Anjana, aka: Añjana, Anjanā, Añjanā, Āñjana; 24 Definition(s)
Anjana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Añjana (अञ्जन, “collyrium”):—One of the eight uparasa (‘secondary minerals’), a group of eight minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Añjana represents Galena (commonly known as ‘lead glance’) which is the natural mineral form of lead sulfide.
Añjana has the following five varieties:
- Sauvīrāñjana (smokey color),
- Rasāñjana (yellowish color),
- Srotoñjana/Srotāñjana (greasy appearance),
- Puṣpāñjana (white color)
- and Nīlāñjana (smooth appearance).
Añjana (collyrium).—Five types of Añjanas are described.
- Srotoñjana (Srotāñjana ?),
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Katha (narrative stories)
Añjana (अञ्जन) or Añjanagiri is the name of a mountain whose lord is named Kākaṇḍaka: a Vidyādhara king who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side but was slain by Prabhāsa, who participated in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when they heard that [speech of Śrutaśarman], eight warriors in anger surrounded Prabhāsa.... And the fifth was Darpavāha by name, lord of the hill Niketa, and the sixth was Dhūrtavyayana, the lord of the mountain Añjana, and both these Vidyādharas were chiefs of excellent warriors”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Añjana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Añjana (collyrium):—In ancient India the recipes for making various añjanas are strange and numerous. In the Suśruta Saṃhitā of the first century either b.c. or a.d. (Bhiṣagratna’s trans., Calcutta) there are many, of which the following is an example.Source: archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Añjana (अञ्जन).—One of the eight rākṣasas facing the eight vasus in the battle of the gods (devas) between the demons (asuras), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 94. This battle was initiated by Mahiṣāsura in order to win over the hand of Vaiṣṇavī, the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1) Añjanā (अञ्जना).—1) Mother of Hanūmān—Wife of Kesarī, the noble monkey and daughter of Kuñjara, the monkey leader. She was the mother of Hanūmān. Once while Śiva and Pārvatī were gamboling in the guise of monkeys, rambling through the woods, Pārvatī became pregnant, That pregnancy was given to Vāyu. At that time Añjanā was doing penance for an issue. Vāyu transferred the pregnancy he had received from Pārvatī to Añjanā. Thus Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 66).
Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān in the woods in a valley on the southern side of Mahāmeru. She was frightened at the sight of the child shining like the sun. Hanūmān began to cry for mother’s milk. Añjanā said to Hanūmān: "Monkeys are fond of red ripe fruits. Therefore eat whatever you find in red colour." Saying this Añjanā transformed herself into a goddess and went to Heaven. Pūrvajanma (Previous Birth). In her previous birth Añjanā was a goddess named Puñjikastala (Mānagarva). As a result of a curse, this goddess was born as a she-monkey in the Himālaya region. With the birth of Hanūmān, the curse was lifted. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). For more details see "Puñjikastala". (See full article at Story of Añjanā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Añjana (अञ्जन).—This is an elephant belonging to the Asuras. His origin is in the family of Supratīka. The other three elephants born in this family are: Airāvata, Vāmana and Kumuda. (This Airāvata was not the Airāvata of Devendra). There are references to Rākṣasas coming to the battle-field on the back of elephants. There is another mention of Añjana the elephant standing in the battle-field. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15; Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 57; Droṇa Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 32).
3) Añjana (अञ्जन).—This is the name of a mountain. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 15).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to a type of collyrium and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Añjana is recommended as an offering for the goddesses (verses 334, 494, 761). Some processes of decoration like rubbing the body with emollient unguents (udvartana), anointing it with unguents (utsādana) and applying sandle-paste etc. after bath (anulepana) are referred to.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1a) Añjana (अञ्जन).—The son of Irāvati, the elephant of golden colour; belonging to the fold of Vāmadeva Sāma.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 292, 327 & 339.
1b) A Sāman.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 343.
1d) A son of Kṛti. Father of Kurujit.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 5. 31.
1e) Sons of Kallolaha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 442.
2) Añjanā (अञ्जना).—A daughter of Kuñjara and queen of Kesari. Loved by Vāyu, gave birth to Hanumān.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 224-5.
