Lavana, aka: Lavaṇa, Lavaṇā; 17 Definition(s)
Lavana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Hands of the Seven Oceans.—Lavaṇa: the Mukula hands moved upwards and downwards (vyāvṛttacāpaveṣṭitau). Note: Representing the up and down motion of waves.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Lavana (“saline”) is a taste which imparts a greater relish to food and produces salivation and softness of a part. A saline taste is mostly endued with attributes which characterise the elements of water (toya or ap) and fire (agni or dahana). [...] The pungent, acid and saline (lavana) ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues. The tastes such as sweet, acid and saline (lavana) are heavy and emollient in their character. Tastes such as sweet, acid and saline (lavana) are endued with the virtues of subduing Vayu.
Virtue of Lavana—A saline taste is possessed of corrective (purgative and emetic) virtues, favours the processes of suppuration and spontaneous bursting of swellings, brings about the looseness or resolution of any affected part (ulcer), is heat-engendering in its property and proves incompatible with all other tastes. It cleanses the internal passages or channels of the organism and produces softness of the limbs and members of the body.
A saline (lavana) taste, though possessed of the aforesaid properties, may bring on scabies urticaria, oedematous swellings, loss or discoloration of the natural complexion of the body, loss of virile potency, distressing symptoms affecting the sense-organs, inflammation of the mouth and the eyes, hemoptysis, Vāta-rakta (a kind of leprosy) and acid eructations etc., in the event of its being largely partaken of to the exclusion of all other tastes.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Lavaṇa (लवण) or Saindhava refers to “salt”, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We cannot see any reference to the salt in Ṛgveda. But most of the non-Ṛgvedic Saṃhitas, Brāhmaṇas and Upaniṣads refer to salt in the name of lavaṇa or saindhava. Mahābhārata refers the non-usage of viḍa (biḍa) and black salt in śrāddha ceremonies. According to Mahābhārata (Anuśāsanaparva 161.99), eating salt in the palms of one’s hands and eating salt at night should be avoided.
Kauṭilya (Arthaśāstra II.15.16) mentions six varieties of salt—
He also mentions that there should be a superintendent (lavaṇādhyakṣa)for salt in a state.
Caraka (Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna I.88-89) mentions only five varieties of salts which are—
Suśruta (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 46.336) adds some more varieties such as—
Of all these varieties, the rock salt (saindhava) was considered the best.
In the Lavaṇa or “salts” group of foodstuffs, the following substances are beneficial (hita) to the body: Saindhava (rock-salt). The following substances are harmful (ahita) to the body: Auṣara salt.
Lavaṇa or “salt” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., lavaṇa (salt)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., taṇḍulavāri (rice water)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
Lavaṇa (salt) is also mentioned as a remedy for indigestion caused by jambharasa (extract of lemon) and mātuluṅgaphala (citron fruit).Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Lavaṇa (लवण) refers to “salt”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1) Lavaṇa (लवण).—A hell. (See under Kāla I). (See full article at Story of Lavaṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Lavaṇa (लवण).—A demon. He was the son of a demon called Madhu. Madhuvana on the banks of the river Kālindī was the abode of this demon. This demon was a great oppressor of the Devas and Śatrughna had to kill him Śatrughna then constructed a beautiful city there and lived there. In recognition of the increasing prosperity of the city it was named Madhurā. After the death of Śatrughna his two sons lived there. (4th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).
3) Lavaṇa (लवण).—A King who was a grandson of Hariścandra. He once conducted a Rājasūya in his imagination and became a Caṇḍāla. (story in Jñānavāsiṣṭha). This story was narrated to Śrī Rāma by Vasiṣṭha to teach him the truth that man does not realise that this whole universe is an illusion only because of his ignorance. Lavaṇa was the King of Uttarapāṇḍava, a country of great fame. He was the grandson of Hariścandra and wished to earn fame by performing a Rājasūya yāga as Hariścandra had done. Lavaṇa decided to perform the yāga in his mind only. He made grand preparations for the yajña. He invited the Ṛtviks and after invoking the devas inflamed the sacrificial fire. For one year he observed yāga like that and in the end gave gifts to the brahmins and the poor. It was all an imaginary performance that the King had in the course of a single day when he indulged in a reverie. In the evening as usual he continued his day to day duties.
One who performs Rājasūya will have to bear woes and sorrows for a period of twelve years and since Lavaṇa had performed it mentally, Indra sent his agent to give Lavaṇa worries mentally. Indra’s agent appeared in the court of King Lavaṇa in the guise of a magician. The magician bowing before the King with awe said, "Lord, I shall show you a magic. See it sitting on your throne. It will be as astounding as if seeing moon rise on the earth".
