mahākāla”.
2) Kali (कलि) or Kaliyuga refers to the age associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The Kumārikākhaṇḍa displays most of the many new developments that took place after the revelation of the Kubjikāmatatantra including those concerning the sacred seats. [...] Although the seats are the same five described in the Kubjikāmatatantra and its expansions, their contents [i.e., the Kali-yuga] and the beings who inhabit them are quite different.Source: Red Zambala: The 10 Great Wisdom Goddesses
Kālī (‘the embodiment of Time’) is represented as the supreme night, which devours all that exists. She therefore stands upon “non-existence,” — upon the corpse of the destroyed universe. The corpse is that of Śiva. So long as the power that gives life to the universe remains predominant it is favourable (Śiva), but when it is without strength it becomes as a corpse (śava). The lifeless body is indeed the symbol of whatever is left of the manifested universe when it reverts to the natural state of eternal time. At the time of universal dissolution (pralaya), the Power of Time, the power of destruction, is all that remains.
The four arms of Kālī represent the four directions of space identified with the complete cycle of time. With her four arms, she stands as the symbol of the fulfilment of all and of the absoluteness of her dominion over all that exists.
The conqueror laughs in her triumph. That laughter is the expression of absolute dominion over all that exists. It mocks at those who, in the folly of their vanity, hope to escape dissolution. It ridicules all those who cling to material existence and clutch their paltry possessions craving to continue their feeble existence in a cosmos in the grip of change and transformation.Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha
Kālī (काली) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Kālī] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala
Kālī (काली) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Kālī]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kali (कलि) is the Sanskrit name for a deity to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (e.g., to Kali).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Kālī (काली), the destructive counterpart of Mahākāla Śiva, wears a necklace of human skull and serpents as her ornaments. She holds the staff of a big sūla as her weapon. She cannot he indentified with Umā. Her other epithets are Katyāyanī, Caṇḍī, Cāmuṇḍā, Caṇḍikā, Durgā and Mahākālī. Soḍḍhala. gives the characteristics of Cāmuṇḍā in her praise hy Kumārakesarī. There, the deity is referred, to as wearing the bracelets of snakes and holding a big trident in her hand. Her body is covered with a long garment densely woven by means of human heads. Even Indra is said to be bowing down to her feet.Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study
Kali (कलि) is another name for Satyavatī: one of the female character in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Satyavatī was the queen of the Kuru King Śāntanu and the great-grandmother of the Pāṇḍava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahābhārata. According to the Purāṇas, she was born to the Cedi King Vasu (also known as Uparicara Vasu) and a fish, who was actually a celestial lady, Adrikā. But she was nevertheless brought up as a commoner, an adopted daughter to a ferryman or fisherman or a dāśeyī. She was also known as Matsyagandhā (one who has the smell of fish) in her earlier life and Yojanagandhā in her later life. Another name for her was Kali. She was sweet by her speech. [..., See Satyavatī]
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Kālī (काली) is another name for Nīlī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (“true indigo”), according to verse 4.80-83 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kālī and Nīlī, there are a total of thirty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Kālī (काली) is also mentioned as a synonym for Kālāñjanī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.186-187. Together with the names Kālī and Kālāñjanī, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Kali is the destructive form of Parvati, the consort of Shiva. She is depicted as having a terrible visage, dark as the night in color, with bloodshot eyes.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Kālī (काली), also known as Kālikā (कालिका), is the Hindu goddess associated with empowerment, shakti. She is the fierce aspect of the goddess Durga (Parvati). The name Kali comes from kāla, which means black, time, death, lord of death: Shiva. Since Shiva is called Kāla— the eternal time — the name of Kālī, his consort, also means "Time" or "Death" (as in "time has come"). Hence, Kāli is the Goddess of Time and Change.
Although sometimes presented as dark and violent, her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilation of evil forces still has some influence. Various Shakta Hindu cosmologies, as well as Shākta Tantric beliefs, worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. Comparatively recent devotional movements largely conceive Kāli as a benevolent mother goddess. Kālī is represented as the consort of Lord Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing. Shiva lies in the path of Kali, whose foot on Shiva subdues her anger.
1) Kālī is the feminine form of kālam ("black, dark coloured").
