Aditya, aka: Āditya; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Aditya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Aditya in Natyashastra glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य) is a Sanskrit word referring to celestial deities. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned the Ādityas and the Rudras to the space between the pillars (stambha). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[Aditya in Vastushastra glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य):—The 8 Ādityas preside over the suns, the celestial luminaries. It is from there that this universe is brought into appearance or existence, ordered in its total extend and consistent in its order. Its consistence expresses itself in the numbers and their relation which is the rhythm of the universe and its structure. This is laid out in the plan of sixty-four squares.

(Source): Google Books: The Hindu Temple, Volume 1
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana

[Aditya in Purana glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य) refers to a group of deities that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Various groups of the deities like Ādityas, Vasus, Sādhyas, Viśvedevas and Maruts have their place in the pantheon of the Nīlamata but nothing significant is said about them.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Āditya (आदित्य).—The twelve sons born to the sage Kaśyapa of his wife Aditi are known as the twelve Ādityas. They are the following: Dhātā, Mitra, Aryamā, Rudra, Varuṇa, Sūrya, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. Besides these Aditi had twentyone children including Indra. All of them are called Ādityas meaning children of Aditi. From the thirtythree sons of Aditi were born the thirtythree crores of devatās. Of these the eldest is Indra and the youngest, Vāmana. (Śloka 36, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata). (There is corroboration for this in Śloka 14, Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Sirdar K.M. Panikar in his preface to the book "Ṛgvedasaṃhitā" writes thus about Ādityas: "Generally we think of Sūrya (the Sun) when we hear the word Āditya. But there are many different Ādityas in Ṛgveda, chief of them is Varuṇa. Though Savitā, Pūṣā and Mitra are all synonyms of Sūrya in Ṛgveda they are all separate devas. There is no end to the varieties of Ādityas and their prominence in the Vedas. Summarising we can say thus. The familiar devas like Indra, Agni, Varuṇa and Sūrya are not found in the same form or power as we are taught to believe. Those whom we have lowered down to the posts of the eight sentries of the universe are very prominent devatās in the Vedas. Many Ādityas have merged in Sūrya and winds in the god of Vāyu. Rudra has merged in Śiva. Who will believe that the all-powerful Deva of the Ṛgveda and the vainglorious Indra who lives in fear of men doing penance are one and the same person?"

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Āditya (आदित्य).—Patronymic of Vidhātṛ.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 3.

1b) A name of Sūrya (s.v.);1 presented the jewel Syamantaka to Satrājit.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 2. 31-4.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 11.

1c) From ādāna receiving waters and letting them off; kālāgni, pitāmaha and soma, all prapitāmahas;1 same as Rudra; see rudra.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 12. 37; 31. 29-35.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 10. 22.

1d) A division of the night.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 44.

1e) Sons of Aditi and Kaśyapa, originally Vaikuṇṭhas and Sādhyas;1 Gods of the Vaivasvata epoch at the commencement of the first tretāyuga, known as Jayadevas;2 twelve in number; were known as tuṣitas in the Cākṣuṣa epoch.3 Names were indra, dhātṛ, bhaga, tvaṣṭṛ, mitra, varuṇa, yama, vivasvat, savitṛ, pūṣan, aṃśumat, and viṣṇu.4 Born of Viṣṇu as their overlord.5 Escorted Indra; vanquished Diti's sons, and vanquished by Rāvaṇa;6 came with gods to Dvārakā to request Kṛṣṇa to leave for Vaikuṇṭha.7 One of the names of the first marut gaṇa.8 Born with Rudras.9 Residents of Bhuvarloka.10 Offered presents (upāyana) at the time of the marriage of Kāmeśvara with Lalitā.11 Praised Lalitā when Bhaṇḍa was killed.12

