Bhuta, Bhūtā, Bhūta: 37 definitions
Bhuta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Bhūta (भूत):—The term bhūta (‘being’), has many meanings:
- In some cases, it means the principal thing, e.g., in such expressions as ‘this Brāhmaṇa woman is the being in this house;’
- sometimes it means ‘ghost;’ e.g., ‘this person is obsessed by a being;’
- sometimes it means the contrary thing; e.g., ‘he says, what is bhūta;’
- sometimes it is used in the sense of the past,—e g., ‘this verb denotes the bhūta;’
- sometimes it stands for particular deities,—e.g., ‘offering to the bhūtas;’
- sometimes it stands for all conscious beings,—e.g., ‘one should not kill bhūtas;’
- sometimes it denotes approach,— ‘our Moon is bhūta, become, large;’
- sometimes it denotes similitude,—e.g., ‘this is kāvya—bhūta, as if it were a poem;’
- and sometimes it means coming into existence,—e.g., ‘Devadatta’s son is bhūta, born.’
(See the Manubhāṣya verse 4.32)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Bhūta (भूत) is a Sanskrit word referring to spirits. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-93, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).
As such, Brahmā assigned the Bhūtas to the railing of seats (beams, dhāraṇī). He also assigned the Bhūtas, the Piśāca, the Yakṣas and the Guhyakas to the pillars of the Mattavāraṇī (two side corridors of the stage used for peripheral acting or partial entry/exit). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.
2) Bhūtas are to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (e.g., to Bhūtas).
3) The masks of the bhūtas should be represented with long hair (lambakeśaka), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Providing masks is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Bhūta (भूत).—Bhūtas are known to be of various colours (varṇa). They are dwarfs with odd faces and may have faces of boars, rams, buffaloes and deer as well.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Bhūta (भूत) refers to “elements”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] O Nārada, after performing the Pentuplication of the Bhūtas, elements and their attributes sound etc., I evolved the gross (sthūla) Ether (nabhas), wind (vāyu), fire (vahni), water (jala) and the Earth (mahī) out of them and created mountains, seas, trees etc. and the periods of time ending with Kali and other ages. I created many other things as well, but O sage, I was not satisfied. Then O sage, I meditated on Śiva and his consort Ambā and created aspirants (sādhaka)”.
2) Bhūta (भूत) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Bhūtas] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.
3) Bhūta (भूत) refers to “living beings”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.43.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Dakṣa:—“O patriarch, listen to another statement of mine with a clear conscience. Although it is based on the qualitative aspect it is esoteric. [...] In that supreme, sole, universal God which is the pure Self, the ignorant sees different living beings (i.e., bhūta—bhedena bhūtāni), Brahman, Īśvara etc.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Bhūta (भूत).—A sage who married two daughters of Dakṣa —Bhūtā and Sarūpā. Had sons; eleven Rudras, besides crores of their attendants.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 2, 17-18.
1b) A son of Pauravī and Vasudeva.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 47.
1c) A name for Prajāpati.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 239.
1d) A member of the Rohiṇī family.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 22.
1e) (also Bhūtapatis)—fierce, and abandoned by those who seek mokṣa; spirits harassing children;1 followers of Rudra (Śiva) some born of sexual union; and some mind-born; belong to the line of Krodhavaśā; vanquished by Rāvaṇa;2 sons of Bhūti and followers of Rudra and Niśācaras; described.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 26; II. 6. 13; IV. 2. 15; VI. 8. 24; IX. 14. 6; X. 6. 27; 66. 34; XI. 10. 28.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 39; III. 7. 256, 359-74; 440; 8. 71; Matsya-purāṇa 8. 5.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 54. 37-43; 69. 242-56.
1f) Five elements—pṛthvī, vāyu, āpa, ākāśa and jyoti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 54; IV. 2. 116.
2a) Bhūtā (भूता).—A wife of Bhūta and a daughter of Dakṣa. Her sons were the Ekādaśa Rudras.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 17.
2b) A daughter of Krodhavaśā (Krodhā, Vāyu-purāṇa.), and a wife of Pulaha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 172; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 205.