2) Kāla primarily means "time" but also means "black" in honor of being the first creation before light itself. Kālī means "the black one" and refers to her being the entity of "time" or "beyond time."
3) Kāli is strongly associated with Shiva, and Shaivas derive the masculine Kāla (an epithet of Shiva) to come from her feminine name. A nineteenth-century Sanskrit dictionary, the Shabdakalpadrum, states: कालः शिवः। तस्य पत्नीति - काली। kālaḥ śivaḥ। tasya patnīti kālī - "Shiva is Kāla, thus, his consort is Kāli" referring to Devi Parvathi being a manifestation of Devi MahaKali.
4) Other names include Kālarātri ("black night"), as described above, and Kālikā ("relating to time"). Coburn notes that the name Kālī can be used as a proper name, or as a description of color.Source: Vic DiCara's Astrology: Kali Yuga and Goddess Kali
1) Kali (as in the age) means “one.” So kali-yuga just means “Age One.” It’s called Age One because it only has one fourth power. The word “kali” specifically means “the side of a dice marked with a 1.” So, the word also implies “worst” or “lowest.”
2) There is a divinity named kali, but it is not the goddess Kālī. It’s a male deity who is the son of Krodha (anger) and Himsa (violence). His sister is Durukti (harshness), and he impregnates her to have the children Bhaya (fear) and Mrtyu (death).
3) Goddess Kālī is entirely different. She is the divine energy in a destructive form. As such she is a destructive mood of Shiva’s consort, Parvati.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Kali - See Kalakanni (3).
2. Kali - Called Kururagharika, described among laywomen as the best of those who believe even from hearsay (anussavappasannanam) (A.i.26).
She was the mother of Sona Kutikanna, and her husband belonged to Kururaghara in Avanti. When with child, she came to her parents in Rajagaha, and there, while enjoying the cool breeze on the balcony above her roof (sihapanjare), she overheard the conversation which took place between Satagira and Hemavata on the excellences of the Buddha and of his teaching; as she listened, faith in the Buddha grew in her and she became a Sotapanna. That same night Sona was born. Later, Kali returned to Kururughara and there waited on Maha Kaccana. When Sona entered the Order under Kaccana and visited the Buddha, she gave him a costly rug to be spread in the Buddhas chamber. When Sona returned home after this visit, Kali asked him to preach to her in the same way as he had earlier preached to the Buddha, earning the applause of the Buddha himself and of the devas of the ten thousand worlds.
Kali was considered most senior among the women who became sotapannas (sabbamatugamanam antare pathamakasotapanna sabbajetthika) (AA.i.133ff; SnA.i.208f). She was the constant companion and staunch friend of Katiyani (AA.i.245). Kalis wish to attain to the eminence which she reached in this life was made in the time of Padumuttara Buddha when she heard a laywoman declared pre eminent among those who had begotten faith by hearsay (AA.i.247).
A conversation between her and Maha Kaccana is related in the Kali Sutta (q.v.).
3. Kali - Maidservant of Videhika of Savatthi. Videhika was reputed to be gentle and meek, but Kali, who was a bright girl and a good worker, thought she would test her mistress. One day she rose late and, on being reproved, spoke very lightly of her fault. Finding that Videhika lost her temper, Kali repeated her offence several times, until one day her mistress struck her with a lynch pin, drawing blood from her head. Kali ran out and roused the neighbourhood with her shrieks. Videhikas reputation for meekness was no more. The story is related in the Kakacupama Sutta. M.i.125f
4. Kali - A Mara woman, sister of Dusi (q.v.) and mother of the Mara of the present age (Vasavatti?). (M.i.333)
5. Kali - A crematrix (chavadahika) of Savatthi. Seeing Mahakala meditating in the cemetery, she cut off from a recently cremated body its thighs and arms, and making of them a sort of milk bowl, placed it near where the Thera sat. Thag.151; ThagA.i.271; more details are given in DhA.i.57ff.
