Anjana, Añjana, Anjanā, Añjanā, Āñjana, Amjana, Anjāna: 54 definitions


Anjana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Añjana (अञ्जन) or Añjanagiri is the name of a mountain whose lord is named Kākaṇḍaka: a Vidyādhara king who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side but was slain by Prabhāsa, who participated in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when they heard that [speech of Śrutaśarman], eight warriors in anger surrounded Prabhāsa.... And the fifth was Darpavāha by name, lord of the hill Niketa, and the sixth was Dhūrtavyayana, the lord of the mountain Añjana, and both these Vidyādharas were chiefs of excellent warriors”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Añjana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: The ocean of story, vol. 1

Añjana (collyrium):—In ancient India the recipes for making various añjanas are strange and numerous. In the Suśruta Saṃhitā of the first century either b.c. or a.d. (Bhiṣagratna’s trans., Calcutta) there are many, of which the following is an example.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Añjana (अञ्जन, “collyrium”):—One of the eight uparasa (‘secondary minerals’), a group of eight minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Añjana represents Galena (commonly known as ‘lead glance’) which is the natural mineral form of lead sulfide.

Añjana has the following five varieties:

  1. Sauvīrāñjana (smokey color),
  2. Rasāñjana (yellowish color),
  3. Srotoñjana/Srotāñjana (greasy appearance),
  4. Puṣpāñjana (white color)
  5. and Nīlāñjana (smooth appearance).
Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 6

Añjana (collyrium).—Five types of Añjanas are described.

  1. Sauvīrāñjana,
  2. Rasāñjana,
  3. Srotoñjana (Srotāñjana ?),
  4. Puṣpāñjana,
  5. Nīlāñjana.
Source: Ancient Science of Life: Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “black antimony”, and mentioned in the Rasaratnasamuccaya: a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium” and is dealt with in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations (viz., añjana) which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “herbal ointment” and represents one of the modes of treatment for the venom (viṣa) of snakes, as taught in the Viṣacikitsā of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā. The Viṣacikitsā teaches both general first aid as well as specialised treatment and regimen for the different varieties of snakes. The Kāśyapa Saṃhitā deals exclusively and extensively with the symptoms and the corrective herbal treatment for poisonous bites of snakes. Various modes of treatment like are recommended in different prakaraṇas [e.g., añjana or herbal ointment].

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium-like (fruits)” which were created according to a recipe for manipulating the colour of flowers or fruits (on the tree) [varṇa-pravartana], according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “Trees watered continuously with the extract of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula, Hordeum vulgare, Mangifera indica seed and Indigofera tinctoria, and also filled at the root with the powder of the same mixture produce fruits resembling collyrium (añjana-saṃnibha)”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyria”, mentioned in verse 4.10-11 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Headache, weakness of the senses, stiffness of the neck, and hemiplegia of the face (result from the suppression) of sneezing. By pungent inhalants, collyria [viz., añjana], perfumes, and sternutatories and by looking at the sun one shall stimulate impeded sneezing; moreover, one shall repeatedly use lubricants and diaphoretics. [...]”.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium”, and is dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 1) written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha (mentioning añjana) has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium”, and is used in the treatment of poison (viṣa), according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The author has given a detailed description of types of [snake-] bite mark and the corresponding causes and prognosis. [...] Fume therapy using certain drugs can help regain consciousness. The first dung of a calf is ground in the urine of a goat and a suppository is made which is used for dhūmapāna (fume inhalation). This chapter also includes many nasya (nasal administration), añjana (collyrium), lepa (external ointment/liniment), pāna (drink) with simple drugs mentioned.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Añjana (अञ्जन):—It’s a process of anointing, smearing, mixing, collyrium or black pigment used to paint the root of eye lashes. anointmentt is done with an stick or pencil called as añjana shalaka. There are two types of añjana which are used by healthy individuals, one is Savira añjana should be applied to eyes daily and other is Rasanjana which is applied once in every five or eight days for stimulating secretion.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Añjana (अञ्जन).—One of the eight rākṣasas facing the eight vasus in the battle of the gods (devas) between the demons (asuras), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 94. This battle was initiated by Mahiṣāsura in order to win over the hand of Vaiṣṇavī, the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Añjanā (अञ्जना).—1) Mother of Hanūmān—Wife of Kesarī, the noble monkey and daughter of Kuñjara, the monkey leader. She was the mother of Hanūmān. Once while Śiva and Pārvatī were gamboling in the guise of monkeys, rambling through the woods, Pārvatī became pregnant, That pregnancy was given to Vāyu. At that time Añjanā was doing penance for an issue. Vāyu transferred the pregnancy he had received from Pārvatī to Añjanā. Thus Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 66).

Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān in the woods in a valley on the southern side of Mahāmeru. She was frightened at the sight of the child shining like the sun. Hanūmān began to cry for mother’s milk. Añjanā said to Hanūmān: "Monkeys are fond of red ripe fruits. Therefore eat whatever you find in red colour." Saying this Añjanā transformed herself into a goddess and went to Heaven. Pūrvajanma (Previous Birth). In her previous birth Añjanā was a goddess named Puñjikastala (Mānagarva). As a result of a curse, this goddess was born as a she-monkey in the Himālaya region. With the birth of Hanūmān, the curse was lifted. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). For more details see "Puñjikastala". (See full article at Story of Añjanā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Añjana (अञ्जन).—This is an elephant belonging to the Asuras. His origin is in the family of Supratīka. The other three elephants born in this family are: Airāvata, Vāmana and Kumuda. (This Airāvata was not the Airāvata of Devendra). There are references to Rākṣasas coming to the battle-field on the back of elephants. There is another mention of Añjana the elephant standing in the battle-field. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15; Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 57; Droṇa Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 32).

3) Añjana (अञ्जन).—This is the name of a mountain. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 15).

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to a type of collyrium and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Añjana is recommended as an offering for the goddesses (verses 334, 494, 761). Some processes of decoration like rubbing the body with emollient unguents (udvartana), anointing it with unguents (utsādana) and applying sandle-paste etc. after bath (anulepana) are referred to.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.45 (“Śiva’s comely form and the Jubilation of the Citizens”).—Accordingly, after Menā spoke to Śiva: “By that time the ladies of the town left the work they were engaged in, in their eagerness to see Śiva. [...] Another lady left her husband who had sat down to dine and came out athirsting and enthusiastic to see the bridegroom. A certain lady holding the collyrium in her hand (añjana-kara) after applying it to one of her eyes came out to see the bridegroom of the daughter of the mountain with the salve stick still in her hand. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Añjana (अञ्जन).—The son of Irāvati, the elephant of golden colour; belonging to the fold of Vāmadeva Sāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 292, 327 & 339.

1b) A Sāman.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 343.

1c) Mountain a hill west of the Sitoda;1 residence of the Uragas;2 famous for elephant forests.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 28.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 59.
  • 3) Ib. 69. 238.

1d) A son of Kṛti. Father of Kurujit.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 5. 31.

1e) Sons of Kallolaha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 442.

2) Añjanā (अञ्जना).—A daughter of Kuñjara and queen of Kesari. Loved by Vāyu, gave birth to Hanumān.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 224-5.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Añjana (अञ्जन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.100) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Añjana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “collyrium”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “That, O goddess, is said to be the subtle (form), now listen to the gross one. She possesses every limb and is endowed with a visualized form whose (basic) reality is clear. She is (black) like sliced collyrium [i.e., bhinna-añjana-samaprakhyā] and hair is brown and (tied in the) foreign (barbara) (style). The eyes are stern. Showing (her) teeth, they (are as if) burning. The eyebrows are brown and the goddess bears the Five Insignias and shines with the skull that decorates (her). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Añjana (अञ्जन) or Añjanagiri refers to a mountain (range) belonging to “Pūrvā or Pūrvadeśa (eastern division)” classified under the constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya represent the eastern division consisting of [i.e., Añjana] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to the “(occult) (eye) collyrium”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a haṭha-sādhana (foreceful practice)]: “[...] On the eighth day, the Sādhaka sees the shadow of Aghorī. Thus content, she gives [a boon, saying to the Sādhaka], ‘Good, my dear! Choose a boon: either lord of the earth, immortality, levitation, [entry into the] nether-worlds, coming and going through the sky, invisibility, the elixir of mercury, the wish-fulfilling gem, the [magical] sword, the [seven-league] sandals or the [occult] eye collyrium (locana-añjana)’ [...]”

2) Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “stain” (as opposed to Nirañjana—“that which has no stain”), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise which deals absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—The Amanaska referred to (or qualified) Samādhi with several terms, which are all negative; [e.g., it has no stain (nirañjana);] [...] The fact that such terminology is found in the Amanaska indicates that descriptions of Śiva and the void-like meditative states in Mantramargic Śaivism, were the basis of the descriptions of Samādhi and Paratattva (the highest reality) in this treatise. The Amanaska Yoga was consistent with the Pātañjala Yogaśāstra’s definition of Yoga, yet it described Samādhi in terms different to those of Pātañjalayoga; such as Nirañjana—“that which has no stain”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Añjana (अञ्जन) is classified as a “tree beneficial for the construction of temples”, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood (e.g., from the Añjana tree) for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the woods of some particular trees remain beneficial for the construction of temples. At the time of cutting the trees [e.g., Añjana] one should clean the axe by smearing honey and ghee. After collecting the suitable wood from forest, the architect uses it according to his requirements and purposes.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Anjanā (अंजना): Mother of Hanumāna

Source: Chest of Books: Galena

Galena (or sulphide of lead) is called Añjana or Sauvirāñjana in Sanskrit, and kṛṣṇa-surmā in Vernacular. It is called Añjana, which literally meaus collyrium or medicine for the eyes, from the circumstance of its being considered the best application or cosmetic for them. The other varieties of Añjana mentioned are Srotoñjana, Puṣpāñjana and Rasāñjana.

Source: Sanskrit Dictionary: Hinduism

Añjana:—Act of applying an ointment or pigment, embellishing, etc., black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids.

Source: Alois Payer - Amarakośa: Vaiśyavarga 100-106b

Galena or sulphide of lead is called Añjana or sauvirāñjana in Sanskrit, and kṛṣṇa surmā in Vernacular. It is called añjana, which literally means collyrium or medicine for the eyes, from the circumstance of its being considered the best application or cosmetic for them. The other varieties of añjana mentioned are srotoñjana, puṣpāñjana and rasāñjana.

Sauvīrāñjana or galena is chiefly used as a cosmetic for the eyes, and is supposed to strengthen these organs, improve their appearance and preserve them from disease. It enters into the composition of some collyria for eye diseases. Galena, heated over a fire and cooled in a decoction of the three myrobalans for seven times in succession, is rubbed with human milk and used in various eye diseases.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The Sakiyan, son of Devadaha, and father of Mahamaya and Mahapajapati, wives of Suddhodana.

His wife was Sulakkhana (Ap.ii.538, v.115; see also ThagA.152).

According to the Mahavamsa (ii.17ff), he was the son of Devadahasakka and had a sister Kaccana; his queen was Yasodhara.

In addition to the daughters mentioned above he had two sons, Dandapani and the Sakiyan Suppabuddha.

See also Suppabuddha.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “soot”, according to the Ṭīkā Pot Worship [i.e., Kalaśapūjā] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Venerable, thrice sacred Cakrasaṃvara Vajravārāhī, God and Goddess [...] [Take Svabhāva Śuddhāḥ. Place foot offering.] Venerable, thrice sacred Cakrasaṃvara Vajravārāhī, the form of soot (svarūpa-añjana) and vermillion [...]  Oṃ to Cakrasaṃvara Svāhā. [...] [Display flowers for Cakrasaṃvara and Vajravārāhī.] [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Añjana (अञ्जन).—There are four Añjana mountains situated in the northern direction of the central part of Nandīśvaradvīpa, according to Jain cosmology:

  1. Ramaṇīya,
  2. Svayamprabhā,
  3. Nityodyata,
  4. Devaramaṇa.

They have a black colour and on the top are temples of the Arhats (tīrthaṅkaras), decorated with jewelled platforms (maṇipīṭhikā), diases (devacchandaka) and statues (śāśvata-bimba) of Ṛṣabha, Vardhamāna, Candrāmana and Vāriṣeṇa in the paryaṅka posture.