Bhūta (भूत) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIV.8.5, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Bhūta) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa, volume 3
Bhūta (भूत).—Bhūta means any being, sentient, insentient, or divine; creatures in general; a spirit, ghost, an imp, a devil. Other meanings of the term refer to ‘an actual occurence’, ‘a fact’ (bhūtārtha), ‘the past’, ‘past-time’, ‘well-being’, ‘welfare’, and a symbolical expression for the number ‘five’. As singular, the word bhūta means any one of the five elements.
The most popular meaning of bhūta is the whole creation, movable or immovable, and empirical beings therein: “a king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred law and smites those worthy of corporal punishment, daily offers (as it were) sacrifices at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees.” (Manusmṛti 8.306)
Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Bhūta (भूत).—lit. what has become or happened. The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परोक्षभूत (parokṣabhūta) or लिट् (liṭ)), (b) past, not of today (अनद्यतनभूत (anadyatanabhūta) or लङ् (laṅ)) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत (sāmānyabhūta) or लुङ् (luṅ)),cf. भूते (bhūte) P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् (parokṣe liṭ) P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् (anadyatane laṅ) P.III.2.111.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Bhūta (भूत):—[bhūtaḥ] Evil spirits or exstrinsic micro-organism
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Bhūta (भूत) refers to “ghosts”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] His body is adorned on the left (by his consort) and he is adorned with a garland of wild flowers. He wears earrings made of snakes and his sacred thread is Vāsuki. The Lord is adorned with tinkling anklets and sits on a ghost in the lotus posture. He is adorned with the five insignia and a garland of severed heads that hangs from his neck up to his feet. He dances with the bliss of wine and is accompanied by heroes and Bhairavas. Sixty-four Yoginīs and great mothers encompass him. He is endowed with sixty-four energies and adorned with ghosts and demons [i.e., bhūta-vetāla-śobhita]. O Śambhu, Bhairava is said to have as his seat (āsana) the Supreme Goddess”.
2) Bhūta (भूत) refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Avyaktapīṭha (i.e., ‘the unmanifest seat’ representing the act of churning—manthāna), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): ..., Lambha, Bhūta, Triśūlāṅka, and Ajara
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Bhūta : A ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude and devour human beings.Source: Ashtanga Yoga: Yoga Sutrani Patanjali
bhūta = the five elements; matter
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Bhuta Thera. The son of a very wealthy councillor of Saketa, his last and only child, the others having been devoured by a Yakkha. The child was, therefore, well guarded at his birth, but the Yakkha had meanwhile gone to wait on Vessavana and had not returned. The boy was called Bhuta so that non humans might protect him. He grew up in great luxury, but, like Yasa, having heard the Buddha preach at Saketa, he entered the Order and dwelt on the banks of the Ajakarani, where he attained arahantship. Later, when visiting his relations, he stayed in the Anjanavana. They besought him to remain there, but this he refused to do.
In the time of Siddhattha Buddha he was a brahmin and, seeing the Buddha, he sang his praises in four verses. Fourteen kappas ago he became king four times under the name of Uggata. Thag.vs.518 26; ThagA.i.493ff.
He is probably identical with Parappasadaka Thera of the Apadana. Ap.i.113f.
2. Bhuta. An officer of Parakkamabahu I. He bore the title Bhandarapotthaki, and later came to be called Adhikari. Cv.lxxii.196; lxxiv. 72, 119, 136; lxxv. 196.
3. Bhuta. The son of a householder of Savatthi, his mother being Tissa and his step mother Matta. PvA.82.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Bhūta (भूत) refers to the “true saṃgha” and represents one of the four types of saṃghas (assemblies) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter VI. Accordingly, “what is the true (bhūta) assembly (saṃgha)? The true assembly is that of the śaikṣas and the aśaikṣas who reside in the four fruits (phala) and practice the four paths leading to them”.