Añjana (अञ्जन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.100) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Añjana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Anjanā (अंजना): Mother of HanumānaSource: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Galena (or sulphide of lead) is called Añjana or Sauvirāñjana in Sanskrit, and kṛṣṇa-surmā in Vernacular. It is called Añjana, which literally meaus collyrium or medicine for the eyes, from the circumstance of its being considered the best application or cosmetic for them. The other varieties of Añjana mentioned are Srotoñjana, Puṣpāñjana and Rasāñjana.Source: Chest of Books: Galena
Añjana:—Act of applying an ointment or pigment, embellishing, etc., black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids.Source: Sanskrit Dictionary: Hinduism
Galena or sulphide of lead is called Añjana or sauvirāñjana in Sanskrit, and kṛṣṇa surmā in Vernacular. It is called añjana, which literally means collyrium or medicine for the eyes, from the circumstance of its being considered the best application or cosmetic for them. The other varieties of añjana mentioned are srotoñjana, puṣpāñjana and rasāñjana.
Sauvīrāñjana or galena is chiefly used as a cosmetic for the eyes, and is supposed to strengthen these organs, improve their appearance and preserve them from disease. It enters into the composition of some collyria for eye diseases. Galena, heated over a fire and cooled in a decoction of the three myrobalans for seven times in succession, is rubbed with human milk and used in various eye diseases.Source: Alois Payer - Amarakośa: Vaiśyavarga 100-106b
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
The Sakiyan, son of Devadaha, and father of Mahamaya and Mahapajapati, wives of Suddhodana.
His wife was Sulakkhana (Ap.ii.538, v.115; see also ThagA.152).
According to the Mahavamsa (ii.17ff), he was the son of Devadahasakka and had a sister Kaccana; his queen was Yasodhara.
In addition to the daughters mentioned above he had two sons, Dandapani and the Sakiyan Suppabuddha.
See also Suppabuddha.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Añjana (अञ्जन).—There are four Añjana mountains situated in the northern direction of the central part of Nandīśvaradvīpa, according to Jain cosmology:
They have a black colour and on the top are temples of the Arhats (tīrthaṅkaras), decorated with jewelled platforms (maṇipīṭhikā), diases (devacchandaka) and statues (śāśvata-bimba) of Ṛṣabha, Vardhamāna, Candrāmana and Vāriṣeṇa in the paryaṅka posture.
Nandīśvaradvīpa is one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) and is mentioned in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Añjana (अञ्जन) refers to “antimony”: a mineral that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products (eg., añjana). The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Añjana (अञ्जन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Añjana] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Añjana (अञ्जन) is the name of a mountain situated in Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Añjana has been described in the Sarabhaṅga Jātaka as a mountain situated in the Mahāvana or Great Forest. It is the Sulliman range in the Punjab.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
añjana : (nt.) collyrium (for the eyes).Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Añjana, (nt.) (from añjati2) ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. kaṇha II. and kāla1 note). — 1. Vin.I, 203 (five kinds viz. kāḷ°, ras°, sot°, geruka, kapalla); D.I, 7, 12; DA.I, 98 (khār°); 284; DhA.III, 354 (akkhi° eye-salve). — 2. glossy, jet-black J.I, 194; II, 369; V, 416. The reading añjana at A.IV, 468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattaṃ. See also pacc°. In meaning collyrium box at Th.2, 413 (= añjana-nāḷi ThA.267); DhA.II, 25.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
añjana (अंजन).—n (S) A collyrium: also an application to the eye-lashes to darken and improve them. 2 Particular applications to the eyes (as lampblack, antimony &c.) to confer superhuman powers of vision. Ex. añjanāviṇa na sādhē nidhāna || 3 Applied fig. to instruction from a spiritual teacher; to a prasāda from an idol &c.; considered as a means of removing mental darkness.
--- OR ---
añjana (अंजन) [or नी, nī].—f (The ja is Ja.) Ironwood-tree, Memecylon tinctorium. Graham. Also Hardwickia binata. Graham.