6. Kali - A Yakkhini. A householder, having a barren wife, married another woman, a friend of the former. Every time a child was conceived, the first wife brought about a miscarriage;
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A tank in Ceylon, built by King Vasabha (Mhv.xxxv.95). Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Kali (कलि) or Kalirāja is the name of a king who tested Kṣāntirṣi as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXIV).—Accordingly, “The Ṛṣi Tch’an t’i (Kṣāntirṣi) was practicing patience (kṣānti) and loving-kindness (maitrī) in a great forest. One day, king Kia ki (Kali) with his courtesans (gaṇikā) went into the forest to walk about and amuse themselves. His meal being finished, the king stopped to sleep. The courtesans, who were wandering in the flowering forest, noticed the ṛṣi and went to pay their respects (vandana) to him. Then the ṛṣi praised loving-kindness and patience to them; his words were so fine that the women could not get enough of them and stayed with him for a long time”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Kali (कलि) or Kaliyuga refers to the “dark age” and represents the last of the “four ages” (yuga) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 88). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kali). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
1) Kālī (काली) or Vajraśṛṃkhalā is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Abhinandananātha: the fourth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—[...] Descriptions of this Yakṣiṇī of Abhinandana differ withtin two sects. The Digambaras represent Vajra-Śṛṃkhalā asriding on a swan and holding in her four hands a snake, noose,rosary and fruit. The Śvetāmbara variant of the same Yakṣiṇī named Kālī is described as seated on a lotus and as holding in her hands Varada, noose, snake and goad. Vajraśṛṃkhalā or Kālī is both a Yakṣiṇī and one of the Vidyādevīs. Her Yakṣiṇī character is well symbolised by the presence a citrus and goad and Vidyādevī character is symbolised by a swan and rosary. Kālī also assumes some symbols as becoming Vidyādevī such as Varada and Nāga, and other symbols of noose and goad as they should belong to a Yakṣiṇī. When we treat Vajra-śṛṃkhalā as a Vidyādevī, we shall see, she holds actually a Śṛṃkhalā or chain, which may explain as the origin of her name.
2) Kālī (काली) or Śānti (Śāntā) is also mentioned as the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Supārśvanātha: the seventh of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras.—[...] The Śvetāmbara books describe Śāntā as riding an elephant and her hands as furnished with Varada, rosary, lance, and Abhaya. Kālī, her Digambara variant, is known from their literature as being seated on a bull and as carrying in her hands a trident, fruit, Varada and bell. As wife of Yakṣa Mātaṅga literally meaning “elephant”, Śāntā’s syniliolic vehicle of an elephant is evident enough. Her other symbols bespeak her military Yakṣiṇī as well as benign Vidyādevī character. Kālī also takes her place among the Vidyādevīs. Her symbols of a bull, bell, trident make her resemble a Hindu Śaivite goddess on one hand and a citrus makes her unmistakably a Yakṣiṇī on the other.
3) Kālī (काली) also refers to one of the sixteen Vidyādevīs (goddesses of learning).—The Digambara image of this Vidyādevī [viz., Kālī] should ride a deer and should be furnished in its hands with the symbols of a staff and sword. There are two Śvetāmbara forms to be marked. She is seated on a lotus and holds either in two hands a club and Varada or in four hands rosary, club, vajra and Abhaya. She has similarity in name and certain symbols with the Śvetāmbara Yakṣiṇī of Abhinandana. The Digambara goddess, though having denominational similarity with the Yakṣiṇī of Supārśvanātha of the same sect seems to have been modelled after the type of the wife of Vāyu. This is strongly suggested by the common characteristic symbol of deer as vehicle.
4) Kālī (काली) is the name of a Yoginī mentioned in various Jaina manuscripts, often being part of a list of sixty-four such deities. How the cult of the Tantrik Yoginīs originated among the vegetarian Jainas is unknown. The Yoginīs (viz., Kālī) are known as attendants on Śiva or Pārvatī. But in the case of Jainism, we may suppose, as seen before that they are subordinates to Kṣetrapāla, the chief of the Bhairavas.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Kālī (काली) or Kālīvidyā refers to one of the sixteen Vidyās from which are derived the respective classes of Vidyādharas (in this case, Kālikeyas), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
“[...] After making [the two rows of Vidyādhara-cities], many villages and suburbs, they established communities [viz., the Kālikeyas] according to the suitability of place. [...] Dharaṇendra instructed them about the law as follows: ‘If any insolent persons show disrespect or do injury to the Jinas, or the Jinas’ shrines, or to those who will attain mokṣa in this birth, or to any ascetics engaged in pratimā, the Vidyās [viz., Kālīs] will abandon them at once, just as wealth abandons lazy people. Whoever kills a man with his wife, or enjoys women against their will, the Vidyās will abandon him at once’.”
