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Bhumi, aka: Bhūmi; 11 Definition(s)


Bhumi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. Check out some of the following descriptions and leave a comment if you want to add your own contribution to this article.

In Hinduism

Śilpaśāstra (iconography)

Bhūmi (भूमि) is a synonym for adhiṣṭhāna (‘platform’), according to the Kāśyapaśilpa 6.1-2. The word adhiṣṭhāna is Sanskrit technical term referring to the “base” or “platform” on which a structure is built.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

about this context:

Śilpaśāstra (शिल्पशास्त्र, shilpa-shastra) represents the ancient Indian science of creative arts such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vāstuśāstra (architecture), they often share the same literature.


Bhūmi (भूमि).—(also Bhū) Earth personified;1 a Śakti;2 equal to diva in measurement; 150 crores of yojanas; extends in all directions from Meru; wife of Dhruva and mother of Sṛṣṭi; milked as cow by Pṛthu with Cākṣuṣa Manu as calf, by Bṛhaspati for the sages, by the sun for the gods, by Antaka for Pitṛs, by Diti's son for the Asuras, by Vāsuki for the Nāgas, by Rajatanābha for the Yakṣas, by the Rākṣasas and Piśācas; 500 crores in extent.3 Felt the heavy weight of the Asuras and reported to Brahmā in the assemblage of Gods at Meru with special reference to Kaṃsa,. Viṣṇu performed an avatār as Kṛṣṇa to do away with him.4 On the death of Naraka, she appealed to Kṛṣṇa to forgive his inequities and liberate him.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 3. 6.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 74; Matsya-purāṇa 2. 32.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 3, 12-17; 36. 96; 202. 27; IV. 37. 90.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 12-66.
  • 5) Ib. V. 29. 23-30.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

about this context:

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Earth (भूमि, bhūmi) is one of the five primary elements (pañcabhūta) forming the basic components of the world, according to Vāstu-śāstra literature. It is because of the presence and balance of these five elements that our planet thrives with life.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

about this context:

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Bhūmi, one of the four classifications of Vāstu, is considered main because it is the first of the elemental principles (bhūta) and a support for the existence of the world (Mayamat, 2.9).

Source: Ancient Indian Wisdom: Vāstu-puruṣa-maṇḍala

Bhūmī-Devī is the personification of Mother Earth. She is the consort of Varaha, an avatar of Vishnu and regarded as the mother of the goddess Sita.

According to the uttara-kanda, when Sita finally leaves her husband Rama, she returns to Bhumidevi. She is the mother of the demon Narakasura. Bhumi Devi is also believed to be one of the two forms of Lakshmi. The other is Sridevi, who remains with Narayana. Bhudevi is the Goddess of Earth, and the fertility form of Lakshmi. She is the daughter of Kashyap Prajapati. According to some she is also Satyabhama, wife of Sri Krishna in Dwapara Yuga and the divine saint Andal. Several female deities have had births similar to Sita.

etymology: Bhūmi (Sanskrit: भूमि), also Bhūmī-Devī (Sanskrit: भूमी देवी), Bhuma-Devi or Bhū-Devī.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism


Bhūmi, (f.) (cp. Vedic bhūmi, Av. būmiš soil, ground, to bhū, as in bhavati, cp. Gr. fuζis etc. See bhavati) 1. (lit.) ground, soil, earth Vin. II, 175; Sn. 418 (yāna° carriage road); Pv. I, 1014≈; SnA 353 (heṭṭhā-bhūmiyaṃ under the earth); DhA. I, 414 (id. , opp. upari-bhūmiyaṃ).—2. place, quarter, district, region M. I, 145 (jāti° district of one’s birth); Sn. 830 (vighāta°); Nd2 475 (danta°); DhA. I, 213 (āpāna°); PvA. 80 (susāna°).—uyyāna° garden (-place or locality) Vv 6419; Pv. II, 129; J. I, 58.—3. (fig.) ground, plane, stage, level; state of consciousness, Vin. I. 17; Vbh. 322 sq. ; Vism. 126, 442 (with ref. to the 4 Paṭisambhidā, as sekha-bhūmi & asekha-bhūmi), 517 (paññā°-niddesa). Usually —°: indriya° Nett 192; dassana° plane of insight Nett 8, 14, 50; sukha° ground for happiness Dhs. 984 (cp. DhsA. 214).—bhūmi-ttaya the 3 stages, viz. kāmâvacara, rūpâvacara, lokuttara Vism. 493.—pl. bhūmiyo Ps. II, 205=Vism. 384 (appld to the 4 jhānas); purisa° (aṭṭha p. bh. eight stages of the individual; viz. manda-bhūmi, khiḍḍā°, vīmaṃsana°, ujugata°, sekha°, samaṇa°, jina°, panna°, or as trsld by Rh. D. in Dial. I. 72, under “eight stages of a prophet’s existence"; babyhood, playtime, trial time, erect time, learning time, ascetic time, prophet time & prostrate time. Cp. the 10 decades of man’s life, as given by Bdhgh at Vism. 619).—Bdhgh, when defining the 2 meanings of bhūmi as “mahā-paṭhavī" and as “cittuppāda" (rise of thought) had in view the distinction between its literal & figurative meaning. But this def. (at DhsA. 214) is vague & only popular.—An old Loc. of bhūmi is bhumyā, e.g. J. I, 507; V, 84. Another form of bhūmi at end of cpds. is bhūma (q. v.).

