Bhumi, aka: Bhūmi, Bhūmī; 19 Definition(s)

Introduction

Bhumi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

[Bhumi in Purana glossaries]

1) Bhūmi (भूमि).—The earth. General. The Purāṇas maintain that Bhūmi has a Devī (goddess). The births of Bhūmi and its basic goddess are in two different ways. (See full article at Story of Bhūmi from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Bhūmi (भूमि).—Wife of Dhruva. This Bhūmi devī, the daughter of Śiśumāra had two sons named Kalpa and Vatsala, by Dhruva. (Bhāgavata, Caturtha Skandā).

3) Bhūmi (भूमि).—Another Bhūmi, who was the wife of a king named Bhūmipati is mentioned in Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Bhūmi (भूमि).—(also Bhū) Earth personified;1 a Śakti;2 equal to diva in measurement; 150 crores of yojanas; extends in all directions from Meru; wife of Dhruva and mother of Sṛṣṭi; milked as cow by Pṛthu with Cākṣuṣa Manu as calf, by Bṛhaspati for the sages, by the sun for the gods, by Antaka for Pitṛs, by Diti's son for the Asuras, by Vāsuki for the Nāgas, by Rajatanābha for the Yakṣas, by the Rākṣasas and Piśācas; 500 crores in extent.3 Felt the heavy weight of the Asuras and reported to Brahmā in the assemblage of Gods at Meru with special reference to Kaṃsa,. Viṣṇu performed an avatār as Kṛṣṇa to do away with him.4 On the death of Naraka, she appealed to Kṛṣṇa to forgive his inequities and liberate him.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 3. 6.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 74; Matsya-purāṇa 2. 32.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 3, 12-17; 36. 96; 202. 27; IV. 37. 90.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 12-66.
  • 5) Ib. V. 29. 23-30.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[Bhumi in Vastushastra glossaries]

Earth (भूमि, bhūmi) is one of the five primary elements (pañcabhūta) forming the basic components of the world, according to Vāstu-śāstra literature. It is because of the presence and balance of these five elements that our planet thrives with life.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Bhūmi, one of the four classifications of Vāstu, is considered main because it is the first of the elemental principles (bhūta) and a support for the existence of the world (Mayamat, 2.9).

(Source): Ancient Indian Wisdom: Vāstu-puruṣa-maṇḍala
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Bhumi in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Bhūmi (भूमि) is a synonym for adhiṣṭhāna (‘platform’), according to the Kāśyapaśilpa 6.1-2. The word adhiṣṭhāna is Sanskrit technical term referring to the “base” or “platform” on which a structure is built.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[Bhumi in Jyotisha glossaries]

Bhūmi (भूमि).—1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth. Note: Bhūmi is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Bhumi in Hinduism glossaries]

Bhūmī-Devī is the personification of Mother Earth. She is the consort of Varaha, an avatar of Vishnu and regarded as the mother of the goddess Sita.

According to the uttara-kanda, when Sita finally leaves her husband Rama, she returns to Bhumidevi. She is the mother of the demon Narakasura. Bhumi Devi is also believed to be one of the two forms of Lakshmi. The other is Sridevi, who remains with Narayana. Bhudevi is the Goddess of Earth, and the fertility form of Lakshmi. She is the daughter of Kashyap Prajapati. According to some she is also Satyabhama, wife of Sri Krishna in Dwapara Yuga and the divine saint Andal. Several female deities have had births similar to Sita.

etymology: Bhūmi (Sanskrit: भूमि), also Bhūmī-Devī (Sanskrit: भूमी देवी), Bhuma-Devi or Bhū-Devī.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[Bhumi in Mahayana glossaries]

Bhūmi (भूमि):—There are two kinds of grounds:

  1. the grounds belonging to the bodhisattva (bodhisattvabhūmi) alone,
  2. the shared grounds (sādhāraṇabhūmi).
(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[Bhumi in Theravada glossaries]

Bhumi means the place where sattas with similar characters arise and dwell.

(Source): Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[Bhumi in Buddhism glossaries]

Bhūmi (भूमि) or Daśahūmi refers to the “ten stages (of the Bodhisattva)” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 64).