Nandīśvaradvīpa is one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) and is mentioned in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “antimony”: a mineral that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products (e.g., añjana). The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Añjana (अञ्जन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Añjana] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to the four mountains of Nandīśvara, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In [the central part of Nandīśvara], there are 4 Añjana Mountains, the color of antimony, in succession in the directions, east, etc. At ground-level they are more than 10,000 yojanas in diameter and 1,000 yojanas at top. They have the height of the small Merus. Of these, Devaramaṇa is in the east, Nityodyata in the south, Svayamprabha in the west, and Ramaṇīya in the north. On top of them there are temples to the Arhats, 100 yojanas long, half as wide, and 70 yojanas high. In each of these there are 4 doors, 16 yojanas high, 8 yojanas deep, and 8 wide. They are the homes of the gods Deva, Asura, Nāga, and Suparṇa, and are known by their names”.

2) Añjanā (अञ्जना) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Añjanā). On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are 4 Ratikara Mountains, having a length and width of 10,000 yojanas, and a height of 1,000 yojanas, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a jhallarī. [...] In them (i.e., the 32 Ratikara Mountains, e.g., Añjanā) the gods with all their splendor together with their retinues make eight-day festivals in the shrines on the holy days of the holy Arhats”.

3) Añjanā (अञ्जना) or Añjanasundarī is the daughter of Hṛdayasundarī and Mahendra (king of the similarly-named city), according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.2 [Rāvaṇa’s expedition of conquest] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to a “black ointment” (of delusion), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The world is similar to an illusion, like a black ointment of delusion (moha-añjana) for the senses. With regard to this, we do not know why this world goes astray”.

Synonyms: Kajjala.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

1) Añjanā (अञ्जना) refers to one of the “sixteen virtuous Jain women”, according to the “Sola satyā” (dealing with the lives of Jain female heroes), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—There is a list of sixteen virtuous Jain women. [...] These women [e.g., Añjanā] are virtuous because they uphold Jain values and could stand to them even in adverse circumstances. Reciting their names is often part of the morning ritual. Behind names are eventful stories that have been told by several writers and read or listened to by Jain followers.

2) Añjanā (अञ्जना) (the daughter of King Mahendra) is the name of a Satī (a wife who remains faithful to her husband in all circumstances), according to the “Añjanā-māhāsatī ro rāsa” (dealing with the lives of Jain female heroes).—Accordingly, “Añjanā, the daughter of King Mahendra, was married to Pavana, son of Prahlāda. A conversation he had overheard before marriage persuaded him that Añjanā was attracted by another young man, whom her parents had vaguely considered as a possible match. He was no longer keen to marry her but finally got convinced to do so. However, he refused to come to her and did not consummate the marriage. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Añjana (अञ्जन) is the name of a mountain situated in Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Añjana has been described in the Sarabhaṅga Jātaka as a mountain situated in the Mahāvana or Great Forest. It is the Sulliman range in the Punjab.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to one of the seventy-two arts and sixty-four sciences, being part of the Ancient Indian Education, as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—Page 150.17 f. & 151.1-5: There is described an educational institution. [...] At another place (151.6-11) the prince came across persons who cultivated the seventy-two arts and sixty-four sciences, such as, [e.g., Añjana], [...].

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Anjana in India is the name of a plant defined with Cenchrus ciliaris in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Pennisetum rufescens Hochst. ex Steud., nom. illeg., non Pennisetum rufescens (Desf.) Spreng. (among others).

2) Anjana is also identified with Hardwickia binata.

3) Anjana is also identified with Kingiodendron pinnatum It has the synonym Hardwickia pinnata Roxb., nom. nud. (etc.).

