Vayu, aka: Vāyu; 30 Definition(s)
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
- Relevant definitions
- Relevant text
Vayu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)
This vital Vāyu (nerve force), which courses through the body, is self-begotten in its origin, and is regarded as identical with the divine energy of eternal life (God), inasmuch as it is unconditional and absolute in its actions and effects, eternal and self-origined, and is subtile and all-pervading (like the sky and the atoms). It is the primary factor, which determines the principle of cause and effect in all forms of created things, whether mobile or immobile. It is so called (Vāyu) from the fact of its coursing (skr. Vā—to move) throughout the universe.
It determines the growth, origin and disintegration of all animated organisms, and as such, it receives the homage of all created beings. Although invisible in itself, yet its works are patent or manifest. It is cold, light, mobile, dry and piercing, and follows a transverse course. It is characterised by the two attributes (proper-sensibles or Gunas) of sound and touch. It abounds in the fundamental quality of Rajas (principle of cohesion and action), is of inconceivable prowess, propels all the deranged or obstructing prinicples (Doshas) in the organism, (or in other words, is primarily concerned with the deranged principles of the body which are pathogenic in their actions).
It is instantaneous in its action, and radiates or courses through the organism in constant currents. It has its primary field of action in the intestinal tract (Pakvādhāna) and the rectum (Guda). In its deranged state, it is the principal factor, which, (in combination with the deranged Pittam and Kapham), lies at the root of all diseases, and is accordingly termed the king of diseases (Rogarāt).Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume II
The term Vayu may not only be rightly interpreted to mean the nerve force, but is often extended to include any kind of electro-motor or molecular force (as when we speak of the Vayu of the soil), though the term is loosely applied now to signify gas or air.
The Vāyu is a self-origined principle in the human organism.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Deva-vibhāvana (hands that indicate the forms which accord with the character and actions of Brahmā and other Devas).—Vayu: left hand–Ardha-patāka, right hand–Arāla.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Vāyu (वायु, “air”):—One of the five gross elements assigned as a zone (or sphere) to the human body (bhūtamaṇḍala), according the Yogatattva-upaniṣad. The element air is seated between the heart and the eyebrows. Air is represented by a hexagon (ṣaṭkoṇa), the colour black (kṛṣṇa) and the syllable ya (य). The deity presiding over this region is Īśvara.Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Air (वायु, vāyu) is one of the five primary elements (pañcabhūta) forming the basic components of the world, according to Vāstu-śāstra literature. It is because of the presence and balance of these five elements that our planet thrives with life.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Vāyu (वायु).—One of the eight guardians of the world. (Dikpālakas). General information. Vāyu was born from the breath of Viśvapuruṣa. (Ṛgveda 10, 90). Tvaṣṭā was the son in-law of Vāyu. The eight dikpālakas are Indra, Vahni (Fire), Yama, Nirṛti, Varuṇa, Vāyu, Kubera and Śiva. Vāyu is the guardian of the North West zone. The palace of Bhagavān Vāyu is known as Gandhavatī. (See full article at Story of Vāyu from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Vāyu (वायु).—An ancient hermit of India. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Stanza 9, that this hermit visited Bhīṣma on his bed of arrows.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Vāyu (वायु).—A God and father of Ilā;1 and Mudā clan of Apsarasas: presented Pṛthu with cāmaras worshipped through prāṇāyama in Śākadvīpa;2 A Lokapāla and father of Bhīma. Took part in the Devāsura wars and killed the Asuras. Deprived of his force by the Asuras;3 set out on a black antelope against Kṛṣṇa taking pārijāta, but returned afraid of him;4 his city was visited by Arjuna in search of the dead child of a Dvārakā Brāhmaṇa;5 Born of Ākāśa: the wind-god loved Añjanā and gave birth to Hanumān: overlord of the winds, formless creatures and of time. Presiding deity of Bhuvarloka and hence Bhuvaspati (also Mātariśva). Addressed by the sages engaged in sacrifice to speak on lokāloka;6 narrates the fourth pāda of the brahmāṇḍa purāṇa,7 reported to Umā in penance of a lady in her chamber little knowing her to be Ādi in disguise;8 worship of;9 Icon of, mounted on a black deer,10 a sthāna of Rudra;11 father of Manojava and Bhīma;12 Kṛṣṇa's messenger to Indra.13
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 10. 2; 14. 26.
