Sumana, Sumanā, Su-mana: 22 definitions



Sumana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sumanā (सुमना) is a Sanskrit word referring to “jasmine”, a species of jasmine from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. It is also known as Jātī and Mālatī, and in the Hindu language it is known as Camelī. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Jasminum grandiflorum but is commonly referred to in English as “Spanish jasmine” or “Royal jasmine” among others. It is an evergreen shrub with white pleasantly fragrant flowers and grows all over India up to 2500m elevation. It is also cultivated as ornamental plant.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Sumana (सुमन) refers to a “flower”, as mentioned in a list of eight synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Sumana] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Sumanā (सुमना).—Wife of Somaśarman, a brahmin. (See under Somaśarman).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Sumana (सुमन).—A son of Ulmuka and Puṣkariṇī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 17.

1b) A queen of Madhu and mother of Vīravrata.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15.

1c) A mountain in Plakṣadvīpa. Here Vāraha Viṣṇu killed Hiraṇyākṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 11; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 7.

1d) A god of the Prasūta group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 70.

1e) A garden of the gods*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 101.

1f) A son of Maṇibhadra and Puṇyajanī; an Yakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 122.

1g) A son of Āgneyī and Ūru.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 43.

1h) The name of Cakravāka in Mānasa; in previous birth a son of Kauśika.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 20. 18.

1i) A mountain in Gomedaka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 23. 3.

1j) Same as Āmbikeya of the Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 16.

1k) An Ekārṣeya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 200. 5.

1l) A gana attributed to Viśravas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 28.

1m) The son of Hasta and father of Tridhanvā.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 3. 26.

1n) Mountain hill of the Śālmalīdvīpa.*

  • * 122. 94.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sumana (सुमन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.9, I.57, II.9.13) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sumana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Sumanā (सुमना) is a Sanskrit name of one of the five cow-mothers, born from the churning of the milk ocean and descended on earth from Śiva’s world at the latter’s behest for the welfare of the people, according to the Śivadharmottarapurāṇa

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Sumanā (सुमना) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Sumanā has 14 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 4, 4, [SII or ISI or IIII] and [S] mātrās.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Sumana. The fourth of the twenty four Buddhas. He was born in Mekhala, his father being the khattiya Sudatta and his mother Sirima. For nine thousand years he lived as a householder in three palaces - Canda, Sucanda and Vatamsa (BuA.125 calls them Narivaddhana, Somavaddhana and Iddhivaddhana) - his wife being Vatamsika and his son Anupama. He left the world on an elephant, practised austerities for ten months, and attained enlightenment under a naga tree, being given a meal of milk rice by Anupama, daughter of Anupama setthi of Anoma, and grass for his seat by the Ajivaka Anupama. His first sermon was preached in the Mekhala Park, and among his first disciples were his step brother Sarana and the purohitas son Bhavitatta. His Twin miracle was performed in Sunandavati. The Bodhisatta was a Naga king Atula. One of the Buddhas chief assemblies was on the occasion of his solving the questions of King Arindama on Nirodha.

Sarana and Bhavitatta were his chief monks and Sona and Upasena his chief nuns. Udena was his personal attendant. Varuna and Sarana were his chief lay supporters among men and Cala and Upacala among women. His body was ninety cubits in height, and he died at the age of ninety thousand in Angarama, where a thupa of four yojanas was erected over his ashes. Bu.v.1ff.; BuA.125f.; J.i.30,34,35, 40.

2. Sumana. Attendant of Padumuttara Buddha (J.i.37; Bu.xi.24). His eminence prompted Ananda (Sumana in that birth) to resolve to be an attendant of some future Buddha. ThagA.ii.122; see also Ap.i.195.

3. Sumana. Step brother of Padumuttara, Buddha. He obtained, as boon from the king, the privilege of waiting on the Buddha for three months. He built in the park of Sobhana a vihara. The park belonged to the householder Sobhana, and he built the vihara, on land for which he gave one hundred thousand. There he entertained the Buddha and his monks. Sunanda is identified with Ananda. ThagA.ii.122f.; AA.i.160f.; SA.ii.168f.

4. Sumana. A pupil of Anuruddha. He represented the monks from Paveyyaka at the Second Council. Vasabhagami was his colleague. See also Sumana (8). Mhv.iv.49, 58; Dpv.iv.48; v.24; Vin.ii.305, etc.

5. Sumana. A garland maker, given as an example of one whose acts bore fruit in this very life (Mil.115, 291, 350; cf. DhSA.426; PSA.498). He was Bimbisaras gardener, and provided the king daily with eight measures of jasmine flowers, for which he received eight pieces of money, One day, while on his way to the palace, he saw the Buddha, and threw two handfuls of flowers into the air, where they formed a canopy over the Buddhas head. Two handfuls thrown on the right, two on the left and two behind, all remained likewise in the air and accompanied the Buddha as he walked through the city, a distance of three leagues, that all might see the miracle.

-- or --

1. Sumana. An aggasavika of Anomadassi Buddha.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Sumanā (सुमना) from Śrāvastī is one of the three courtesans (veśya) mentioned in a story in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13. Accordingly, three brothers heard speak of three courtesans (e.g., Sumanā). Hearing everyone praise the incomparable beauty of these three women, the three brothers thought of them day and night and could not get them out of their minds. In dreams, they possessed them. Once awakened, they said to themselves: “These women did not come to us and we did not go to these women; nevertheless, pleasure was produced. Because of them we woke up. Are all dharmas like that?”