4) Lavaṇa (लवण).—A demon who lived in the island of Rāmaṇīyaka. He had come to the island long before the serpents came to that place. The serpents saw him when they went there to live. (Śloka 2, Chapter 27, Ādi Parva).
5) Lavaṇa (लवण).—Another King of the family of Hariścandra. Yogavāsiṣṭha says that this King had participated in several Rājasūya yajñas.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Lavaṇa (लवण).—A son of Rākṣasa Madhu, killed by Śatrughna in Madhuvana.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 11. 14; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 186; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 185; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 12. 4; IV. 4. 101.
1b) A son of Jyotiṣmat, after whom Lavaṇavarṣa took the name.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 27-9; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 24.
1c) A son of Mahogra, prayed to Śiva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 91.
1d) A hell; disrespect to guru, reviling and selling of the Vedas and laxity in sex relations lead to it.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 2 and 13.
1e) One of the eight saubhāgyas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 60. 9.
1f) A kingdom of Kuśadvīpa after Lavaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 29; 19. 58; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 25; 49. 53.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 52. 42; IV. 31. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 12.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 2. 34.
- 3) Ib. 251. 34.
1h) Unfit for śrāddha.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 16. 8.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Lavana—An ocean mentioned in the Mahabharata (1.5.27): Lavana-samudra (ocean of salt).
According to the Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam (8.5.1-31):
“In the north of this Īlāvarṣa (center of Jambu-dvīpa) are the three mountains the Nīlagiri, the Śvetagiri and the Śringavau, forming the boundaries respectively of the three Varṣas named Ramyaka, Hiraṇmaya and Kuru respectively. These run along from the east and gradually extend at their base and towards the salt ocean (Lavana Samudra).”
2) Lavaṇa (लवण)—A daitya mentioned in the Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam (4.20.54–56):
“In days of yore, on the delightful banks of the river Kālindī, there was a place, called Madhuban, where lived a powerful Daitya named Lavana, the son of Madhu. That wicked Demon was exceedingly arrogant, on getting a boon, and he used to give an enormous amount of trouble to the Dvijas. Satrughṇa the younger of Lakṣmaṇ, killed that uncontrollable Daitya and built a very beautiful city there and named it Mathurā.”
Śatrughna also killed a Rākṣasa named Lavaṇa, who was the son of Madhu Rākṣasa. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam IX.9.11)
4) Lavana is one of the seven sons of king Jyotiṣmat, after whom the seven portions or Varṣas of the island were called Udbhida, &c. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa II.4)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
General definition (in Buddhism)
Lavaṇa (लवण, “salty”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., lavaṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
General definition (in Jainism)
Lavaṇa (लवण) is the shorter name for Lavaṇasamudra, an ocean (samudra) surrouding the continent (dvīpa) known as Jambū (or, Jambūdvīpa), according to Jain cosmology. Lavaṇa and Jambū are situated in the middle-world (madhyaloka), which contains innumerable concentric continents (dvīpa), each surrounded by their own ocean. The middle-world, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.
Lavaṇa is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Lavaṇa (लवण) refers to “rock salt”: a mineral that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products (eg., lavaṇa). The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Lavaṇa.—cf. a-lavaṇa-khātaka (IE 8-5); salt [the produc- tion of which was the monopoly of the king or landlord]. (IE 7-1-2), ‘five’; also ‘cutting [of plants]’. Note: lavaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
lavaṇa : (nt.) salt.
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lavana : (nt.) mowing; reaping.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Lavana, (nt.) (fr. lunāti) cutting, reaping Miln. 360. (Page 582)
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Lavaṇa, (nt.) (cp. late Vedic lavaṇa, cp. Zimmer, Altind. Leben 54) salt, lotion Miln. 112; Sdhp. 158. See loṇa. (Page 582)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
lavaṇa (लवण).—n (S) Salt, whether sea-salt or fossile salt.
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lavaṇa (लवण).—a (S) Salt, saline.
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lavaṇa (लवण).—n f (lavaṇēṃ) A depressed or low spot (in the ground &c.); a hollow or sinking more generally; as pāyācī la0 The hollow of the knee; mānēcī la0 The hollow or bend of the neck; hātācī la0 The hollow of the arm. 2 A bend or winding (of a road, river &c.)
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lāvaṇa (लावण).—a S lāvaṇika a S Salt, saline, relating to salt.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
lavaṇa (लवण).—n Salt. n f A low spot. a Saline.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Lavaṇa (लवण).—a. [lū-lyuṭ pṛṣo° ṇatvam]
1) Saline, saltish, briny; यतो यतस्त्वाददीत लवणमेवैवम् (yato yatastvādadīta lavaṇamevaivam) Bṛ. Up.2.4.12.
2) Lovely, handsome.
-ṇaḥ 1 Saline taste.
2) The sea of salt water.