- 2) Ib. V. 15. 15; 20. 27.
- 3) Ib. VIII. 5. 19; 10. 26; 11. 1 and 42; IX. 22. 27. Matsya-purāṇa 31. 12; 46. 9. 266. 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 244.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [65 (v) 44]: [66 (v) 27-32]; Matsya-purāṇa 148. 60-61.
- 5) Ib. X. 89. 44; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 33. 67.
- 6) Ib. II. 20. 1 and 7; 25. 5-14; III. 7. 23, 224-5, 296; 8. 12; IV. 2. 20; 195-7, 212, 245-6.
- 7) Ib. IV. 1. 227; 4. 44.
- 8) Matsya-purāṇa 156. 39.
- 9) Ib. 236, 5; 253. 24; 265. 39 and 41. 268. 12.
- 10) Ib. 261. 19; 289. 6.
- 11) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 7.
- 12) Ib. I. 8. 11; IV. 20. 40.
- 13) Ib. V. 21. 14-17; 37. 16-28.
1c) A Vasu: a son of Dharma and Sudevī.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 47.
1e) A tirtha sacred to, in the Sarasvatī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 22.
Vāyu (वायु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.40) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vāyu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)
Vāyu (वायु, “air”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings. Vāyu is also regarded as one of the five bhūtas (‘elements’) possessing a specific quality making it cognizable.Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Vāyu (वायु, “air”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Vāyu is the fourth dravya. Annaṃbhaṭṭa says that air possesses the quality of touch and is devoid of colour. If it is said that air is only devoid of colour, then the definition will be over-pervasive to the ākāśa as ākāśa is also devoid of colour. To remove this over-pervasiveness, it is defined as possessing touch (sparśavat), ākāśa as is not touchable. Again if air (vāyu) is defined as possessing touch only, then it will be over-pervasive to pṛthivī (earth), ap (water) and tejas (light).Therefore, vāyu is defined without colour. Pṛthivī, ap etc. are possessed of touch but not without colour.
Just like earth, water and fire, air (vāyu) is also two-fold–eternal and noneternal. The atoms of air are eternal and composite aerial substances are non-eternal. Again non-eternal is divided into three kinds–body (śarīra), sense-organ (indriya) and object (viṣaya). Body is found in the world of wind-God. Organ is that through which one feels touch and it is stretched over the whole body. Objects are the cause of the shaking of trees. There is another variety of air, which is called breath. In the sight, it is nothing but this wind is moving inside the body. According to Praśastapāda, breath is the fourth kind of vāyu. It is different from the body, sense-organ and object. But Annaṃbhaṭṭa includes this breath under objects. The five types of breath are prāṇa, apāna, samāna, udāna and vyāna.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Vāyu (वायु) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Vāyunṛsiṃha or Vāyunarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Vāyu (वायु) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the northern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Vāyu).Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Vāyu (वायु).—Air or प्राण (prāṇa), which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; cf. प्राणो वणीनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते (prāṇo vaṇīnabhivyajya varṇeṣvevopalīyate) Vakyapadiya I.116;cf. also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Vāyu (वायु) is one of the Aṣṭadikpālaka (“eight guardians of the directions”), as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In dance, when the right hand of the dancer assumes arāla-hasta and the left hand of the dancer assumes ardhapatāka-hasta, it is vāyu-hasta. In iconography, both the hands of Vāyu hold flags. Therefore, there is similarity in the hasta used in dance and the position of the hands found in the deity Vāyu. But the figure of Vāyu chiseled is found in kartarīmukha-hasta. Thus, if the dancer uses the kartarīmukha-mudrā then it would be more apt. These deities are believed to have appeared in sculptures first and then came into dancing forms. If that is the case, then it would be better to adapt the apt mudrās found in the icons while presenting it in dance.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Vāyu (वायु, “air”):—The Lord of the wind;—In Vedic hinduism, he is the regent of the north-western direction and represents the cosmic life breath. He is the universal “spirit” (the impeller of life and the living). He is also the substance and the essence of speech (vāc). As a Vedic deity, he is also the messenger of the gods and the leader of sacrifices. He is known by other names, eg. Vāta, Marut, Anila or Pāvana. He has a son named Hanumān.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Vāyu (वायु, “wind”) refers to one of the devatāpañcaka (fivefold divinities), defined in the Taittirīya-āraṇyaka 7.7.1. The devatāpañcaka, and other such fivefold divisions, are associated with the elemental aspect (adhibhūta) of the three-fold division of reality (adhibhūta, adhidaiva and adhyātma) which attempts to explain the phenomenal nature of the universe. Adhibhūta denotes all that belongs to the material or elemental creation.