--- OR ---
añjāna (अंजान).—a ( H) Unknowing, unacquainted, ignorant.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
añjana (अंजन).—n A collyrium.
--- OR ---
añjana (अंजन) [-nī, -नी].—f Ironwood-tree.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Añjana (अञ्जन).—1 A kind of lizard.
2) Name of a tree or mountain.
3) Name of the guardian elephant (of the west or s. w.) तस्य चान्येऽपि दिङ्नागा बभूबुरनुयायिनः । अञ्जनो बामनश्चैव महापद्मश्च सुप्रभः (tasya cānye'pi diṅnāgā babhūburanuyāyinaḥ | añjano bāmanaścaiva mahāpadmaśca suprabhaḥ) || Mb.6.64.57.
-nam [ajyate anena; añj lyuṭ]
1) Anointing, smearing with, दन्तधावनमञ्जनं पूर्वाह्ण एव कुर्वीत (dantadhāvanamañjanaṃ pūrvāhṇa eva kurvīta) Ms.4.152; mixing; unfolding, manifesting.
2) Collyrium or black pigment used to paint the eyelashes; विलोचनं दक्षिणमञ्जनेन संभाव्य (vilocanaṃ dakṣiṇamañjanena saṃbhāvya) R.7.8 salve; अमृत° कोऽयं दृशोरमृताञ्जनम् (amṛta° ko'yaṃ dṛśoramṛtāñjanam) U.4.18 ambrosial salve; कुर्वन् °मेचका इव दिशो मेघः समुत्तिष्ठते (kurvan °mecakā iva diśo meghaḥ samuttiṣṭhate) Mk.5.8,1.34; (fig. also) अज्ञानान्धस्य लोकस्य ज्ञानाञ्जनशलाकया । चक्षुरुन्मीलितं येन तस्मै पाणिनये नमः (ajñānāndhasya lokasya jñānāñjanaśalākayā | cakṣurunmīlitaṃ yena tasmai pāṇinaye namaḥ) || Śik.45; पटुतरविवेकाञ्जनजुषाम् (paṭutaravivekāñjanajuṣām) Bh.3.84; cf. also दारिद्य्रं परमाञ्जनम् (dāridyraṃ paramāñjanam); (fig.) impurity, as in निरञ्जन (nirañjana), q. v.
3) Paint, a cosmetic ointment.
4) Magic ointment.
5) A special kind of material of the black pigment, such as antimony (used as collyrium, lamp-black &c. sauvīra
9) (nam, nā) (Rhet.) A suggested meaning; also the process by which such meaning is suggested. It is the power of suggestion (founded on abhidhā or lakṣaṇā denotation or indication), by which something else is understood from a word which, though having more meanings than one, has been restricted to a single meaning by relations of conjunction, disjunction &c. (saṃyoga, viprayoga, sāhacarya, viro- dhitā &c.), or, briefly, the use of a word of several meanings in a special sense determined by the context; e. g. सशङ्खचक्रो हरिः (saśaṅkhacakro hariḥ) the adjective restricts Hari to mean 'Viṣṇu' alone, and not a 'lion' or 'monkey'; so रामलक्ष्मणौ दाशरथी, रामार्जुनौ भार्गवकार्तवीर्यौ (rāmalakṣmaṇau dāśarathī, rāmārjunau bhārgavakārtavīryau) &c.; cf. अनेकार्थस्य शब्दस्य वाच- कत्वे नियन्त्रिते । संयोगाद्यैरवाच्यार्थधीकृद् व्यापृतिरञ्जनम् (anekārthasya śabdasya vāca- katve niyantrite | saṃyogādyairavācyārthadhīkṛd vyāpṛtirañjanam) || K.P.2., S. D.23-6; See व्याञ्जना (vyāñjanā) also.
Derivable forms: añjanaḥ (अञ्जनः).
--- OR ---
1) Name of the female elephant of the north.