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Shodhganga: The society and politics in South Kanara 1500 AD to 1800 AD
Kali refers to a type of grass mentioned in inscriptions from South Canara (modern Dakshina Kannada).—Kali is a kind of grass, which normally grows by the side of river in uncultivated areas. Sometimes, the place itself is called Kali.
An inscription from Basrur dated 1482 A.D. refers to a similar extension of agriculture to the uncultivated land like Kali. The same inscription mentions how such a land was converted into paddy field. Conversion of Kali into agricultural land is common mainly in the low-lying areas of the coastal region. Inscriptions of the interior region do not speak of such a practice. It was only in low-lying coastal region that Kali land was formed, and people who wanted to extend their agriculture did not have enough waste land except Kali. In the interior regions of South Kanara cultivators brought hilly areas under cultivation.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kali : (m.) 1. defeat; 2. bad luck; 3. sin; 4. distress.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kali, (m.) (cp. Sk. kali) 1. the unlucky die (see akkha); “the dice were seeds of a tree called the vibhītaka ... An extra seed was called the kali” (Dial. II. 368 n.) D. II, 349; J. I, 380; Dh. 252 (= DhA. III, 375) at J. VI, 228, 282, 357 it is opposed to kaṭa, q. v.—2. (=kaliggaha) an unlucky throw at dice, bad luck, symbolically as a piece of bad luck in a general worldly sense or bad quality, demerit, sin (in moral sense) kaliṃ vicināti “gathers up demerit” Sn. 658; appamatto kali ... akkhesu dhanaparājayo ... mahantataro kali yo sugatesu manam padosaye S. I, 149=A. II, 3=V. 171, 174=Sn. 659=Nett 132; cp. M. III, 170; A. V, 324; Dh. 202 (=DhA. III, 261 aparādha).—3. the last of the 4 ages of the world (see °yuga).—4. sinful, a sinner Sn. 664 (=pāpaka). ‹-› 5. saliva, spittle, froth (cp. kheḷa) Th. 2, 458, 501; J. V, 134.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kali (कलि).—m (S) S The fourth age of the world, the iron age or that of vice. It commenced, according to some, 300, according to others, 3101, according to others, 1370 years before the Christian era. Its duration is through 432000 years; at the expiration of which period the world is to be destroyed. 2 Strife or dissension. kali sañcaraṇēṃ Used of a person beginning to quarrel: as hyācyānta-manānta-pōṭānta kali sañcaralā.
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kaḷī (कळी).—f (kalī S) A bud. 2 A vessel of ivory, wood &c. of the form of an unblown lotus. 3 A grain of the dish called bundī. 4 A nodule of burnt limestone. 5 A roll of betel-leaf, supari &c. of the form of a bud. 6 The hinder of the two triangular pieces composing, together with the āgā, a side of the skirt of an angrakha. 7 A common term for the bud-form twists in the front of the turban of a Maratha. 8 A quantity of silk (about three māsē weight) wound around a stick. 9 A bit of stick, a rib of a leaf, or any thing similar coated over with earth and afterwards with tinsel, or a little roll of earth tinseled over. Ex. gaṇapatīcyā mastakāvaracī kaḷī paḍalī. 10 (Formed from kaḷa Quarreling, to agree with naḷīṃ in the proverb.) A quarrelsome female. Pr. yēgē kaḷī baisa mājhē naḷīṃ. 11 A side-piece of an oblong chappara. kaḷī umaḷaṇēṃ g. of s. To open out; to drop reserve and enter freely into talk--a cold or taciturn person. 2 To glow with emulation.
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kāḷī (काळी).—f (kālī S) A terrific form of Durga or Parvati.
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kāḷī (काळी).—f (kāḷā Black. Because the arable land of the Desh is mostly black.) The soil or ground considered with reference to agriculture. Ex. kā- ḷīnēṃ pīka sōḍalēṃ. 2 Applied also to the crops or produce of the ground. Ex. kāḷī pikalī mhaṇūna pāṇḍhara vāñcalī. 3 A term for a female buffalo. (Because she is black.) Pr. jyācē gharī kāḷī tyācī sadā divāḷī. 4 The arable region as contrad. from pāṇḍhara the village region.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kali (कलि).—m Strife. The 4th age of the world.