The Taittirīya-āraṇyaka is associated with the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda and dates from at least the 6th century BCE. It is composed of 10 chapters and discusses vedic rituals and sacrifices (such as the mahāyajña) but also includes the Taittirīya-upaniṣad and the Mahānārāyaṇa-upaniṣad.Source: Wisdom Library: Āraṇyaka
Vayu is one of the principal Devas, and is responsible for the wind. He is very powerful, capable of blowing away mountains with his mighty gusts. His wife is Anjala, and he had many sons. The most famous of those sons is Hanuman, followed by Bheema, whom he begat on Kunti.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Vayu (वायु): The god of air and wind who is also father of Bhima and Hanuman.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
A deity, whose son was Vijjadhara. See the Samugga Jataka.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Vāyu (वायु) refers to the element “wind”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIX.—Accordingly, “some say that, of the four great elements (mahābhūta), the power of the wind (vāyu) is the greatest. Having neither form (rūpa) nor odor (gandha) nor taste (rasa), its mobility (īraṇā) is very great. Just as space (ākāśa) is infinite, so wind too is infinite. The success or failure of giving birth depends on wind. The power (prabhāva) of the great winds shakes the mountains of the trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadhātu. This is why the Buddha says here that the Bodhisattva who wishes to stop the force of the winds with one finger should practice the perfection of wisdom. Why? Because the true nature (dharmatā) of the Prajñāpāramitā is immense (apramāṇa) and infinite (ananta), it can make the finger have such strength”.
By cultivating the Prajñāpāramitā, this great earth (mahāpṛthivī) is reduced to its subtle atoms (paramāṇu). Because the earth element (pṛthivī) possesses color (rūpa), odor (gandha), taste (rasa) and touch (spraṣṭavya), it is heavy (guru) and does not have activity (kriyā) on its own.—Because the water (ap-) element has no taste (rasa), it is superior to earth by means of its movement (calana).—Because the fire (tejas) element has neither odor (gandha) nor taste (rasa), it is superior to water (ap) in its power (prabhāva).—Because the wind (vāyu) element is neither visible (rūpa) nor has it any taste (rasa) or touch (spraṣṭavya), it is superior to fire by means of its movement (īraṇa).—The mind (citta) which has none of these four things [color, taste, smell and touch] has a still greater power.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Vāyu (वायु) refers to the last of the “eight world protectors” (aṣṭalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 8). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., aṣṭalokapāla and Vāyu). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Vāyu (“windy”) refers to one of the “eleven tangibles” (spraṣṭavya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 38).Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
General definition (in Jainism)
Vāyu (वायु, “air”) refers to one of the five types of immobile beings (sthāvara), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.13. The sthāvara is a type of empirical (saṃsārī) soul, or sentient (jīva). The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘stationery-body-making karma’/ sthāvara-nāmakarma, having only one type of sense organ namely body and which cannot move around freely are called with stationery bodies (sthāvara), eg., jala.