2) Name of the mother of Māruti or Hanūmat. [She was the daughter of a monkey named Kuṅnjara and wife of Kesarin, another monkey. She was in a former birth a celestial nymph by name Puñjikasthali and was born on earth owing to a curse. One day while she was seated on the summit of a mountain, her garment was slightly displaced, and the God of Wind being enamoured of her beauty assumed a visible form, and asked her to yield to his desires. She requested him not to violate her chastity, to which he consented; but he told her that she would conceive a son equal to himself in strength and lustre by virtue of his amorous desire fixed on her, and then disappeared. In course of time Añjanā conceived and brought forth a son who was called Māruti being the son of Marut.]
--- OR ---
Āñjana (आञ्जन).—a. (-nī f.) [अञ्जनस्येदं-अण् (añjanasyedaṃ-aṇ)] Anointing or belonging to ointment.
-nam 1 Ointment, especially for the eyes.
2) Fat; इमा नारीरविधवाः सुपत्नीराञ्जनेन सर्पिषा संवि- शन्तु (imā nārīravidhavāḥ supatnīrāñjanena sarpiṣā saṃvi- śantu) Rv.1.18.7.
-naḥ Name of Māruti or Hanūmat दाश- रथिबलैरिवाञ्जननीलनलपरिगतप्रान्तैः (dāśa- rathibalairivāñjananīlanalaparigataprāntaiḥ) K.58.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Anointing. 2. Going. 3. Making clear, distinct. 4. A collyrium or application to the eye-lashes, to darken and improve them; a universal article of the eastern toilet. 5. Particular applications, as lamp black, antimony, and another kind. See rasāñjana. 6. Night. 7. Ink. 8. A term in rhetoric; the use of a word of several meanings in one specific sense, which is determined by the context. m.
(-naḥ) 1. The elephant of the west 2. A species of lizard. f.
(-nā) 1. The mother of Hanuman. 2. A green lizard. (-nī) 3. A woman perfumed with sandal, &c. 4. A medicinal plant. See. kaṭukā. E. añja to beautify or anoint, and lyu or lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Starts with (+14): Anjana Pabbata, Anjana Vana, Anjanabhairava, Anjanabhyanjana, Anjanacunna, Anjanadevi, Anjanadhika, Anjanadi, Anjanadri, Anjanagiri, Anjanahari, Anjanaka, Anjanakeshi, Anjanakkhiha, Anjanakula, Anjanali, Anjanambhas, Anjanamudga, Anjanamulaka, Anjananali.
Ends with (+125): Abbhanjana, Abhiranjana, Abhishanjana, Abhivyanjana, Abhyanjana, Ajatavyanjana, Akkhabhanjana, Akkhanjana, Alakhaniranjana, Ananjana, Anjanabhyanjana, Anubyanjana, Anuranjana, Anushanjana, Anuvyanjana, Aparadhabhanjana, Asanjana, Asitanjana, Avasanjana, Avyanjana.
Full-text (+109): Nilanjana, Rasanjana, Anjanadhika, Srotonjana, Pushpanjana, Anjanambhas, Anjanika, Kapotanjana, Trinanjana, Sauviranjana, Kalanjana, Anjanavati, Tryanjana, Anjanadi, Nilavat, Kunjara, Naganjana, Niranjana, Hanumat, Sulakkhana.
Search found 43 books and stories containing Anjana, Añjana, Anjanā, Añjanā, Āñjana, Añjāna; (plurals include: Anjanas, Añjanas, Anjanās, Añjanās, Āñjanas, Añjānas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XVIII - Preparations and medicinal measures for ocular affections in general < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter X - Treatment of Pittaja Ophthalmia < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter XVII - Treatment of diseases of pupil and crystalline lens < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 2 - Purification of anjana < [Chapter XIV - Uparasa (15): Anjana (stibnite, sulphide of lead)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Anjana (stibnite, lead sulphide) < [Chapter XIV - Uparasa (15): Anjana (stibnite, sulphide of lead)]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 31: Description of Nandīśvara < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 4: Birth of Hanumat (Hanuman) < [Chapter III - Hanumat’s birth and Varuṇa’s subjection]
Part 3: Previous birth of Añjanā < [Chapter III - Hanumat’s birth and Varuṇa’s subjection]
The Mahavamsa (by Wilhelm Geiger)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)