Sumana, aka: Sumanā, Su-mana; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Sumana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Sumanā (सुमना) is a Sanskrit word referring to “jasmine”, a species of jasmine from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. It is also known as Jātī and Mālatī, and in the Hindu language it is known as Camelī. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Jasminum grandiflorum but is commonly referred to in English as “Spanish jasmine” or “Royal jasmine” among others. It is an evergreen shrub with white pleasantly fragrant flowers and grows all over India up to 2500m elevation. It is also cultivated as ornamental plant.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sumana (सुमन) refers to a “flower”, as mentioned in a list of eight synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Sumana] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

Sumana in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Sumanā (सुमना).—Wife of Somaśarman, a brahmin. (See under Somaśarman).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Sumana (सुमन).—A son of Ulmuka and Puṣkariṇī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 17.

1b) A queen of Madhu and mother of Vīravrata.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15.

1c) A mountain in Plakṣadvīpa. Here Vāraha Viṣṇu killed Hiraṇyākṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 11; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 7.

1d) A god of the Prasūta group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 70.

1e) A garden of the gods*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 101.

1f) A son of Maṇibhadra and Puṇyajanī; an Yakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 122.

1g) A son of Āgneyī and Ūru.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 43.

1h) The name of Cakravāka in Mānasa; in previous birth a son of Kauśika.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 20. 18.

1i) A mountain in Gomedaka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 23. 3.

1j) Same as Āmbikeya of the Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 16.

1k) An Ekārṣeya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 200. 5.

1l) A gana attributed to Viśravas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 28.

1m) The son of Hasta and father of Tridhanvā.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 3. 26.

1n) Mountain hill of the Śālmalīdvīpa.*

  • * 122. 94.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Sumanā (सुमना) is a Sanskrit name of one of the five cow-mothers, born from the churning of the milk ocean and descended on earth from Śiva’s world at the latter’s behest for the welfare of the people, according to the Śivadharmottarapurāṇa

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Sumana (सुमन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.9, I.57, II.9.13) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sumana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Sumana. The fourth of the twenty four Buddhas. He was born in Mekhala, his father being the khattiya Sudatta and his mother Sirima. For nine thousand years he lived as a householder in three palaces - Canda, Sucanda and Vatamsa (BuA.125 calls them Narivaddhana, Somavaddhana and Iddhivaddhana) - his wife being Vatamsika and his son Anupama. He left the world on an elephant, practised austerities for ten months, and attained enlightenment under a naga tree, being given a meal of milk rice by Anupama, daughter of Anupama setthi of Anoma, and grass for his seat by the Ajivaka Anupama. His first sermon was preached in the Mekhala Park, and among his first disciples were his step brother Sarana and the purohitas son Bhavitatta. His Twin miracle was performed in Sunandavati. The Bodhisatta was a Naga king Atula. One of the Buddhas chief assemblies was on the occasion of his solving the questions of King Arindama on Nirodha.

Sarana and Bhavitatta were his chief monks and Sona and Upasena his chief nuns. Udena was his personal attendant. Varuna and Sarana were his chief lay supporters among men and Cala and Upacala among women. His body was ninety cubits in height, and he died at the age of ninety thousand in Angarama, where a thupa of four yojanas was erected over his ashes. Bu.v.1ff.; BuA.125f.; J.i.30,34,35, 40.

2. Sumana. Attendant of Padumuttara Buddha (J.i.37; Bu.xi.24). His eminence prompted Ananda (Sumana in that birth) to resolve to be an attendant of some future Buddha. ThagA.ii.122; see also Ap.i.195.

3. Sumana. Step brother of Padumuttara, Buddha. He obtained, as boon from the king, the privilege of waiting on the Buddha for three months. He built in the park of Sobhana a vihara. The park belonged to the householder Sobhana, and he built the vihara, on land for which he gave one hundred thousand. There he entertained the Buddha and his monks. Sunanda is identified with Ananda. ThagA.ii.122f.; AA.i.160f.; SA.ii.168f.

4. Sumana. A pupil of Anuruddha. He represented the monks from Paveyyaka at the Second Council. Vasabhagami was his colleague. See also Sumana (8). Mhv.iv.49, 58; Dpv.iv.48; v.24; Vin.ii.305, etc.

5. Sumana. A garland maker, given as an example of one whose acts bore fruit in this very life (Mil.115, 291, 350; cf. DhSA.426; PSA.498). He was Bimbisaras gardener, and provided the king daily with eight measures of jasmine flowers, for which he received eight pieces of money, One day, while on his way to the palace, he saw the Buddha, and threw two handfuls of flowers into the air, where they formed a canopy over the Buddhas head. Two handfuls thrown on the right, two on the left and two behind, all remained likewise in the air and accompanied the Buddha as he walked through the city, a distance of three leagues, that all might see the miracle.

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1. Sumana. An aggasavika of Anomadassi Buddha.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

1) Sumanā (सुमना) from Śrāvastī is one of the three courtesans (veśya) mentioned in a story in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13. Accordingly, three brothers heard speak of three courtesans (eg., Sumanā). Hearing everyone praise the incomparable beauty of these three women, the three brothers thought of them day and night and could not get them out of their minds. In dreams, they possessed them. Once awakened, they said to themselves: “These women did not come to us and we did not go to these women; nevertheless, pleasure was produced. Because of them we woke up. Are all dharmas like that?”

2) Sumana (सुमन) (also called Sumanas or Karṇasumana) is the name of a Buddhist Bhikṣu according to chapter XLV.—Accordingly, “the Bhikṣu Karṇasumana, in a previous lifetime, saw the stūpa of the Buddha Vipaśyin and gave it the sumanā flower that he was wearing behind his ear. As a result of this, for eighty-one kalpas he enjoyed happiness among gods and men and, in his last lifetime, he had behind his ear a sumanā flower the perfume of which filled the whole house; this is why he was called Karṇasumana. Then, disgusted with the world, he went forth from home and obtained the Bodhi of the Arhats”.

Notes: when he was but seven years of age, Sumana was ordained by Aniruddha (commentary on Dhammapda). He may be identified, perhaps, with the Sumana who represented the monks from Pāvā at the second Council at Vaiśālī (cf. Vinaya; Dīpavaṃsa; Mahāvaṃsa).

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Sumana in Pali glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

sumana : (adj.) glad. || sumanā (f.), jasmine; a glad woman.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Sumanā, the great-flowered jasmine J. I, 62; IV, 455; DhA. IV, 12. In composition sumana°.

—dāma a wreath of jasmine J. IV, 455. —paṭṭa cloth with jasmine pattern J. I, 62. —puppha j. flower Miln. 291; VvA. 147. —makula a j. bud DhA. III, 371. —mālā garland of j. VvA. 142. (Page 720)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

sumana (सुमन).—m S Wheat. 2 A god, any immortal.

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sumana (सुमन).—n S A flower. sumanakalikā f A flower-bud. Ex. bhramara guntalē sumanakaḷikē ||.

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sumana (सुमन).—n (Poetically and popularly.) A pure or virtuous mind.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sumana (सुमन).—n A flower. A pure mind. m Wheat. A god.

--- OR ---

sumanā (सुमना).—a Of a right and sound mind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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