3) Name of a demon, son of Madhu, who was killed by Śatrughna; लवणेन विलुप्तेज्यास्तामिस्रेण तमभ्ययुः (lavaṇena viluptejyāstāmisreṇa tamabhyayuḥ) R.15.2,5,17,26.
4) Name of a hell.
-ṇam 1 Salt, seasalt.
2) A factitious salt.
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Lavaṇā (लवणा).—Lustre, beauty.
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Lavana (लवन).—[lū-bhāve karmaṇi ca lyuṭ]
1) Mowing, cutting, reaping (of corn &c.).
2) An instrument for mowing, a sickle, scythe.
Derivable forms: lavanam (लवनम्).
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Lāvaṇa (लावण).—a. (-ṇī f.) [लवणं संस्कृतम् अण् (lavaṇaṃ saṃskṛtam aṇ)]
2) Salted, dressed with salt; लावणस्य समुद्रस्य विष्कम्भो द्विगुणः स्मृतः (lāvaṇasya samudrasya viṣkambho dviguṇaḥ smṛtaḥ) Mb.6.11.6.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) 1. Salt, saline. 2. Handsome, beautiful. n.
(-ṇaṃ) 1. Sea-salt. 2. Rock or fossile salt. 3. Factitious salt, or salt obtained by boiling clay found near the sea-shore, or any earth impregnated with saline particles. m.
(-ṇaḥ) 1. The saline or salt taste, saltness. 2. The sea of salt-water. 4. The name of a Rakshasa mentioned in the Ramayana. f.
(-ṇā) 1. Saline, briny. 2. Light, lustre, beauty. 3. A small river in Tirhut. E. lū to cut, (rawness, or to assist digestion,) aff. lyuṭ, and the final letter made nasal by special rule.
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(-naṃ) 1. Reaping. 2. Cutting. f. (-nī) A coarse kind of custardapple, (Annona reticulata.) “loṇā ātā .” E. lū to cut, aff. lyuṭ .
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(-ṇaḥ-ṇī-ṇaṃ) 1. Salted, dressed or cooked with salt. 2. Salt, belonging or relating to it, &c. E. lavaṇa salt, aff. aṇ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Starts with (+15): Lavanabdhi, Lavanabhadrika, Lavanabhanjana, Lavanacala, Lavanachala, Lavanadhenu, Lavanagnidipta, Lavanajala, Lavanajalodbhava, Lavanaka, Lavanakara, Lavanakhani, Lavanakimshuka, Lavanakshara, Lavanalaya, Lavanamada, Lavanambhas, Lavanamburashi, Lavanameha, Lavanantaka.
Ends with (+81): Aksharalavana, Alavana, Ambalavana, Angalavana, Aplavana, Badalavana, Bahilavana, Bahulavana, Balavana, Bhadrashalavana, Bhalavana, Bhesakalavana, Bhulavana, Bidalavana, Bolavana, Calavana, Cilavana, Culavana, Dalavana, Darbhalavana.
Full-text (+123): Lavanasamudra, Lavanakara, Loṇa, Divelagana, Sindhulavana, Khandalavana, Lavanottama, Kalalavana, Lavaṇoda, Pancalavana, Gadalavana, Krishnalavana, Pacalavana, Lana, Shatrughna, A-lavana-klinna-khataka, Lavanasaindhava, Lunana, Dravaka, Aksharalavana.
Search found 36 books and stories containing Lavana, Lavaṇa, Lāvaṇa, Lavaṇā; (plurals include: Lavanas, Lavaṇas, Lāvaṇas, Lavaṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 2: Her twin sons < [Chapter IX - Sītā’s purification and taking of the vow]
Part 3: Meeting of Rāma and his sons < [Chapter IX - Sītā’s purification and taking of the vow]
Part 6: Sermon of Nemi (Neminātha) < [Chapter IX - Ariṣṭanemi’s sport, initiation, omniscience]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LXIII - Different Combinations of six different Rasas < [Canto V - Tantra-bhusana-adhyaya (embellishing chapters)]
Chapter LVI - Symptoms and Treatment of Cholera (Visuchika) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter LII - Symptoms and Treatment of Cough (Kasa) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 6 - Lavana (6): Chulika salt < [Chapter XXIX - Lavana (salts)]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter CXV - Causes of happiness and misery < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Chapter CXVI - Birth and incarnation of adepts in yoga < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Chapter CXX - Lamentation of the chandala woman < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 44 - Treatment for indigestion (42): Vadavanibha rasa < [Chapter IV - Irregularity of the digesting heat]
Part 4 - Treatment for indigestion (2): Vadavanala rasa < [Chapter IV - Irregularity of the digesting heat]
Part 21 - Treatment for indigestion (19): Mahashankha rasa < [Chapter IV - Irregularity of the digesting heat]