  1. pramuditā (the rejoicing),
  2. vimalā (the unstained),
  3. prabhākarī (the light-making),
  4. arciṣmatī (the radiant),
  5. sudurjayā (the very difficult of success),
  6. abhimukhī (the manifest),
  7. dūraṅgamā (the far-gone),
  8. acalā (the immovable),
  9. sādhumatī (the really intelligent),
  10. dharmameghā (and the cloud of dharma).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., dhūmi). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Bhūmi can also refer to the “thirteen stages”, or trayodaśa-bhūmi, which includes the above ten stages as well as the following three:

  1. samantaprabhā, (the all-round light),
  2. nirupamā, (the incomparable),
  3. jñānavatī, (the knowledgeable),
(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

A technical term made use of in Mahayana tradition and meaning "earth", "level" and more often "stage".

(Source): Buddhism Tourism: Glossary of Buddhist Terms

The Ten Bodhisattva Bhūmi are the ten stages on the Mahayana bodhisattva's path of awakening. The Sanskrit term bhūmi literally means "ground" or "foundation". Each stage represents a level of attainment, and serves as a basis for the next one. Each level marks a definite advancement in one's training, that is accompanied by progressively greater power and wisdom.

The bhūmis are subcategories of the Five Paths (pañcamārga, Wylie Tibetan lam lnga):

  1. The path of accumulation (saṃbhāra-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: tshogs lam). Persons on this Path:
         Possess a strong desire to overcome suffering, either their own or others;
         Renounce the worldly life.
  2. The path of preparation or application (prayoga-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: sbyor lam). Persons on this Path:
         Start practicing meditation;
          Have analytical knowledge of emptiness.
  3. The path of seeing (darśana-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: mthong lam). Persons on this Path:
         Practice profound concentration meditation on the nature of reality;
         Realize the emptiness of reality.
  4. The path of meditation (bhāvanā-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: sgom lam). Persons on this path purify themselves and accumulate wisdom.
  5. The path of no more learning or consummation (aśaikṣā-mārga, Wylie Tibetan: mi slob pa’i lam or thar phyin pa'i lam). Persons on this Path have completely purified themselves.


Passage through the grounds and paths begins with Bodhicitta, the wish to liberate all sentient beings. Aspiring Bodhicitta becomes Engaging Bodhicitta upon actual commitment to the Bodhisattva vows. With these steps, the practitioner becomes a Bodhisattva, and enters upon the paths.

etymology: Ten Bodhisattva Bhūmi (Sanskrit; Tibetan "byang chub sems dpa'i sa", enlightenment-being grounds/levels)

The Avataṃsakasūtra refers to the following ten bhūmis:

  1. The first bhūmi, the Very Joyous. (Skt. Pramudita), in which one rejoices at realizing a partial aspect of the truth;
  2. The second bhūmi, the Stainless. (Skt. Vimala), in which one is free from all defilement;
  3. The third bhūmi, the Luminous. (Skt. Prabhakari), in which one radiates the light of wisdom;
  4. The fourth bhūmi, the Radiant. (Skt. Archishmati), in which the radiant flame of wisdom burns away earthly desires;
  5. The fifth bhūmi, the Difficult to Cultivate. (Skt. Sudurjaya), in which one surmounts the illusions of darkness, or ignorance as the Middle Way;
  6. The sixth bhūmi, the Manifest. (Skt. Abhimukhi) in which supreme wisdom begins to manifest;
  7. The seventh bhūmi, the Gone Afar. (Skt. Duramgama), in which one rises above the states of the Two vehicles;
  8. The eighth bhūmi, the Immovable. (Skt. Achala), in which one dwells firmly in the truth of the Middle Way and cannot be perturbed by anything;
  9. The ninth bhūmi, the Good Intelligence. (Skt. Sadhumati), in which one preaches the Law freely and without restriction;
  10. The tenth bhūmi, the Cloud of Doctrine. (Skt. Dharmamegha), in which one benefits all sentient beings with the Law (Dharma), just as a cloud sends down rain impartially on all things.
(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Bhumi in Jainism glossaries]

Bhumī (भुमी, “land”).—according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.1, “the lower world (adholoka or naraka) consists of seven ‘lands’ (bhumī) one below the other, surrounded by three kinds of strata (of light and dense air and space)”.

There are seven ‘lands’’ (bhumī) or layers of hell, namely:

  1. Ratnaprabhā,
  2. Śarkarāprabhā,
  3. Bālukāprabhā or Vālukāprabhā,
  4. Paṅkaprabhā,
  5. Dhūmaprabhā,
  6. Tamaḥprabhā,
  7. Mahātamaḥprabhā.