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 38. 3; III. 1. 61; 3. 57-61, 67-8; 4. 34; Matsya-purāṇa 171. 55; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 83, 99, 163; 39. 49; 64. 2; 66. 60, 66-7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 129.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 4; VI. 7. 2; 10. 17; Matsya-purāṇa 9. 29.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 44; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 132.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 30-45; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 33-4, 75; 26-42; Matsya-purāṇa 132. 3; 247. 10; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 130-1.
  • 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 17-8; 4. 5; Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 30f; XI. 16. 13. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 5.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 48; 7. 254.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 6. 2.
  • 8) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 123.
  • 9) Ib. 65. 61.
  • 10) Ib. 101. 30; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 28-9.
  • 11) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 15. 24.
  • 12) Ib. IV. 30. 8.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Aditya in Itihasa glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.14, I.65, I.60.37) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Āditya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Aditya in Hinduism glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य, “sun”) refers to one of the devatāpañcaka (fivefold divinities), defined in the Taittirīya-āraṇyaka 7.7.1. The devatāpañcaka, and other such fivefold divisions, are associated with the elemental aspect (adhibhūta) of the three-fold division of reality (adhibhūta, adhidaiva and adhyātma) which attempts to explain the phenomenal nature of the universe. Adhibhūta denotes all that belongs to the material or elemental creation.

The Taittirīya-āraṇyaka is associated with the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda and dates from at least the 6th century BCE. It is composed of 10 chapters and discusses vedic rituals and sacrifices (such as the mahāyajña) but also includes the Taittirīya-upaniṣad and the Mahānārāyaṇa-upaniṣad.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āraṇyaka

One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "The Son Of Aditi"

(Source): humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

The Adityas are eight in number, the sons of Aditi and sage Kashyapa.

According to [R.V.2.27], they are:

  1. Mitra,
  2. Aryaman,
  3. Bhaga,
  4. Varuna,
  5. Daksha,
  6. Amsha
  7. and Martanda.

Varuna is said to be their chief. I also believe that Indra should be counted as one of them.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Āditya (आदित्य).—In Hinduism, Āditya, meaning “of Aditi”, refers to the offspring of Aditi. In Hinduism, Aditya is used in the singular to mean the Sun God, Surya. Bhagavata Purana lists total 12 Ādityas as twelve Sun-gods. In each month of the year, it is a different Āditya (Sun God) who shines. All these 12 Ādityas are the opulent expansions of Lord Vishnu in the form of Sun-God. Āditya in the Chāndogya-Upaniṣad is also a name of Viṣṇu, in his Avatar known as Vāmana, the dwarf. His mother is Aditi.

In the Bhagavata Purana, names of 12 Adityas (Sun-Gods) are given:

  1. Dhata
  2. Aryama
  3. Mitra
  4. Varuna
  5. Indra
  6. Vivasvan
  7. Tvashtha
  8. Vishnu (the head of all the Adityas)
  9. Amshuman
  10. Bhaga
  11. Pushya
  12. Parjanya

In each month of the year, it is a different Aditya (Sun-God) who shines.

In the Rigveda, the Ādityas are the seven celestial deities, sons of Āditi,

  1. Varuna
  2. Mitra
  3. Aryaman
  4. Bhaga
  5. Anśa or Aṃśa
  6. Dhatri
  7. Indra
  8. Vayu

The ninth Āditya (Mārtanda) was rejected by Aditi, leaving seven sons. In the Yajurveda (Taittirīya Samhita), their number is given as eight, and the last one is believed to be Vivasvān.

In the Satapatha Brahmana, the number of Ādityas is eight in some passages, and in other texts of the same Brahmana, twelve Adityas are mentioned. The list of 12 Adityas is as follows:

  1. Aṃśa
  2. Aryaman
  3. Bhaga
  4. Dakṣa
  5. Dhātṛ
  6. Indra
  7. Mitra
  8. Ravi
  9. Savitṛ
  10. Sūrya (or Arka)
  11. Varuṇa
  12. Yama

Another such list, from the Vishnu Purana is:

  1. Aṃśa
  2. Aryaman
  3. Bhaga
  4. Dhūti
  5. Mitra
  6. Pūṣan
  7. Śakra
  8. Savitṛ
  9. Tvaṣṭṛ
  10. Varuṇa
  11. Vishnu
  12. Vivasvat