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kalī (कली).—f A bud, an unblown flower.
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kaḷī (कळी).—f A bud. A nodule of burnt lime- stone. A grain of bundī. kaḷī umalaṇēṃ To be cheerful, to drop, reserve and enter freely into talk. kaḷīcā cunā m Slaked lime.
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kāḷī (काळी).—f The soil considered with refer- ence to agriculture. Applied also to the crops or produce of the ground.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Strife, quarrel, dissension, contention; शठ कलिरेष महांस्त्वयाद्य दत्तः (śaṭha kalireṣa mahāṃstvayādya dattaḥ) Śi.7.55; कलिकामजित् (kalikāmajit) R.9.33, Amaru.23.
2) War, battle. अविषह्यैस्तमाक्षेपैः क्षिपन्संजनयन् कलिम् (aviṣahyaistamākṣepaiḥ kṣipansaṃjanayan kalim) | Bhāg.1.55.17.
3) The fourth age of the world, the iron age (consisting of 432, years of men and beginning from the 13th of February 312 B. C.); दानमेकं कलौ युगे (dānamekaṃ kalau yuge) Ms.1.86,9.31; कलिवर्ज्यानि इमानि (kalivarjyāni imāni) &c.
4) Kali age personified (this Kali persecuted Nala).
5) The worst of any class.
6) The Bibhītaka tree.
7) The side of a die which is marked with one point. घृतेन कलिं शिक्षामि (ghṛtena kaliṃ śikṣāmi) Av.7.19.1.
8) A hero.
9) An arrow. -f. A bud.
Derivable forms: kaliḥ (कलिः).
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1) An unblown flower; a bud; चूतानां चिरनिर्गताऽपि कलिका बध्नाति न स्वं रजः (cūtānāṃ ciranirgatā'pi kalikā badhnāti na svaṃ rajaḥ) Ś.6.4. किमा- म्रकलिकाभङ्गमारभसे (kimā- mrakalikābhaṅgamārabhase) Ś.6; Ṛs.6.17; R.9.33.
2) A digit. streak.
3) The bottom or peg of the Indian lute.
4) A king of poetic composition (akin to biruda).
Derivable forms: kaliḥ (कलिः).
See also (synonyms): kalikā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kali (कलि).—m. (in this sense = Pali id., but not in Sanskrit), sin, depravity: Mahāvyutpatti 621, 622, see s.vv. Kāyakali-, Vākkali- (Tibetan skyon, normally = doṣa); Divyāvadāna 623.21 (verse, tho printed as prose) pāpakaṃ karma kilviṣaṃ kalir eva ca; Jātakamālā 103.24 kali-paddhatiṃ (surām; kali-bala, the power of evil (text °vala), Daśabhūmikasūtra.g. 52(78).8 °parihāropāya-vidyarddhi- mantaḥ, and 16 vijita-kalivalaughās; kali-mala-pari- pūrṇa- Kāraṇḍavvūha 90.16; sattva-kali-kaluṣair Śikṣāsamuccaya 279.7; rāga- doṣa-moha-kali-kaluṣa-vinodanī Lalitavistara 286.12; kali-pāsu (read °sa? for °śu or °śa, so v.l.) Lalitavistara 371.17 (verse); kali- puruṣa, man of depravity, said of Devadatta, Mahāvastu i.128.14 (mss. kāli°); kali-nṛpa, evil king, Lalitavistara 165.22; kali-rāja(n), id., Divyāvadāna 574.10; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 21.18; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.29.2; (see also s.v. Kaliṅga-rājan;) in Udānavarga viii.4 word-play on the other meaning of kali, bad luck at dice (Chakravarti ignores this), alpamātro hy ayaṃ kalir ya ihākṣeṇa dhanaṃ parājayet, ayam atra mahattaraḥ kalir yaḥ sugateṣu manaḥ pradūṣayet (same verse Pali Sn 659); see also Udānavarga viii.3; often regarded as characteristic of Māra the Evil One, and so [compound] with Māra-: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 481.8 nirjeṣyaty ayaṃ…Māra-kali-cakraṃ (Māra's wheel of depravity) pravartayiṣyaty ayaṃ dharma- cakraṃ; Lalitavistara 180.9 Māra-kali-pāśāṃś (compare Lalitavistara 371.17, above) ca saṃchinatti sma; Māra-kali-vikiraṇa-vinarditam ava- tarāmi Gaṇḍavyūha 206.25; Māra-kali-kleśa-sūdana(ḥ) Gaṇḍavyūha 483.9 (verse), so read with the citation Śikṣāsamuccaya 104.1 (Gaṇḍavyūha text corruptly sudama).