4) Anjana is also identified with Michelia champaca It has the synonym Magnolia membranacea P. Parm. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Enumeratio Plantarum … (1805)
· Flore Forestière de la Cochinchine (1880)
· Nomenclator Botanicus. (1841)
· Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1930)
· Flora Indica (1768)
· Synopseos Plantarum (Persoon) (1806)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Anjana, for example diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

añjana : (nt.) collyrium (for the eyes).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Añjana, (nt.) (from añjati2) ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. kaṇha II. and kāla1 note). — 1. Vin.I, 203 (five kinds viz. kāḷ°, ras°, sot°, geruka, kapalla); D.I, 7, 12; DA.I, 98 (khār°); 284; DhA.III, 354 (akkhi° eye-salve). — 2. glossy, jet-black J.I, 194; II, 369; V, 416. The reading añjana at A.IV, 468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattaṃ. See also pacc°. In meaning collyrium box at Th.2, 413 (= añjana-nāḷi ThA.267); DhA.II, 25.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

añjana (अंजन).—n (S) A collyrium: also an application to the eye-lashes to darken and improve them. 2 Particular applications to the eyes (as lampblack, antimony &c.) to confer superhuman powers of vision. Ex. añjanāviṇa na sādhē nidhāna || 3 Applied fig. to instruction from a spiritual teacher; to a prasāda from an idol &c.; considered as a means of removing mental darkness.

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añjana (अंजन) [or नी, nī].—f (The ja is Ja.) Ironwood-tree, Memecylon tinctorium. Graham. Also Hardwickia binata. Graham.

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añjāna (अंजान).—a ( H) Unknowing, unacquainted, ignorant.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

añjana (अंजन).—n A collyrium.

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añjana (अंजन) [-nī, -नी].—f Ironwood-tree.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन).—1 A kind of lizard.

2) Name of a tree or mountain.

3) Name of the guardian elephant (of the west or s. w.) तस्य चान्येऽपि दिङ्नागा बभूबुरनुयायिनः । अञ्जनो बामनश्चैव महापद्मश्च सुप्रभः (tasya cānye'pi diṅnāgā babhūburanuyāyinaḥ | añjano bāmanaścaiva mahāpadmaśca suprabhaḥ) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.64.57.

-nam [ajyate anena; añj lyuṭ]

1) Anointing, smearing with, दन्तधावनमञ्जनं पूर्वाह्ण एव कुर्वीत (dantadhāvanamañjanaṃ pūrvāhṇa eva kurvīta) Manusmṛti 4.152; mixing; unfolding, manifesting.

2) Collyrium or black pigment used to paint the eyelashes; विलोचनं दक्षिणमञ्जनेन संभाव्य (vilocanaṃ dakṣiṇamañjanena saṃbhāvya) R.7.8 salve; अमृत° कोऽयं दृशोरमृताञ्जनम् (amṛta° ko'yaṃ dṛśoramṛtāñjanam) Uttararāmacarita 4.18 ambrosial salve; कुर्वन् °मेचका इव दिशो मेघः समुत्तिष्ठते (kurvan °mecakā iva diśo meghaḥ samuttiṣṭhate) Mṛcchakaṭika 5.8,1.34; (fig. also) अज्ञानान्धस्य लोकस्य ज्ञानाञ्जनशलाकया । चक्षुरुन्मीलितं येन तस्मै पाणिनये नमः (ajñānāndhasya lokasya jñānāñjanaśalākayā | cakṣurunmīlitaṃ yena tasmai pāṇinaye namaḥ) || Śik.45; पटुतरविवेकाञ्जनजुषाम् (paṭutaravivekāñjanajuṣām) Bhartṛhari 3.84; cf. also दारिद्य्रं परमाञ्जनम् (dāridyraṃ paramāñjanam); (fig.) impurity, as in निरञ्जन (nirañjana), q. v.

3) Paint, a cosmetic ointment.

4) Magic ointment.

5) A special kind of material of the black pigment, such as antimony (used as collyrium, lamp-black &c. sauvīra

6) Ink.

7) Fire.

8) Night.

