Jambu, Jambū: 26 definitions

Introduction

Jambu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Jambu, the Ardha-patāka hand.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Jambū (जम्बू).—A tree which stands on the southern side of the mount Mahāmeru. This tree bears fruits and flowers throughout the year irrespective of the seasons. This tree is watered by the Siddhacāraṇas. The branches of this tree reach the realm of heaven. The place in which this tree stands is known as Jambūdvīpa. The ripe fruits as big as elephants fall down and are broken. The juice oozing from them flows as a big stream. This is called the river Jambū. It flows through the southern part of the country known as Ilāvṛtta. The goddess who lives on the bank of this big river is known as Jambvādinī. She is very fond of Jambū fruit. This goddess who loves everything in the world, is worshipped by the gods, nāgas (snakes), the hermits and sages, Rākṣasas (giants) and every body in the world with devotion. Even by the mere thinking of her she could be pleased. She destroys the sins and increases the purity of people. She cures all the diseases and gives people, health, wealth, long life, prosperity and happiness.

The juice of the Jambū fruit when mixed with soil and acted upon by water, air and sun’s rays, turns into a kind of gold called Jāmbūnada. The devas, Vidyādharas etc. use this gold to make ornaments for their women. This gold is superior to other kinds of gold. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Jambu (जम्बु).—The tree at Ilāvṛtam in the Himālayas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 17. 12; 19. 29; III. 22. 37; 27. 17; IV. 43. 17.

2a) Jambū (जम्बू).—(Jāmbūnada) a river of juice of celestial roseapple tree flowing from the top of Merumandara into Ilāvṛta. The earth on its two banks yields fine gold jāmbūnada from which jewels are made in heaven; source of jambu;1 R. from Candraprabha2 in colour like a butterfly.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 19-20; Vāyu-purāṇa 35. 26-30.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 69.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 46. 30.

2b) (Jambūdvīpa)—occupies the central position of the globe in the form of a lotus leaf, in extent a 100,000 yojanas. There are nine continents demarcated by mountain ranges. In the middle is situated Ilāvṛta, at whose middle portion stands Meru. Some say that eight extra countries were attached to it by the sons of Sagara who dug into the earth on all sides in search of sacrificial horse. This dvīpa is surrounded by salt sea.1 Contains many janapadas, cities, mountains, rivers, nine bhuvanas, salt ocean, six varṣaparvatas and two oceans—east and west. Divided into nine parts among the sons of Āgnīdhra;2 from the jambu tree.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 12. 5; V. 1. 32; 16. 5-7; 19. 29-30; 20. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 83. 32; 113. 7; 122. 2; 284. 2; Vāyu-purāṇa 11. 84; 33. 11 and 45; ch. 34. Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 28.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 17. 24, 30; 15. 8 to the end; 14. 11, 43 and 52; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 12; 2. 23-25.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 46. 25.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Jambū (जम्बू) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Jambūdvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.

According to the Parākhya-tantra, “all this is called the continent Jambu, where the Jambu tree with large fruits grows. Because of contact with the juices that come from those arises the gold known as Jāmbūnada. Outside that is the ocean (sāgara) of salt water that was created bythe sons of Sagara”.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Jambū (जम्बू) is the name of a tree (Jāmuna) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Mṛgśirā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Jambū], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Jambu (जम्बु) refers to the “rose apple” and represents a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Arthaśāstra II.15.19, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We can see the description of flowering and fruit bearing plants in Ṛgveda. But we come across the specific names of them only in the later Saṃhita and Brāhmaṇa literature. [...] Karamarda, parūṣaka, cūta (a variety of mango), Emblic myrobalan (āmalaka), Citrus medica, jujube, rose apple (jambu), cucumber (urvāruka), palm fruit (tālaphala), rājādana, pomegranate and jack fruit are referred to in Arthaśāstra.

Jambu or “rose-apple” is mentioned as a source of fuel for boiling water (jala), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—[...]. It is interesting to note that the properties of boiled water based on the fuel used to boil the same are described. The fuels discussed here are [viz., jambu (rose-apple)]

Jambu or Eugenia jambolana (synonym of Syzygium cumini or “Jambolan”/ “rose apple”) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., jambu (Eugenia jambolana or rose apple)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., nāgara (dry ginger)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Jaṃbū (जंबू) refers to the medicinal plant Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels, Syn. Syzygium jambolana DC, Syn. Eugenia jambolana Lamk., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Jaṃbū] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Jambū (जम्बू) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Syzygium cumuni (Linn.) Skeels” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning jambū] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras

Jambu is the name of a sage (Munivar) whose story explains the sthala-purāṇa of the Jambukeswarar Temple in Tiruvānaikoyil (Thiruvanaikaval) which is one of the Pañcasabhā or “five halls where Śiva is said to have danced”.—Once, to redeem mankind, Śiva was engaged in deep meditation on Mount Kailas. Pārvatī laughed at his meditation. Śiva got angry and commanded her to go to earth and worship him in a sacred place. So Pārvatī descended to the earth and went in search of a sacred place. She found a great forest of jambu (rose apple) trees on the banks of the river Kaveri. By her power, she took some water and turned it into a liṅga for her worship.