—kampa shaking of the ground, earthquake Miln. 178. —gata “gone into the soil, " i.e. hiding, stored away J. I, 375. —ghana thick soil SnA 149, cp. paṭhavi-ghana ibid. 146. —tala ground (-surface) PvA. 186. —padesa place or region upon the earth J. VI, 95. —pappaṭaka outgrowths in the soil D. III, 87=Vism. 418. —pothana beating the ground DhA. I, 171. —bhāga division of the earth, district J. I, 109; V, 200; VvA. 125; PvA. 29, 154. –laddh’(uppanna) acquired on a certain stage of existence SnA 4. —saya lying or sleeping on the ground DhA. II, 61. (Page 508)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

bhūmi : (f.) ground; earth; region; stage; plane.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

about this context:

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

General definition (in Buddhism)

Bhūmi (भूमि):—There are two kinds of grounds:

  1. the grounds belonging to the bodhisattva (bodhisattvabhūmi) alone,
  2. the shared grounds (sādhāraṇabhūmi).
Source: Wisdom Library: The Treatise on the Great Virtue of Wisdom, Volume V

The Ten Bodhisattva Bhūmi are the ten stages on the Mahayana bodhisattva's path of awakening. The Sanskrit term bhūmi literally means "ground" or "foundation". Each stage represents a level of attainment, and serves as a basis for the next one. Each level marks a definite advancement in one's training, that is accompanied by progressively greater power and wisdom.

The bhūmis are subcategories of the Five Paths (pañcamārga, Wylie Tibetan lam lnga):

  1. The path of accumulation (saṃbhāra-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: tshogs lam). Persons on this Path:
           Possess a strong desire to overcome suffering, either their own or others;
           Renounce the worldly life.
  2. The path of preparation or application (prayoga-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: sbyor lam). Persons on this Path:
           Start practicing meditation;
           Have analytical knowledge of emptiness.
  3. The path of seeing (darśana-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: mthong lam). Persons on this Path:
           Practice profound concentration meditation on the nature of reality;
           Realize the emptiness of reality.
  4. The path of meditation (bhāvanā-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: sgom lam). Persons on this path purify themselves and accumulate wisdom.
  5. The path of no more learning or consummation (aśaikṣā-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: mi slob pa’i lam or thar phyin pa'i lam). Persons on this Path have completely purified themselves.

Passage through the grounds and paths begins with Bodhicitta, the wish to liberate all sentient beings. Aspiring Bodhicitta becomes Engaging Bodhicitta upon actual commitment to the Bodhisattva vows. With these steps, the practitioner becomes a Bodhisattva, and enters upon the paths.

etymology: Ten Bodhisattva Bhūmi (Sanskrit; Tibetan "byang chub sems dpa'i sa", enlightenment-being grounds/levels)

The Avataṃsakasūtra refers to the following ten bhūmis:

  1. The first bhūmi, the Very Joyous. (Skt. Pramudita), in which one rejoices at realizing a partial aspect of the truth;
  2. The second bhūmi, the Stainless. (Skt. Vimala), in which one is free from all defilement;
  3. The third bhūmi, the Luminous. (Skt. Prabhakari), in which one radiates the light of wisdom;
  4. The fourth bhūmi, the Radiant. (Skt. Archishmati), in which the radiant flame of wisdom burns away earthly desires;
  5. The fifth bhūmi, the Difficult to Cultivate. (Skt. Sudurjaya), in which one surmounts the illusions of darkness, or ignorance as the Middle Way;
  6. The sixth bhūmi, the Manifest. (Skt. Abhimukhi) in which supreme wisdom begins to manifest;
  7. The seventh bhūmi, the Gone Afar. (Skt. Duramgama), in which one rises above the states of the Two vehicles;
  8. The eighth bhūmi, the Immovable. (Skt. Achala), in which one dwells firmly in the truth of the Middle Way and cannot be perturbed by anything;
  9. The ninth bhūmi, the Good Intelligence. (Skt. Sadhumati), in which one preaches the Law freely and without restriction;
  10. The tenth bhūmi, the Cloud of Doctrine. (Skt. Dharmamegha), in which one benefits all sentient beings with the Law (Dharma), just as a cloud sends down rain impartially on all things.
Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

Bhumi means the place where sattas with similar characters arise and dwell.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

A technical term made use of in Mahayana tradition and meaning "earth", "level" and more often "stage".

Source: Buddhism Tourism: Glossary of Buddhist Terms

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