What is the meaning of air (vāyu)? The crust/layer of the air having no consciousness is called air. What is meant by air-bodied living beings? These are the living beings that have air as their body. How many types of air are there? Four types of air namely air, air bodied, life in air body and life tending towards an air body.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Vāyu.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘fortynine’. Note: vāyu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
vāyu : (nt.) wind; the mobile principle.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Vāyu, (Vedic vāya, fr. vā: vāyati2) wind Miln. 385; PvA. 156. See next. (Page 609)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
vāyu (वायु).—m (S) Wind or air. 2 The deity-personification of wind or air. 3 A vital air of the animal system: also the vital airs collectively. 4 Air considered as one of the humors (vāyu or vāta, kapha, pitta): also disease attributed to the predominance of this humor; viz. flatulence, rheumatism, spasm, cramp &c. Ex. of comp. unmattavāyu, tridōṣavāyu, dhanurvāyu, sandhivāyu, jñānavāyu vāyu sōḍaṇēṃ or mōkaḷā karaṇēṃ To break wind: and -saraṇēṃ or mōkaḷā hōṇēṃ To burst forth or escape. For other phrases see the popular word vārā.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vāyu (वायु).—m Wind or air. Flatulence. Vital airs of the animal system. vāyu sōḍaṇēṃ-mōkaḷā karaṇēṃ Break wind; and saraṇēṃ-mōkaḷā hōṇēṃ Burst forth or escape.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Vāyu (वायु).—[vā uṇ yuk ca Uṇ.1.1]
1) Air, wind; वायुर्विधूनयति चम्पकपुष्परेणून् (vāyurvidhūnayati campakapuṣpareṇūn) K. R.; आकाशात्तु विकुर्वाणात् सर्वगन्धवहः शुचिः । बलवाञ्जायते वायुः स वै स्पर्शगुणो मतः (ākāśāttu vikurvāṇāt sarvagandhavahaḥ śuciḥ | balavāñjāyate vāyuḥ sa vai sparśaguṇo mataḥ) || Ms.1.76. (There are seven courses of wind one above the other :āvahaḥ pravaha- ścaiva saṃvahaścodvahastathā | vivahākhyaḥ parivahaḥ parāvaha iti kramāt ||).
2) The god of wind, the deity supposed to preside over wind, (who is the regent of the north-west quarter).
3) A life-wind or vital air, of which five kinds are enumerated:-प्राण, अपान, समान, व्यान (prāṇa, apāna, samāna, vyāna) and उदान (udāna).
4) Morbid affection or vitiation of the windy humour.
5) Breathing, breath.
6) A mystical Name of the letter य (ya).
Derivable forms: vāyuḥ (वायुः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Samānavāyu (समानवायु):—A Sanskrit technical term referring to “stimulating digestive f...
Vāyuvartman (वायुवर्त्मन्).—m. (-rtmā) The atmosphere, sky, heaven. E. vāyu, vartman path or ro...
Vāyusakha (वायुसख).—m. (-khaḥ) Fire. E. vāyu wind, sakhi friend, aff. ṭac; also without the aff...
Search found 116 books and stories containing Vayu, Vāyu; (plurals include: Vayus, Vāyus). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 9 - Prāṇa and its Control < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Part 6 - Vedāntic Cosmology < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 8 - Vāyu, Pitta and Kapha < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 2: Nidanasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Vedānta-sūtras Part II (by George Thibaut)
III, 3, 43 < [Third Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
IV, 3, 2 < [Fourth Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
II, 3, 8 < [Second Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CXLVI - Description of the Nidanam of all the diseases < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CLXI - The Nidanam of Ascited etc < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXXXV - The mode of Practising the Great Yoga < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Laghu-yoga-vasistha (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
Part 6 - The Story of Uddālaka < [Chapter V - Upaṣānti-prakaraṇa]
Part 1 - The Story of Bhuśuṇḍa < [Chapter VI - Nirvāṇa-prakaraṇa]
Part 4 - The Story of Śilā, Granite < [Chapter VI - Nirvāṇa-prakaraṇa]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XX - Causes and symptoms of Ear-disease < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter XXII - Causes and symptoms of diseases of the nose < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter XXV - Symptoms of diseases of the head < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]