9) (nam, nā) (Rhet.) A suggested meaning; also the process by which such meaning is suggested. It is the power of suggestion (founded on abhidhā or lakṣaṇā denotation or indication), by which something else is understood from a word which, though having more meanings than one, has been restricted to a single meaning by relations of conjunction, disjunction &c. (saṃyoga, viprayoga, sāhacarya, viro- dhitā &c.), or, briefly, the use of a word of several meanings in a special sense determined by the context; e. g. सशङ्खचक्रो हरिः (saśaṅkhacakro hariḥ) the adjective restricts Hari to mean 'Viṣṇu' alone, and not a 'lion' or 'monkey'; so रामलक्ष्मणौ दाशरथी, रामार्जुनौ भार्गवकार्तवीर्यौ (rāmalakṣmaṇau dāśarathī, rāmārjunau bhārgavakārtavīryau) &c.; cf. अनेकार्थस्य शब्दस्य वाच- कत्वे नियन्त्रिते । संयोगाद्यैरवाच्यार्थधीकृद् व्यापृतिरञ्जनम् (anekārthasya śabdasya vāca- katve niyantrite | saṃyogādyairavācyārthadhīkṛd vyāpṛtirañjanam) || K.P.2., S. D.23-6; See व्याञ्जना (vyāñjanā) also.

Derivable forms: añjanaḥ (अञ्जनः).

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Añjanā (अञ्जना).—

1) Name of the female elephant of the north.

2) Name of the mother of Māruti or Hanūmat. [She was the daughter of a monkey named Kuṅnjara and wife of Kesarin, another monkey. She was in a former birth a celestial nymph by name Puñjikasthali and was born on earth owing to a curse. One day while she was seated on the summit of a mountain, her garment was slightly displaced, and the God of Wind being enamoured of her beauty assumed a visible form, and asked her to yield to his desires. She requested him not to violate her chastity, to which he consented; but he told her that she would conceive a son equal to himself in strength and lustre by virtue of his amorous desire fixed on her, and then disappeared. In course of time Añjanā conceived and brought forth a son who was called Māruti being the son of Marut.]

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Āñjana (आञ्जन).—a. (- f.) [अञ्जनस्येदं-अण् (añjanasyedaṃ-aṇ)] Anointing or belonging to ointment.

-nam 1 Ointment, especially for the eyes.

2) Fat; इमा नारीरविधवाः सुपत्नीराञ्जनेन सर्पिषा संवि- शन्तु (imā nārīravidhavāḥ supatnīrāñjanena sarpiṣā saṃvi- śantu) Ṛgveda 1.18.7.

-naḥ Name of Māruti or Hanūmat दाश- रथिबलैरिवाञ्जननीलनलपरिगतप्रान्तैः (dāśa- rathibalairivāñjananīlanalaparigataprāntaiḥ) K.58.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Anointing. 2. Going. 3. Making clear, distinct. 4. A collyrium or application to the eye-lashes, to darken and improve them; a universal article of the eastern toilet. 5. Particular applications, as lamp black, antimony, and another kind. See rasāñjana. 6. Night. 7. Ink. 8. A term in rhetoric; the use of a word of several meanings in one specific sense, which is determined by the context. m.

(-naḥ) 1. The elephant of the west 2. A species of lizard. f.

(-nā) 1. The mother of Hanuman. 2. A green lizard. (-nī) 3. A woman perfumed with sandal, &c. 4. A medicinal plant. See. kaṭukā. E. añja to beautify or anoint, and lyu or lyuṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन).—[añj + ana]. I. n. 1. Anointing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 152. 2. A collyrium or application to the eyelashes to darken and improve them, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 178. Ii. m. 1. The elephant of the west or southwest quarter. 2. The name of a mountain. 3. A particular plant, [Pañcatantra] 10, 7. Iii. f. . The name of a female monkey, the mother of Hanumant.

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Āñjana (आञ्जन).—i. e. ā-añj + ana, n. and f. , Ointment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन).—[neuter] smearing, anointing; suggesting ([rhetorie]); ointment, paint, [especially] a collyrium made of antimony.

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Āñjana (आञ्जन).—[neuter] ointment, [especially] for the eyes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Añjana (अञ्जन) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—med. by Agniveśa. Bik. 650.