Bhūtas, together with other deities constitute the Asuras, according to chapter XLVI.—Accordingly, “great gods such as the Asuras, Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kumbhāndas, Yakṣas, Rakṣasas, Bhūtas, etc., are Asuras, and when their troops increase, those of the Devas decrease. Their power (anubhāva) and their transformations (nirmāṇa) were exercised at will. The Asura destiny is called thus because the Asuras appear at the head of a list; the others, namely, the Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kuṃbhāṇḍas, Yakṣas, Bhūtas, etc. constitute one and the same destiny with them”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Bhūta (भूत) is the name of a tree mentioned in connection with a Tantric ceremony, according to the Vajraḍākatantra chapter 38.—Five techniques to please Dūtīs as well as the Yogin himself and to enlarge a Yogin’s gentials are introduced. Various kinds of woods and plants in addition to honey and butter are utilized for this purpose. [...] When a Yogin keeps roots of bhūta-tree in his mouth, sexual intoxication comes to him.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
1) Bhūta (भूत) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Bhūtī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Agnicakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the agnicakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Bhūta] are red in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
2) Bhūta (भूत) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Bhūtī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the same work . Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Bhūta] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Bhūta (भूत).—The bhūtas are a group of deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).
2) Bhūta (भूत) is the shorter name of Bhūtadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Bhūtasamudra (or simply Bhūta), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.
Bhūta is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Bhūta (भूत).—A class of vyantara gods;—All Bhūtas are black according to both the sects (Digambara and Śvetāmbara). The Bhūtas are divided into seven classes (according to Digambara):
The Tulasī-plant is their Caitya-tree.
According to Śvetāmbara traditions there are nine classes of Bhūtas:
They are said to be beautiful though black and are peaceful in appearance (saumya), adorned with paste marks of various motifs (bhakti-citra). their flags bear the mark of a Sulasa tree.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
Bhūta (भूत) is a Prakrit ending for deriving proper personal names, mentioned as an example in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning bhūta) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Bhūtā (भूता) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Bhūtā). On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are 4 Ratikara Mountains, having a length and width of 10,000 yojanas, and a height of 1,000 yojanas, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a jhallarī. [...] In them (i.e., the 32 Ratikara Mountains, e.g., Bhūtā) the gods with all their splendor together with their retinues make eight-day festivals in the shrines on the holy days of the holy Arhats”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Bhūta (भूत) refers to the “devil” class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Who are the lords amongst the devil (bhūta) class of peripatetic (forest)celestial beings? Pratirupa and Svarupa are the two lords in the devil class of peripatetic celestial beings.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Bhūta.—(CII 1), a living being. (IE 8-5), the element or nature. (IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. (CII 3, etc.), a fiscal term; cf. sa-bhūta-pāta-pratyāya, in which we have sometimes pātta (mistake for upātta), upātta, āvāta or vāta. See bhūta-pāta, etc. Note: bhūta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
