Sumukha: 27 definitions


Sumukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Sumukha is one of the two dvārapālakas (of the shrine of Subrahmaṇya), the other being Sudeha. Both of these are said to be brāhmaṇas. They should be represented with one face and two or four arms. If they possess two arms only, the right hand should be held in the abhaya pose and the left hand should keep a gadā. If they have four arms, the back hands should keep in them the vajra and the śakti and the front hands as in the case of the two-armed figure. One of these should be of red complexion and the other black; they must be adorned with all ornaments and should have side-tusks. Their head must have the karaṇḍa-makuṭas. Sudeha should be to the right and Sumukha to the left of the entrance.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Sumukha (सुमुख):—One of the eight guardians of Vaikuṇṭha, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These eight guardians are part of the celestial entourage of Viṣṇu.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sumukha (सुमुख) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of aquatic bird (“laughing gull”). The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Sumukha is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Sumukha (सुमुख) refers to “bright-faced”, and is mentioned in verse 2.26 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “(One shall be) smiling (all) over the face [sumukha], greeting first, amiable in conduct, and soft with pity; one shall not be happy alone, nor (shall one be) trustful and afraid of everybody”.

Note: Sumukha (“bright-faced”) has been rendered by bźin ’dzum (“smiling (all) over the face”) and suśīla (“well-conducted”) by spyod-pa bzaṅ (“amiable in conduct”).

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Sumukha (सुमुख) (lit. “one who has a beautiful face”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Sumukha (सुमुख) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 57. The temple is mentioned as one of the twenty temples being a favorite of Viṣṇu. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

1) Sumukha (सुमुख) is the name of a gaṇa (attendant of Śiva), mentioned in the Skandapurāṇa 4.2.53. In this chapter, Śiva (Giriśa) summons his attendants (gaṇas) and ask them to venture towards the city Vārāṇasī (Kāśī) in order to find out what the yoginīs, the sun-god, Vidhi (Brahmā) were doing there.

While the gaṇas such as Sumukha were staying at Kāśī, they were desirous but unable of finding a weakness in king Divodaśa who was ruling there. Kāśī is described as a fascinating place beyond the range of Giriśa’s vision, and as a place where yoginīs become ayoginīs, after having come in contact with it. Kāśī is described as having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

2) Sumukha (सुमुख, “beautiful-face”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Sumukhavināyaka, Sumukhagaṇeśa and Sumukhavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Sumukha is positioned in the South-western corner of the seventh circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Near no. 50 (pramoda), CK 35 / 7”. Worshippers of Sumukha will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the giver of beautiful face and relaxation”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18661, Lon. 83.00632 (or, 25°11'11.8"N, 83°00'22.8"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Sumukha, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A nāga, son of Kaśyapa Prajāpati by his wife Kadrū. Sumukha was the grandson of the nāga called Āryaka of the Airāvata dynasty and his mother was the daughter of Vāma. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 24). For the story about the marriage of Sumukha with Guṇakeśī, daughter of Mātali see under Guṇakeśī.

2) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A King who made many presents to Yudhiṣṭhira. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51).

3) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A son of Garuḍa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 2).

4) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A bird in the lineage of Garuḍa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Sumukha (सुमुख) refers to a “sweet face”, and is used to described the Goddess of wind (Vāyudevatā) according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Kāma (God of Love) reached the vicinity of Śiva, Spring spread all his splendour in accord with the inclination of the lord. [...] The lotus flowers shone in the lakes. The goddess wind (Vāyudevatā) endeavoured to fascinate people with her sweet face (sumukha)”.

2) Sumukha (सुमुख) refers to “one of sweet face” and is used to describe Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.48 (“Description of Marriage of Śiva and Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] On hearing these words of Himavat, Śiva of sweet face (sumukha), turned His face away. He without sorrow attained a pitiable plight. When lord Śiva stood thus unable to say anything in reply and was seen so by the gods, sages, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, and Siddhas, O Nārada, you did something laughable. Urged by Śiva mentally O Nārada, you, the knower of Brahman with mind fixed in Śiva, played on your Vīṇā. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A Kādraveya nāga.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 35.

1b) A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 242.

1c) A Vighnanāyaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 27. 81; 44. 68.

1d) A son of Suhotri, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 127.

1e) A Nāga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 71.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sumukha (सुमुख) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.101.23/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sumukha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Sumukha (सुमुख) refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Pūrṇagiri or Pūrṇapīṭha (which is located in the northern quarter), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight guardians: Agnijihva, Pralamba, Vidyādhipa, Viśeśvara, Sumukha, Mahāmuṇḍa, Mahodara, Pinākin.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Sumukha (सुमुख, “beautiful face”):—One of the six sons of Garuḍa (vehicle of Viṣṇu) and his wife Unnati, according to the Purāṇas. Garuḍa represents the mantras of the Vedas which carry the Lord of Sacrifices.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Sumukha. A Yakkha chief, to be invoked in time of need by followers of the Buddha. D.iii.205.