Note: The Sun-God Vishnu is the head of all the Adityas and is different from Lord Vishnu.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Skt. आदित्यः, āditya, Pron.: aditya. From Sanskrit: belonging to or coming from Aditi ('son of Aditi')

2) Name of seven deities of the heavenly sphere; the chief is Varuṇa to whom the name Āditya is especially applicable. The succeeding five are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksha, Aṃśa. That of the seventh is probably Sūrya or Savitṛ. Sometimes their number is supposed to be eight, and in the period of the Brāhmaṇas twelve, as representing the sun in the twelve months of the year.

3) Name of a god in general, especially of Sūrya (the sun)

4) Name of Vishṇu in his Vāmana or dwarf.

5) The plant Calotropis Gigantea

6) Name of a constellation, the seventh lunar mansion.

(Source): China Buddhism Encyclopedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Aditya in Jainism glossaries]

1) Āditya (आदित्य) refers to a species of Graiveyaka gods, who are in turn a subclass of the Kalpātīta gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. It is also known by the name Nandikara. The Kalpātīta (those born beyond heavens) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods).

The Graiveyakas (eg., the Ādityas) do not bind karmans, are 1-sensed class of beings and have an immovable body, warm splendour, cold lustre, animal state of existence, ānupūrvī and āyus.

2) Āditya (आदित्य) refers to a species of Anudiśa gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition where the Anudiśa heaven is one of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Āditya (आदित्य) is one of the nine anudiśas: a subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

The nava-anudiśas (eg., Āditya) are called so because they have nine heavenly abodes one in each of the eight directions. Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Aditya in Marathi glossaries]

āditya (आदित्य).—m S The sun. 2 A deity of a class, a form of Surya. 3 A deity gen.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

āditya (आदित्य).—m The sun.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Aditya in Sanskrit glossaries]

Āditya (आदित्य).—a. [aditerapatyaṃ ṇya P.IV.1.85.]

1) Solar, belonging to, or born in, the solar line; आदित्यैर्यदि विग्रहो नृपतिभिर्धन्यं ममैतत्ततो (ādityairyadi vigraho nṛpatibhirdhanyaṃ mamaitattato) U.6.18.

2) Devoted to, or originating from, Aditi; आदित्यं चरुं निर्वपेत् (ādityaṃ caruṃ nirvapet) Yaj. Ts.2.2.6.1.

3) Belonging to, or sprung from, the Ādityas.

-tyaḥ 1 A son of Aditi; a god, divinity in general. (The number of Ādityas appears to have been originally seven, of whom Varuṇa is the head, and the name Āditya was restricted to them (devā ādityā ye sapta Rv.9.114.3.). In the time of the Brāhmaṇas, however, the number of Ādityas rose to 12, representing the sun in the 12 months of the year; धाता मित्रोऽर्यमा रुद्रो वरुणः सूर्य एव च । भगो विवस्वान् पूषा च सविता दशमः स्मृतः ॥ एकादशस्तथा त्वष्टा विष्णुर्द्वादश उच्यते (dhātā mitro'ryamā rudro varuṇaḥ sūrya eva ca | bhago vivasvān pūṣā ca savitā daśamaḥ smṛtaḥ || ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā viṣṇurdvādaśa ucyate) |); आदित्यानामहं विष्णुः (ādityānāmahaṃ viṣṇuḥ) Bg.1.21; Ku. 2.24. (These 12 suns are supposed to shine only at the destruction of the universe; cf. Ve.3.8; dagdhuṃ viśvaṃ dahanakiraṇairnoditā dvādaśārkāḥ).

2) The sun; Vāj.4.21.

3) A name of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf-incarnation; स्वयंभूः शंभुरादित्यः (svayaṃbhūḥ śaṃbhurādityaḥ) V. Sah.

4) Name of the Arka plant (Mar. ruī).

-tyau (dual) Name of a constellation, the seventh lunar mansion (punarvasu).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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