A great sage by name Jambu Munivar performed penance. One day he took a fully ripe and delicious rose apple fruit and presented it to Śiva. Śiva ate the fruit and spat out the seed of the fruit. The sage swallowed the seed as a gift from the lord. To his surprise, he found the seed growing into a tree in him. Śiva commanded the sage to go to the forest of jambu trees and be there. He also told the sage that Goddess Pārvatī in the name of Akilānṭeśvarī would come there and worship the linga. The sage went to Tiruvānaikoyil and stayed there. The seed of the rose apple sprouted from his head and grew into a big jambu tree under which the liṅga was worshipped by Akilānṭeśvarī. Thus the sthala originated here in this place.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A village, in command of which was a Tamil general of the same name, whom Dutthagamani slew. Mhv.xxv.15.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Jambū (जम्बू) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Eugenia jambulana) under which the parents of Vimala are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to the Śvetāmbara tradition. According to the Digambara tradition the tree is known as Pāṭalajambū. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Vimala is the thirteenth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Kṛtavarmā and his mother is Śyāmā according to Śvetāmbara or Jayaśyāmā according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Jambū (जम्बू) is the shorter name of Jambūdvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Lavaṇasamudra (or simply Lavaṇa), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Jambū is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

3) Jambū (जम्बू) refers to the caityavṛkṣa (sacred-tree) associated with the Dvīpa or Dvīpakumāra class of the bhavanavāsin species of Devas (gods), according to Jain cosmology. They are defined according to the cosmological texts, such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition, or the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

1) Jambu (जम्बु) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Jambu tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

2) Jambu (जम्बु) refers to the “blackberry” (Syzygium cumini): a type of fruit (phala), according to Jain canonical texts (eg., the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra from the 3rd century B.C.). Various kinds of fruits were grown and consumed by the people in ancient India. Fruits were also dried up for preservation. Koṭṭaka was a place for this operation. Besides being grown in orchards, fruits were gathered from jungles and were carried to cities for sales.

The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits (eg., Jambu fruit), vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjāṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm and quiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Jambu (जम्बु) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Jambu] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Jambu (जम्बु) refers to the tree (black-berry) associated with Vimalanātha: the thirteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Jaina liturgical treatises attribute to Vimalanātha, the thirteenth Jina, the Lāñchana or symbol of the boar. The particular attendant spirits attached to him are named as Ṣaṇmukha and Vairoṭi (Śvetāmbara: Viditā). The King to stand for his fanner is called Svayaṃbhu-Vāsudeva. His Kevala tree is Jambu (Black-berry).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Jambū (जम्बू) is the name of the tree enveloping the continent of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.—The main Jambū tree is located in the middle of the most auspicious-enjoyment-land (bhogabhūmi) called Uttarakuru. Uttarakuru in turn lies north of Sudarśana Mount or Meru in Videha-kṣetra. What is the size of Jambū tree’s family? There are four satellite trees in the four directions around this Jambū tree. There are 140115 trees around these satellite trees. Thus the total number of trees including the main and four trees is 140120.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Jambu (or, Jaṃbū) refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to local Gujarat tradition. The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Jambu), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Jambu) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (eg., Jambu) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places, and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Jambu is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Jambu refers to the “Rose-apple” and is known for its sweet fruits.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Jambu), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Jambu, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jambu : (f.) the rose-apple tree. || jambū (f.) the rose-apple tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jambu, (f.) (Sk. jambu) the rose-apple tree, Eugenia Jambolana J. II, 160; V, 6; Vv 67; 4413, 164.—As adj. f. jambī sarcastically “rose-apple-maid, ” applied to a gardener’s daughter J. III, 22.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jambu (जंबु).—f (S) Rose apple-plant, Eugenia Jambu. 2 n or jambuphala n Its fruit.

--- OR ---

jambū (जंबू).—m A tribe, or an individual of it, of Brahmans in Gujarat. Also called khistī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jambu (जंबु).—f Rose-apple plant, Engenia Jambu.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jambu (जम्बु) or Jambū (जम्बू).—f.

1) The rose apple tree and its fruit; द्राक्षेक्षुरम्भाजम्बूभिः (drākṣekṣurambhājambūbhiḥ) Bhāg.8.2.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jambu (जम्बु).—mn. (-mbuḥ-mbu) 1. Jambu Dwipa, said to be so named from the Jambu tree abounding in it, and implying, according to the Puranas the central division of the world, or the known world: according to the Baud'dhas, it is confined to India. 2. A fabulous river, said to flow from the mountain Meru. f.

(-mbuḥ) A fruit tree the rose apple, (Eugenia janbolana;) also applied to every species of Eugenia. fn. (-mbuḥ-mbu) The fruit. E. jam to eat, vuk augment, and ku or Unadi affix; hence it is also written jambū.

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Jambū (जम्बू).—f.

(-mbūḥ) See jambu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jambu (जम्बु).—[feminine] the rose-apple tree; [neuter] its fruit.

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Jambū (जम्बू).—[feminine] the rose-apple tree; [neuter] its fruit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jambu (जम्बु):—f(u or ū). the rose apple tree (Eugenia Jambolana or another species), [Kauśika-sūtra 8; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) the shrub nāga-damanī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) n. the rose apple fruit, [Pāṇini 4-3, 165]

4) mf. (?; [gana] varaṇādi) = -dvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 1, 32]

5) Name of a fabulous river (flowing from the mountain Meru; formed by the juice of the fruits of the immense Jambu tree on that mountain cf. [Mahābhārata vi, 277 f.]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 2]

6) cf. āḍhaka-, kāka-, go-rakṣa-, mahā-.

7) Jambū (जम्बू):—[from jambu] f. = bu, the rose apple tree, [Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] m. = -svāmin, [Jaina literature]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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