bhūta : (pp. of bhavati) become; existed.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Bhūta, (pp. of bhavati, Vedic etc. bhūta) grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. ‹-› The (exegetical) definition by Bdhgh of the word bhūta is interesting. He (at MA. I, 31) distinguishes the foll. 7 meanings of the term: (1) animate Nature as principle, or the vital aggregates (the 5 Khandhas), with ref. M. I, 260; (2) ghosts (amanussā) Sn. 222; (3) inanimate Nature as principle, or the Elements (the 4 dhātus) S. III, 101 (mahābhūtā); (4) all that exists, physical existence in general (vijjamānaṃ) Vin. IV, 25 (bhūtaṃ); (5) what we should call a simple predicative use, is exemplified by a typical dogmatic example, viz. “kālaghaso bhūto,” where bhūta is given as meaning khīṇāsava (Arahant) J. II, 260; (6) all beings or specified existence, animal kingdom (sattā) D. II, 157; (7) the vegetable kingdom, plants, vegetation (rukkh’ādayo) Vin. IV, 34 (as bhūta-gāma).—Meanings: 1. bhūtā & bhūtāni (pl.) beings, living beings, animate Nature Sn. 35 (explained at Nd2 479 as 2 kinds, viz. tasā & thāvarā, movable & immovable; S. II. 47 (K. S. II. 36) mind and body as come-to-be; Dh. 131 (bhūtāni), 405; M. I, 2 sq. (paṭhavī, āpo etc., bhūtā, devā, Pajāpatī etc.), 4; MA. I, 32. The pl. nt. bhūtāni is used as pl. to meaning 2; viz. inanimate Nature, elements, usually enumerated under term mahā-bhūtāni.—2. (nt.) nature, creation, world M. I, 2 (bhūte bhūtato sañjānāti recognises the beings from nature, i.e. from the fact of being nature); DhsA. 312 (°pasāda-lakkhaṇa, see Expos. 409). See cpds. °gāma, °pubba (?).—3. (nt. adj.) that which is, i.e. natural, genuine, true; nt. truth; neg. abhūta falsehood, lie Sn. 397; PvA. 34. See cpds. °bhāva, °vacana, °vāda.—4. a supernatural being, ghost, demon, Yakkha; pl. bhūtā guardian genii (of a city) J. IV, 245. See cpds. °vijja, °vejja.—5. (-°) pp. in predicative use (cp. on this meaning Bdhgh’s meaning No. 5, above): (a) what has been or happened; viz. mātu-bhūtā having been his mother PvA. 78; abhūtapubbaṃ bhūtaṃ what has never happened before happened (now) DA. I, 43 (in explanation of abbhuta);— (b) having become such & such, being like, acting as, being, quâsi (as it were), consisting of, e.g. andha° blind, as it were J. VI, 139; aru° consisting of wounds DhA. III, 109; udapāna° being a well, a well so to speak PvA. 78; opāna° acting as a spring A. IV, 185; hetu° as reason, being the reason PvA. 58; cp. cakkhu° having become an eye of wisdom. Sometimes bhūta in this use hardly needs to be translated at all.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bhuṭā (भुटा) [or ट्टा, ṭṭā].—m ( H) An ear of Indian corn, a maize-top.
--- OR ---
bhutā (भुता).—m R (Commonly bhutyā) A devotee of the goddess bhavānī.
--- OR ---
bhūta (भूत).—n m (S) A goblin or fiend; a malignant spirit haunting cemeteries, lurking in trees, animating carcasses, and devouring human beings. Sometimes bhūta is applied to a god or the inhering spirit of an idol; as paṇḍharīcēṃ bhūta mōṭhēṃ || bhāvārthīyā jhaḍapī nēṭēṃ ||. (paṇḍharīcēṃ bhūta is the great idol viṭhṭhōbā.) 2 The spirit or shade of a deceased person, a ghost, an apparition. 3 m A demigod of a particular class. 4 n A common term for the five elements, viz. earth, fire, water, air, akash. 5 Any created thing, animate or inanimate; or any material, element, or principle. Ex. sōḷā sūkṣma bhūtādi satrāvā jīva viz. pañcakarmēndriya, pañcajñānēndriya, pañcatanmātrā, mana, jīva. 6 In law. Fact, matter of fact, the actual occurrence or case. 7 A term at sōṅgaṭyā. A killed sōṅgaṭī restored to life and power. bhūta mhaṇatāṃ bhūta lāgatēṃ or lāgāyācēṃ Cry out devil! and a devil enters: cry ghost! and forthwith a ghost. bhutēṃ nācatāta (tyā gharānta-gāvānta-rānānta &c.) A figure expressive of desolation. "The satyr shall dance there &c." Is. xxxiv, 13--15.