2. Sumukha. A crow, general of Supatta. See the Supatta Jataka. He is identified with Sariputta. J.ii.436.

3. Sumukha. A swan, general of a flock of swans whose king was Dhatarattha. See the Hamsa Jataka (No. 502) and Mahahamsa Jataka (No. 534). He is identified with Ananda. J.iv.430; v.382.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Sumukha (सुमुख) is the name of an ancient king from Vatsa, according to chapter 6.7 [śrī-munisuvratanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“After falling from there he became an Arhat in the Harivaṃśa. Hence the origin of the line is told first. It is as follows: In the zone Bhārata of Jambūdvīpa there is the city Kauśāmbī, ornament of the country Vatsa. Its king was Sumukha, by whose glories like fragrant sandal-paste the face of the heavens was adorned. His command was not to be transgressed by kings, like a jungle by serpents, and his power became unique like that of Vajrapāṇi. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sumukha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sumukha : (adj.) of good features.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख).—a.

-khā or -khī f.)

Sumukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख).—(1) (= Pali id., 1 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)), name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 237.2; (2) name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 247.35; (3) name of a kiṃnara king: Kāraṇḍavvūha 3.1; (4) (= Pali id., 3 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)) name of a general of the haṃsa king Dhṛtarāṣṭra: Jātakamālā 128.4 ff.; (5) nt., name of a city in the south: Gaṇḍavyūha 131.4.

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Sumukhā (सुमुखा).—name of a capital city (rājadhānī): Gaṇḍavyūha 205.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख).—mfn.

(-khaḥ-khā or -khī-khaṃ) 1. Pleasing, agreeable. 2. Lovely, handsome-faced. m.

(-khaḥ) 1. The son of Garuda. 2. One of the serpents of Patala. 3. A kind of potherb. 4. A Pand'it, a learned man or teacher. 5. Ganesa. n.

(-khaṃ) The mark or scratch of a fingernail. f. (-khī) A species of the Trishtub'h-metre. f. (-khā or -khī) 1. A handsome woman. 2. A mirror. E. su excellent, mukha countenance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख).—I. n. a beautiful mouth, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 202. Ii. adj., f. khā and khī. 1. handsome-faced. 2. pleasing, propitious, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 55, 20. Iii. m. 1. a teacher. 2. a proper name, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 41. Iv. n. the scratch of a finger-nail.

Sumukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख).—1. [neuter] a beautiful mouth.

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Sumukha (सुमुख).—2. [feminine] ī (ā) [adjective] handsome-faced, cheerful, friendly, kind; disposed or willing to (—°); [Name] of a serpent-demon, an Asura, a king, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sumukha (सुमुख):—[=su-mukha] [from su > su-ma] n. a good or beautiful mouth, [Pañcatantra]

2) [v.s. ...] a bright face ([instrumental case] = ‘cheerfully’), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

3) [v.s. ...] mf(ī or ā)n. having a good or beautiful mouth, fair-faced, handsome, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) [v.s. ...] bright-faced, cheerful, glad, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] mf(ī or ā)n. inclined or disposed to ([compound]; -tā f.), [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Par.]

6) [v.s. ...] mf(ī or ā)n. gracious, favourable, kind to ([genitive case]), [Rāmāyaṇa; Caraka]

7) [v.s. ...] well pointed (as an arrow), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] having a good entrance (in this and other [figuratively] senses the fem. is only ā), [Siddhānta-kaumudī; Vopadeva]

9) [v.s. ...] m. a learned man or teacher, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ‘a kind of herb, Ocimum Basilicum Pilosum and another species’ etc.), [Suśruta; Caraka]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] gregarious bird ([varia lectio] sumukhā), [Caraka]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] of Gaṇeśa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Garuḍa (a mythical bird), [Mahābhārata]

15) [v.s. ...] of a son of Droṇa, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

17) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa]

18) [v.s. ...] of a king of the Kiṃ-naras, [Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]

19) [v.s. ...] of a Ṛṣi, [Mahābhārata]

20) [v.s. ...] of a king (who perished through want of humility), [Manu-smṛti vii, 41]

21) [v.s. ...] of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa]

22) [v.s. ...] of a Haṃsa, [Jātakamālā]

23) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a class of gods, [Buddhist literature]

24) Sumukhā (सुमुखा):—[=su-mukhā] [from su-mukha > su > su-ma] f. See m. above

25) [v.s. ...] a handsome woman, [Horace H. Wilson]

26) Sumukha (सुमुख):—[=su-mukha] [from su > su-ma] n. the mark or scratch of a finger-nail, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) [v.s. ...] a kind of building, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumukha (सुमुख):—[su-mukha] (khaḥ) 1. n. The son of Garuḍa; a serpent of Pātāla; a potherb; a pandit; Ganesha. n. Mark of the nails. f. (ā-ī) A mirror. a. Pleasing, handsome, lovely.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sumukha (सुमुख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sumuha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sumukha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sumukha (ಸುಮುಖ):—

1) [noun] a good looking face.

2) [noun] an eloquent man.

3) [noun] that which has good face or appearance.

4) [noun] a man who has a smiling face.

5) [noun] a man of profound or extensive learning; a scholar; a savant.

6) [noun] a boy or man as he is related to either of his parents; a son.

7) [noun] the Brahminee kite, Haliastur indus, an accipitrine bird with long, pointed wings, forked tail and white neck.

8) [noun] (myth.) the king of birds, which is used by Viṣṇu as his vehicle.

9) [noun] a highway.

10) [noun] a smile or laughter.

11) [noun] Gaṇapati, the God of knowledge.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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