Añjana has the following synonyms: Netrāñjana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Añjana (अञ्जन):—[from añj] m. a kind of domestic lizard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a fabulous, serpent

3) [v.s. ...] of a tree, [Pañcatantra]

4) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, of a king of Mithilā, of the elephant of the west or south-west quarter

5) Añjanā (अञ्जना):—[from añjana > añj] f. Name of Hanumat’s mother

6) [v.s. ...] of Pravarasena’s mother

7) Añjana (अञ्जन):—[from añj] n. act of applying an ointment or pigment, embellishing, etc., black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids

8) [v.s. ...] a special kind of this pigment, as lamp-black, Antimony, extract of Ammonium, Xanthorrhiza, etc.

9) [v.s. ...] paint, especially as a cosmetic

10) [v.s. ...] magic ointment

11) [v.s. ...] ink, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] night, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (In rhetoric) making clear the meaning of an equivocal expression, double entendre or pun, etc.

14) Āñjana (आञ्जन):—[from āñj] n. ointment (especially for the eyes), [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] fat, [Ṛg-veda x, 18, 7]

16) [v.s. ...] mfn. having the colour of the collyrium used for the eyes, [Mahābhārata v, 1708]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन):—I. n.

(-nam) 1) Anointing, making clear or distinct &c. See the meanings of añj.

2) A collyrium or application to the eye lashes, to darken and improve them; a universal article of the eastern toilet.

3) The name of particular kinds of the former, viz. lamp black, antimony, and one extracted from the Ammonium zanthorrhiza.

4) Ink.

5) Night. (See aktu.)

6) Fire.

7) (In rhetoric.) Suggesting the special meaning of a word or a sentence. The special meaning of a word (śabda) is suggested, according to Hindu rhetoric, by its connexion with either the real (abhidhā) or the elliptic sense (lakṣaṇā) of other words; and the special meaning of a sentence (artha) by circumstances connected with either the speaker or the addressed, or the occasion, place, time or the like. More usually called vyañjanā q. v. Ii. m.

(-naḥ) 1) A species of lizard.

2) The elephant of the west or, according to others, of the south-west quarter.

3) The name of a fabulous serpent.

4) The name of a king of Mithilā, the son of Kuni.

5) The name of a tree.

6) The name of a mountain. See añjanāgiri. Iii. f. 1.

(-nā) 1) The mother of the monkey Hanumat.

2) The daughter of Vajrendra and mother of Pravarasena. 2.

(-nī) 1) A woman who is fit to be perfumed with sandal &c.

2) The name of a medicinal plant. See kaṭukā, kālāñjanī and añjanakī. E. añj, kṛt aff. lyuṭ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Añjana (अञ्जन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Anointing; clearing; a collyrium; ink; m. an elephant in the west; a lizard. añjanā (nā) 1. f. The mother of Hanumān; a green lizard. añjanī (nī) 3. f. A woman perfumed with sandal; a medical plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Añjana (अञ्जन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Aṃjaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Anjana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Aṃjaṇa (अंजण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Añjana.

2) Aṃjaṇa (अंजण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Añjana.

3) Aṃjaṇā (अंजणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Aṃjanā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Aṃjana (ಅಂಜನ):—

1) [noun] the act of smearing oil, ointment etc. on the body.

2) [noun] a lotion or paste smeared on the eye-lashes; a collyrium.

3) [noun] any ingredient of the collyrium.

4) [noun] an ointment with supposed magical powers.

5) [noun] a coloured liquid used in pens for writing; ink.

6) [noun] the part of the time from sunset to sun rise; night.

7) [noun] fire.

8) [noun] (myth.) the celestial elephant guarding the western quarter.

9) [noun] the house lizard.

10) [noun] the tree Hardwickia binata (=H. pinnata) of Caesalpiniaceae family.

11) [noun] a piece of black cloth.

12) [noun] name of a hill, now popularly known as Tirupati hills, in Andhra Pradesh.

13) [noun] one of the arts of thieves in thieving, using magical ointments.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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