--- OR ---
bhūta (भूत).—p (S) Elapsed, past, gone by, been. 2 In comp. Been, become, entered into and standing in the state of. Ex. pātrabhūta, viṣayabhūta, ādhārabhūta, āśrayabhūta, siddhabhūta, sādhanabhūta, kāraṇabhūta, aṅgabhūta, pramāṇabhūta, nimittabhūta, avadhibhūta, maryādābhūta, dravyabhūta, bhārabhūta, sārabhūta, trāsabhūta &c. Become, being, or constituting a vessel, an object, support, protection, an effect, a means, a cause, a member or part, proof or evidence, a reason or an occasion, a term or bound &c. The first member of the compound taking the augment cci, another class of compounds arises; as kāraṇībhūta, pramāṇībhūta, śuddhībhūta, pavitrībhūta, bhasmībhūta, vaśībhūta, dravībhūta, cūrṇībhūta, namrī- bhūta, jaḍībhūta, jarajarībhūta, avayavībhūta, aṅgībhūta, guṇībhūta, gaṇībhūta, āśrayībhūta, arthībhūta, upasarjanībhūta, sādhanībhūta, dhanībhūta, jivanībhūta, grahaṇībhūta, viśēṣaṇī- bhūta &c. Become affected by; become the subject or recipient of; as Become caused or occasioned; become proved or evidenced; become purified or cleansed; reduced to ashes; brought under subjection or government; melted; pulverized; softened; solidified, paralysed, or stupefied; attenuated &c. Such compounds are valuable; but as they are quite numberless, and as their sense and power and the law of their formation are sufficiently apparent from the instances now explained or presented, they will not occur in order. na bhūtō na bhaviṣyati A Sanskrit phrase. It never has been and it never will be.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bhuṭā (भुटा) [-ṭṭā, -ट्टा].—m An ear of Indian corn, a maize-top.
--- OR ---
bhutā (भुता).—A devotee of the goddess bhavānī.
--- OR ---
bhūta (भूत).—p Past. In comp. Been, become, entered into and standing in the state of. Ex. ādhārabhūta, kāraṇabhūta. n m A goblin; a ghost. n An element. Any created thing. bhūta mhaṇatā bhūta lāgāvayācēṃ Cry out devil and a devil enters. Fact.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Bhūta (भूत).—p. p. [bhū-kta]
1) Become, being, existing.
2) Produced, formed.
3) Actually being, really happened, true; भूताश्चार्था विरुद्ध्यन्ति देशकालविरोधिताः (bhūtāścārthā viruddhyanti deśakālavirodhitāḥ) Rām.5.3.37.
4) Right, proper, fit; अभूतेनापवादेन कीर्तीं निपतितामिव (abhūtenāpavādena kīrtīṃ nipatitāmiva) Rām. 5.15.34; भूतार्थव्याहृतिः सा हि न स्तुतिः परमेष्ठिनः (bhūtārthavyāhṛtiḥ sā hi na stutiḥ parameṣṭhinaḥ) R.1.33.
5) Past, gone.
7) Mixed or joined with.
8) Being like, similar, (see bhū); मग्नां द्विषच्छद्मनि पङ्कभूते (magnāṃ dviṣacchadmani paṅkabhūte) Ki.3.39.
-taḥ 1 A son, child.
2) An epithet of Śiva.
3) The fourteenth day of the dark half of a lunar month (also bhūtā).
4) A great devotee.
5) Name of a priest of the gods.
6) The dark fortnight of a month (kṛṣṇapakṣa).
7) see भूतगण (bhūtagaṇa).
-tam 1 Any being (human, divine or even inanimate); इत्थं रतेः किमपि भूतमदृश्यरूपं मन्दीचकार मरणव्यवसायबुद्धिम् (itthaṃ rateḥ kimapi bhūtamadṛśyarūpaṃ mandīcakāra maraṇavyavasāyabuddhim) Ku.4.45; Pt.2. 87.
2) A living being, an animal, a creature; क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते (kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho'kṣara ucyate) Bg.15.16; भूतेषु किं च करुणां बहुली- करोति (bhūteṣu kiṃ ca karuṇāṃ bahulī- karoti) Bv.1.122; U.4.6.
3) A spirit, ghost, an imp, a devil (m. also in these senses); ततो रक्षां महातेजः कुरु भूतविनाशिनीम् (tato rakṣāṃ mahātejaḥ kuru bhūtavināśinīm) Rām.7.66.3.
4) An element; (they are five, i. e. pṛthvī, ap, tejas, vāyu, and ākāśa); तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना (taṃ vedhā vidadhe nūnaṃ mahābhūtasamādhinā) R.1.29.
5) An actual occurrence, a fact, a matter of fact.
6) The past, past time.
7) The world.
8) Well-being, welfare.
9) A symbolical expression for the number 'five'.