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Kalī (कली).—(?) = Sanskrit kalā, part: Lalitavistara 341.5 (verse). Doubtful; see saṭhaḥ.
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Kāli (कालि).—f. (ka plus āli), ka-series, name for a series of syllables beginning with ka (consonants plus a or ā), used as a magic formula in Sādhanamālā and defined there 478.13 ff. Cf. āli (2).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-liḥ) 1. The fourth age of the world, according to the Hindus, the iron age, or that of vice: the commencement of the Kali-yug or age, is placed 3,101 years anterior to the Cristian æra, so that in A. D. 1896, the Kali year is 4,997, the number of its years is 432,000, at the expiration of which, the world is to be destroyed. 2. The age personified. 3. War, battle. 4. Strife, dissension. 5. An arrow. 6. Beleric myrobalan. f. (-liḥ or -lī) An unblown flower: see kalikā. E. kal to count or reckon, in Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kali (कलि).—i. e. kṛ10 + i, m. 1. A die (ved.). 2. The game at dice personified, [Nala] 6, 14. 3. The fourth age of the world, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 302. 4. Quarrel, Mahābhārata 3, 12282; [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 47. 5. A very wicked king, Mahābhārata 12, 361; 363. 6. The name of an inferior deity, Mahābhārata 1, 2552. 7. A proper name,
Kali (कलि).—1. [masculine] the One-side of a die; the last and worst of the 4 ages of the world; quarrel, strife (personified in all mgs).
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Kali (कलि).—2. [masculine] a class of mythic beings; [Name] of a man, [plural] his race.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kali (कलि):—m. (√1. kal [commentator or commentary] on [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 117]), Name of the die or side of a die marked with one dot, the losing die, [Atharva-veda vii, 109, 1; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. (personified as an evil genius in the episode of Nala)
2) symbolical expression for the number 1
3) Terminalia Bellerica (the nuts of which in older times were used as dice), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) Name of the last and worst of the four Yugas or ages, the present age, age of vice, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti i, 86; ix, 301 f.; Mahābhārata] etc. (the Kali age contains, inclusive of the two dawns, 1200 years of the gods or 432,000 years of men, and begins the eighteenth of February, 3102 B.C.; at the end of this Yuga the world is to be destroyed; See yuga)
5) strife, discord, quarrel, contention (personified as the son of krodha, ‘Anger’, and hiṃsā, ‘Injury’, and as generating with his sister durukti, ‘Calumny.’ two children, viz. bhaya, ‘Fear’, and mṛtyu, ‘Death’ [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 8, 3; 4]), [Mahābhārata; Hitopadeśa] etc.
6) the worst of a class or number of objects, [Mahābhārata xii, 361; 363]
7) a hero (or an arrow, śūra, or śara), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata xiii, 1192]
9) Name of an Upaniṣad (= kalisaṃtaraṇa)
10) (is) Name of a class of mythic beings (related to the Gandharvas, and supposed by some to be fond of gambling; in epic poetry Kali is held to be the fifteenth of the Deva-gandharvas or children of the Munis), [Atharva-veda x, 10, 13; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
11) Name of a man, [Ṛg-veda]
12) f(is, ī). an unblown flower, bud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) Kālī (काली):—[from kāla] a f. black colour, ink or blacking, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] abuse, censure, defamation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] a row or succession of black clouds, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] night, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous fermentation of milk (= kṣīra-kīṭa or kṣāra-kīṭa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] the plant Kālāñjanī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] Ipomoea Turpethum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) [v.s. ...] a kind of clay, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) [v.s. ...] Bignonia suaveolens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) [v.s. ...] one of the seven tongues or flames of fire, [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad i, 2, 4]
23) [v.s. ...] a form of Durgā, [Mahābhārata iv, 195; Harivaṃśa; Kumāra-sambhava]
24) [v.s. ...] one of the Mātṛs or divine mothers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) [v.s. ...] Name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas), [Harivaṃśa 11552]
26) [v.s. ...] one of the sixteen Vidyā-devīs, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
27) [v.s. ...] Name of Satyavatī, wife of king Śāntanu and mother of Vyāsa or Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitra-vīrya, whose widows were married by Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana, and bore to him Dhṛta-rāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]; according to other legends Kālī is the wife of Bhīmasena and mother of Sarvagata, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa])
28) [v.s. ...] (with or without gaṅgā) Name of a river
29) [from kāla] b (f. of 1. kāla q.v.)