2) Sumana (सुमन) (also called Sumanas or Karṇasumana) is the name of a Buddhist Bhikṣu according to chapter XLV.—Accordingly, “the Bhikṣu Karṇasumana, in a previous lifetime, saw the stūpa of the Buddha Vipaśyin and gave it the sumanā flower that he was wearing behind his ear. As a result of this, for eighty-one kalpas he enjoyed happiness among gods and men and, in his last lifetime, he had behind his ear a sumanā flower the perfume of which filled the whole house; this is why he was called Karṇasumana. Then, disgusted with the world, he went forth from home and obtained the Bodhi of the Arhats”.

Notes: when he was but seven years of age, Sumana was ordained by Aniruddha (commentary on Dhammapda). He may be identified, perhaps, with the Sumana who represented the monks from Pāvā at the second Council at Vaiśālī (cf. Vinaya; Dīpavaṃsa; Mahāvaṃsa).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Sumanā (सुमना) refers to one of the female Śrāvakas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Sumanā).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: A Study of dipavamsa

Sumana is the name of a pre-Buddhist deity in Ceylon.—The god Sumana of Sumantakuta (Adam’s Peak) is a pre-Buddhist mountain deity in Ceylon. It is described by the early analysts that he was originally a Yakkha and happened to be worshipped before the Buddha’s first visit to Ceylon, since it is stated that he had received some of the Buddha’s pure blue-black locks on that occasion which he enclosed in the thupa of sapphire at Mahiyangana. Sumana was the chief of Devas, that is Sakra. Walpola Rahula opines that, ‘even after conversion to Buddhism the Sinhalese desired to continue to venerate their friendly deities. But being Buddhists, they did not like to worship a non-Buddhist deity. They therefore converted these deities to Buddhism and elevated them to a higher plane’56.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sumana : (adj.) glad. || sumanā (f.), jasmine; a glad woman.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sumanā, the great-flowered jasmine J. I, 62; IV, 455; DhA. IV, 12. In composition sumana°.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sumana (सुमन).—m S Wheat. 2 A god, any immortal.

--- OR ---

sumana (सुमन).—n S A flower. sumanakalikā f A flower-bud. Ex. bhramara guntalē sumanakaḷikē ||.

--- OR ---

sumana (सुमन).—n (Poetically and popularly.) A pure or virtuous mind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sumana (सुमन).—n A flower. A pure mind. m Wheat. A god.

--- OR ---

sumanā (सुमना).—a Of a right and sound mind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sumana (सुमन).—a. very charming, lovely, beautiful. (-naḥ) 1 wheat.

2) the thorn-apple.

- the great-flowered jasmine.

Sumana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and mana (मन).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sumana (सुमन).—(s) (1) name of a future Buddha: Gaṇḍavyūha 441.25; (2) name of a śuddhāvāsakāyika god: Mahāvastu ii.257.8, 18 (in both mss. Sumata); 258.6, 19 (in all four n. sg. -o or -aś); [Page601-b+ 71] (3) name of one of the four devatās of the bodhivṛkṣa: °naḥ, n. sg., Lalitavistara 278.10; (4) name of a rich householder's son who was given by his father as attendant to Aniruddha and initiated by him: Avadāna-śataka ii.68.6 ff.; (5) (perhaps = Pali Sumana 8 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)) name of a Buddhist elder: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.180.1 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumana (सुमन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Handsome, beautiful. m.

(-naḥ) 1. Wheat. 2. The thorn-apple, (Datura metel.) f.

(-nā) Great-flowered jasmine. E. su good, man to think, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sumana (सुमन):—[=su-mana] [from su > su-ma] mfn. ([probably] for -manas) very charming, beautiful, handsome, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] m. wheat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] the thorn-apple, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a mythical being, [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] of one of the 4 Bodhi-vṛkṣa-devatās, [Lalita-vistara]

6) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Buddhist literature]

7) Sumanā (सुमना):—[=su-manā] [from su-mana > su > su-ma] f. Name of various plants ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ‘great flowering jasmine, Rosa Glandulifera, or Chrysanthemum Indicum’), [Suśruta; Mṛcchakaṭikā]

8) [v.s. ...] a spotted cow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a Kaikeyī, [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] of a wife of Dama, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sumana (सुमन):—[su-mana] (naḥ-nā-naṃ) m. Wheat; thornapple. 1. f. Great-flowered jasmine. a. Beautiful.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Sumana (सुमन):—

1) adj. lieblich, hübsch [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) m. a) Weizen [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 18.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1174.] — b) Stechapfel [Śabdamālā im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) Nomen proprium eines mythischen Wesens [Mahābhārata 2, 303.] einer der vier Bodhivṛkṣadevatā [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 347, 8.] eines Schlangendämons [Lebensbeschreibung Śākyamuni’s 256 (26).] —

3) f. ā a) Jasminum grandiflorum [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 53] (könnte auch sumanas sein). [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] [Rājanirghaṇṭa 10, 75.] Rosa glandulifera oder Chrysanthemum indicum [80. -] [Suśruta 2, 97, 21. 112, 5. 122, 11. 347, 5. 419, 12] (= jātī Comm.; sumanas der gedr. Text). veśyāḥ śmaśānasumanā (wohl Blume überh.) iva varjanīyāḥ [Spr. (II) 1458.] — b) Nomen proprium einer Kaikeyī [Mahābhārata 13, 5859. fgg.] Gattin Dama's [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 134,8. 10. 59. fg. 135,5. 6.] [Oxforder Handschriften 12,b,43. fgg.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sumana (सुमन) [Also spelled suman]:—(nm) a flower; (a) favourably disposed; happy; ~[ska] happy, pleased.

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