1) Fitness, propriety.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Bhūta (भूत) or Ekotī-bhāva.—see ekoti°.
--- OR ---
Bhuta (भुत).—m.c. for Sanskrit (and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]) bhūta, become, etc.; true: (only verses) Lalitavistara 54.3 (but in 53.8 probably read tuma); 197.2 (read sakunā, or śa°, bhutā, with Tibetan); 222.20; Gaṇḍavyūha 334.20.
--- OR ---
Bhūta (भूत).—(1) adj. (compare also abhūta; not unknown in this sense in Sanskrit but quite rare; in Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] very common), true, real, not false (= satya): satyavādī bhū- tavādī Daśabhūmikasūtra 23.21; similarly Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 39.9; bhūtāṃ vācaṃ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 315.2; vācaṃ…bhūtāṃ vābhūtāṃ vā Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 227.6, true or false; mitrāṇi bhūtavādīni na mṛṣāvādīni Lalitavistara 91.7 (in 8 read °vādīni with v.l.); bhūtā Lalitavistara 286.14 (vāc); bhūta- saṃdhāya-vacanaṃ Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 8.11; paśyāmaḥ kiṃ bhūtam abhūtaṃ vā Divyāvadāna 572.20; (sc. dharmasya) bhūtaṃ… artham Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 32.4, true meaning; bhūta-vacano Mahāvastu iii.112.11, whose word is true, i.e. true to his word; pareṣāṃ bhūtān guṇān nodbhāvayati, bhūtaṃ varṇaṃ na bhāṣate Bodhisattvabhūmi 179.4 f.; (ātmabhāvasya) bhūta-varṇā(ḥ), true description, Samādhirājasūtra 22.44; so also bhūtaṃ varṇam Divyāvadāna 229.3; bhūtena varṇena Mahāvastu iii.344.5; bhūtāḥ putrā(ḥ) Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 110.3 and 5, true, real sons (bhagavato, or tathāgatasya); bhūta- kalyāṇamitra- Gaṇḍavyūha 122.7, and °trāṇi Śikṣāsamuccaya 2.6, true ‘good friends’ (also bhūta-nayānuśāsanyupasaṃhāraḥ Śikṣāsamuccaya 2.6); (sa bodhisattvaḥ) pratirūpakaś ca bhavati, no tu bhūto [Page410-b+ 71] bodhisattvaḥ Bodhisattvabhūmi 159.8, he is a counterfeit bodhisattva, not a true one; (ayaṃ) sa bhūto (true) bodhisattvānāṃ… vīryārambha iyaṃ sā bhūtā tathāgatapūjā Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 408.1; bhūtaṃ (phalavipākaṃ, acc. sg.) Mahāvastu i.207.14 = ii.12.4; bhūtaṃ padaṃ śāntam anāsravaṃ ca…prakāśayanti Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 24.17 (verse), they make known the true place (state), calm, free from impurities (i.e. enlightenment, presumably); adverbs, bhūtaṃ truly, in truth, śmaśānamadhye vasito 'smi bhūtaṃ Lalitavistara 206.2 (verse); bhūtataḥ Śikṣāsamuccaya 47.6, according to truth; (2) (nt., = Pali id.), vegetable: bījagrāma-bhūta- grāma-vināśanaṃ Mahāvyutpatti 8431, and °bhūtagrāma-pātanāt [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 504.11 (compare Pali bhūta-gāma, Vin. iv.34.34), all sorts of vegetables. See next.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Been, become. 2. Being, existing. 3. Gone, past. 4. (In composition,) Like, resembling. 5. Obtained, got. 6. Pro- per, right. 7. True. 8. Known. 9. Mixed. mn.
(-taḥ-taṃ) 1. A goblin, a ghost, a malignant spirit, haunting cemeteries, lurking in trees, animating carcases and deluding or devouring human beings. 2. A living being. m.
(-taḥ) 1. A son, a child. 2. A demi-god of a particular class. 3. The fourteenth day of the dark half of the lunar month. 4. A name of Siva. n. (-ta) 1. An element; five Bhutas are enumerated: earth, fire, water, air and Akas or æther. 2. (In law,) Fact, matter of fact, the real state of the case, or what has actually been. 3. The past. 4. Welfare. 5. The world. 6. The number “five,” (in math.) E. bhū to be, aff. kta of the participle past.