30) c See p. 278, col. 1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kali (कलि):—[(liḥ-lī)] 1. m. The iron age; war; strife; an arrow; a hero; myrobalan (liḥ) (lī) 2. 3. f. An unblown flower.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Kali (कलि):—~[yuga], ~[yug] (nm) the kali age, the fourth and the last age of the universe according to the Hindu mythology; (fig.) the age of vice; hence ~[yugī] of or belonging to [kaliyuga].
2) Kalī (कली):—(nf) a bud; gusset, a piece put in a garment; a maiden who has yet to attain youth, an unblossomed maiden.
3) Kālī (काली):—(a) black, dark complexioned; (nf) an epithet of goddess Durga:; —[chāyā] an ominous shadow (foreboding ill); —[jabāna] Cassandra, prophet of ill, an ill-omened tongue; —[mirca] pepper; —[māṃ ke gore bacce] a black hen laying white eggs.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Kali (कलि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kali.
2) Kali (कलि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kali.
3) Kāli (कालि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kālin.
4) Kālī (काली) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kālī.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+388): Kali Bhinta, Kali Bhopali, Kali chhovdas, Kali Dhara, Kali Ghetula, Kali Guli, Kali Jiri, Kali Kathi, Kali Mashi, Kali Miraci, Kali Musali, Kali Panavela, Kali Praja, Kali Ratra, Kali Sala, Kali Sutta, Kali Teri, Kali Tulasa, Kali Vasu, Kali Vela.
Ends with (+178): Acarakali, Ainakali, Ajakali, Akali, Andukali, Arakali, Asakali, Atakali, Atibhadrakali, Avakali, Bahutakali, Bakali, Barakali, Bashkali, Bhadrakali, Bhakali, Bhatukali, Bindukali, Bucakali, Bucukali.
Full-text (+743): Kaliyuga, Yuga, Kalika, Kalidasa, Bhadrakali, Phalahari, Kalipriya, Kalikhajuri, Kalimaraka, Kalivriksha, Kalikala, Kalivilasin, Kalipurana, Kalamma, Kalisamtarana, Manakali, Kalidruma, Gandhakali, Gandakali, Mathekali.
Search found 124 books and stories containing Kali, Kālī, Kāli, Kaḷī, Kalī, Kāḷī, Kaḷi, Kaḻi, Kāḷi; (plurals include: Kalis, Kālīs, Kālis, Kaḷīs, Kalīs, Kāḷīs, Kaḷis, Kaḻis, Kāḷis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Cidgaganacandrika (study) (by S. Mahalakshmi)
Part 1e - Prakāśa and Vimarśa aspects of reality < [Krama system and Trika school]
Verse 235 [Yama is the consecrated King] < [Chapter 4 - Fourth Vimarśa]
Verse 15 [External Manifestations of Bhavāni] < [Chapter 1 - First Vimarśa]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Biography (8): Kātiyāni < [Chapter 45b - Life Stories of Female Lay Disciples]
Biography (17): Soṇa Kuṭikaṇṇa Mahāthera < [Chapter 43 - Forty-one Arahat-Mahatheras and their Respective Etadagga titles]
Biography (4): Kāḷavaḷiya, the Rich Man < [Chapter 45c - Life Stories of Rich Men with Inexhaustible Resources]
Mundaka Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary (by S. Sitarama Sastri)
The Religion and Philosophy of Tevaram (Thevaram) (by M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy)
Nayanar 29: Eyarkon Kalikama (Kalikkama) < [Volume 4.1.1 - A comparative study of the Shaivite saints the Thiruthondathogai]
Chapter 4.3 - (a) Nataraja (the dance of Shiva) < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Chapter 4.3 - (e) Arurar’s references to Dance < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)