--- OR ---
(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Hired, paid, maintained. 2. Cherished, supported. 3. Filled. 4. Having, being possessed of, or endowed with. 5. Borne, carried. m.
(-taḥ) 1. A servant. 2. A hired labourer. E. bhṛ to nourish, aff. kta.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhūta (भूत).—[adjective] become, either been, past, gone, former; or being (often —°), present, real.
— [masculine] [Name] of a Yakṣa etc. [neuter] being, creature, the world; ghost, goblin, demon ([masculine]); the past, fact, reality, welfare, prosperity; element (ph.). — Abstr. tā† [feminine], tva† [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhūta (भूत):—[from bhū] mf(ā)n. become, been, gone, past (n. the past), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] actually happened, true, real (n. an actual occurrence, fact, matter of fact, reality), [Yājñavalkya; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] existing, present, [Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra]
4) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) being or being like anything, consisting of, mixed or joined with, [Prātiśākhya; Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc. (also to form [adjective (cf. [masculine, feminine and neuter; or adjective])] out of [adverb], e.g. ittham-, evam-, tathā-bh)
5) [v.s. ...] purified, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] obtained, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] fit, proper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] often [wrong reading] for bhṛta
9) [v.s. ...] m. a son, child, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] a great devotee or ascetic, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of an heretical sect (with Jainas, a class of the Vyantaras), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] of a priest of the gods, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasu-deva and Pauravī, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
15) [v.s. ...] of a son-in-law of Dakṣa and father of numerous Rudras, [ib.]
16) [v.s. ...] of a Yakṣa, [Catalogue(s)]
17) Bhūtā (भूता):—[from bhūta > bhū] f. the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month, [Skanda-purāṇa] ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also m.)
18) [v.s. ...] Name of a woman, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]
19) Bhūta (भूत):—[from bhū] n. (cf. above) that which is or exists, any living being (divine, human, animal, and even vegetable), the world (in these senses also m.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
20) [v.s. ...] a spirit (good or evil), the ghost of a deceased person, a demon, imp, goblin (also m.), [Gṛhya-sūtra; Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 241])
21) [v.s. ...] an element, one of the 5 elements ([especially] a gross el° = mahā-bh q.v.; but also a subtle el° = tan-mātra q.v.; with Buddhists there are only 4 el°), [Upaniṣad; Sāṃkhyakārikā; Vedāntasāra] etc.
22) [v.s. ...] Name of the number ‘five’ (cf. mahā-bh and pāñcabhautika)
23) [v.s. ...] well-being, welfare, prosperity, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhūta (भूत):—[(taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Been; gone; obtained; true. m. n. A goblin; living being. m. A demigod; a son; Shiva. n. An element, fact.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Bhūta (भूत) [Also spelled bhut]:—(a) past; bygone; (nm) a ghost; an evil spirit; matter; one of the five elements ([pṛthvī]-the earth, [jala]-the water; [vāyu]-the air, [pāvaka]-the fire, and [ākāśa] -the ether); any animate or inanimate object of creation; the past tense (also~[kāla]); a suffix which means 'become' 'turned' or 'rendered' (as [ghanībhūta, puṃjībhūta); ~kāla] the past tense; ~[kālika] pertaining to the past or past tense; •[kṛdaṃta] past participle; ~[nātha] an epithet of Lord Shiv; -[pūjā] demonolatry; ~[pūrva] ex, former; past; previous; -[preta] evil spirits, ghosts; ~[bāḍī] a haunted house; -[bādhā] obsession of evil spirits, (under) ghostly influence; ~[yoni] demonic existence, existence as an evil spirit; ~[vidyā] ghostology; demonology; —[utāranā] to exorcise; to drive off an evil spirit; —[kā ḍerā] an abode of ghost, a haunted place; —[kī taraha juṭa jānā] to work like a demon; —[caḍhanā, -savāra honā, -laganā] to be possessed by an evil spirit, to be obsessed; —[banakara laganā] to obsess; to haunt like a ghost; —[savāra honā, kisī bāta kā] to be crazy after; to be thoroughly obsessed by; —[savāra honā, sira para] to be under an obsession, to be possessed by; to be under a terrible emotional pressure.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] gone; past.
2) [adjective] actually happened; true; real.
3) [adjective] proper; appropriate.
4) [adjective] consisted of; mixed, associated with.
5) [adjective] similar; equal; like.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] something that actually exists or existed; reality; truth; fact.
2) [noun] that which took place, happened or was.
3) [noun] a thing that has been got, obtained or received.
4) [noun] Śiva.
5) [noun] a class of attendants of Śiva.
6) [noun] any of or collectively all, the living beings.
7) [noun] the disembodied soul of a dead person, supposed to be wandering and haunt human being; a ghost.
8) [noun] (esp.) such a soul of a person who died in fire.
9) [noun] the phenomenal world.
10) [noun] a class of demi-gods.
11) [noun] that which is gone, slipped or past.
12) [noun] any of the nine astrological planets.
13) [noun] an elderly and respectable man.
14) [noun] (phil.) any of the five basic elements which constitute all the physical matter in the phenomenal world.
15) [noun] (adj.) the quality or fact of being of extraordinary or unusual size.
16) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number five.
17) [noun] (gram.) the past tense.
18) [noun] ಭೂತ ಮೆಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳು [bhuta mettukollu] bhūta meṭṭikoḷḷu = ಭೂತ ಹಿಡಿ [bhuta hidi]; ಭೂತ ಹಿಡಿ [bhuta hidi] bhūta hiḍi (an evil spirit) to possess a person.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+346): Bhuta-bhavishyad-vartamana-nihshesha-adatya-sahita, Bhuta-kotya, Bhuta-parivena, Bhuta-pata, Bhuta-pata-pratyaya, Bhuta-pratyaya, Bhuta-thera, Bhuta-upatta-pratyaya, Bhuta-vata-pratyaya, Bhutabadha, Bhutabalagrahonmada, Bhutabali, Bhutabhagya, Bhutabhairava, Bhutabhairavatantra, Bhutabhartar, Bhutabhartri, Bhutabharttri, Bhutabhasha, Bhutabhashamaya.
Ends with (+463): Abbhuta, Abhajanabhuta, Abhibhuta, Abhimukhibhuta, Abhinavibhuta, Abhisambhuta, Abhubhuta, Abhuta, Abhyadbhuta, Abhyantaribhuta, Adbhuta, Adharabhuta, Adharibhuta, Adhibhuta, Adibhuta, Adubhuta, Adyatanabhuta, Agnishomabhuta, Agunibhuta, Aikyabhuta.
Full-text (+1301): Bhutapurnima, Bhutavasa, Bhuteshta, Bhutejya, Bhutakranti, Bhutesha, Bhutanayika, Bhutapushpa, Atmabhuta, Bhutadi, Bhutasana, Bhutavinayaka, Bhutacarin, Bhutabhrit, Bhutasrishti, Dhavalibhuta, Bhutagrama, Vivadaspadibhuta, Bhutabhava, Citrabhuta.
Search found 130 books and stories containing Bhuta, Bhuṭā, Bhūtā, Bhūta, Bhutā; (plurals include: Bhutas, Bhuṭās, Bhūtās, Bhūtas, Bhutās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CCCXII < [Mokshadharma Parva]
Section XXXVII (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XIII) < [Bhagavat-Gita Parva]
Section XXXIII (Bhagavad Gita Chapter IX) < [Bhagavat-Gita Parva]
The Religion and Philosophy of Tevaram (Thevaram) (by M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy)
The Pey, Putam and Paritam (different sorts of Ganas, attendants) < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Chapter 4.4 - Cosmogony in the Tevaram < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Chapter 4.6 - (a) Weapons and Ornaments of Shiva < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 19: The Vyantaras < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 31: Description of Nandīśvara < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 10: Reason for the death of sons < [Chapter VI - Emancipation of Ajita Svāmin and Sagara]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)