These ‘lands’ (in sequential order) are also known as Ghammā, Vaṃsā, Meghā, Aṃjanā, Arista, Maghavī and Māghavī. These seven lands exist in the downward order (one below the other) with Ratnaprabhā being the topmost supported by the cushions of humid atmosphere (ghana), dense air /water (ambu), which rests in a ring of thin /rarified air (vāta) resting in space (ākāśa).

according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.2-4, “In these (lands, bhumī) there are thirty hundred thousand, twenty-five hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, one hundred thousand less five and only five infernal abode-holes respectively. The thought-colouration, environment, body, suffering and shape of the body (or deeds) are in succession incessantly more and more inauspicious among the infernal beings. They cause misery and suffering to one another”.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

[Bhumi in India history glossaries]

Bhumi is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—It generally means a particular land measure and sometimes used to designate a territorial division. The bhumi type of divisions were few and far between and were instituted for the first time in Andhra Pradesh by the Kakatiyas, e.g., Sakhali-bhumi.

(Source): Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Bhumi in Pali glossaries]

bhūmi : (f.) ground; earth; region; stage; plane.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Bhūmi, (f.) (cp. Vedic bhūmi, Av. būmiš soil, ground, to bhū, as in bhavati, cp. Gr. fuζis etc. See bhavati) 1. (lit.) ground, soil, earth Vin. II, 175; Sn. 418 (yāna° carriage road); Pv. I, 1014≈; SnA 353 (heṭṭhā-bhūmiyaṃ under the earth); DhA. I, 414 (id. , opp. upari-bhūmiyaṃ).—2. place, quarter, district, region M. I, 145 (jāti° district of one’s birth); Sn. 830 (vighāta°); Nd2 475 (danta°); DhA. I, 213 (āpāna°); PvA. 80 (susāna°).—uyyāna° garden (-place or locality) Vv 6419; Pv. II, 129; J. I, 58.—3. (fig.) ground, plane, stage, level; state of consciousness, Vin. I. 17; Vbh. 322 sq. ; Vism. 126, 442 (with ref. to the 4 Paṭisambhidā, as sekha-bhūmi & asekha-bhūmi), 517 (paññā°-niddesa). Usually —°: indriya° Nett 192; dassana° plane of insight Nett 8, 14, 50; sukha° ground for happiness Dhs. 984 (cp. DhsA. 214).—bhūmi-ttaya the 3 stages, viz. kāmâvacara, rūpâvacara, lokuttara Vism. 493.—pl. bhūmiyo Ps. II, 205=Vism. 384 (appld to the 4 jhānas); purisa° (aṭṭha p. bh. eight stages of the individual; viz. manda-bhūmi, khiḍḍā°, vīmaṃsana°, ujugata°, sekha°, samaṇa°, jina°, panna°, or as trsld by Rh. D. in Dial. I. 72, under “eight stages of a prophet’s existence"; babyhood, playtime, trial time, erect time, learning time, ascetic time, prophet time & prostrate time. Cp. the 10 decades of man’s life, as given by Bdhgh at Vism. 619).—Bdhgh, when defining the 2 meanings of bhūmi as “mahā-paṭhavī" and as “cittuppāda" (rise of thought) had in view the distinction between its literal & figurative meaning. But this def. (at DhsA. 214) is vague & only popular.—An old Loc. of bhūmi is bhumyā, e.g. J. I, 507; V, 84. Another form of bhūmi at end of cpds. is bhūma (q. v.).

—kampa shaking of the ground, earthquake Miln. 178. —gata “gone into the soil, " i.e. hiding, stored away J. I, 375. —ghana thick soil SnA 149, cp. paṭhavi-ghana ibid. 146. —tala ground (-surface) PvA. 186. —padesa place or region upon the earth J. VI, 95. —pappaṭaka outgrowths in the soil D. III, 87=Vism. 418. —pothana beating the ground DhA. I, 171. —bhāga division of the earth, district J. I, 109; V, 200; VvA. 125; PvA. 29, 154. –laddh’(uppanna) acquired on a certain stage of existence SnA 4. —saya lying or sleeping on the ground DhA. II, 61. (Page 508)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Bhumi in Marathi glossaries]

bhūmi (भूमि).—f (S) The earth. 2 The ground. 3 This word will be met with in most of the senses under jamīna. 3 In geometry. The base of a polygon: also base in general.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhūmi (भूमि).—f The earth. The ground. Base.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Bhumi in Sanskrit glossaries]

Bhūmi (भूमि).—f. [bhavantyasmin bhūtāni, bhū-mi kicca vā ṅīp]

1) The earth (opp. svarga, gagana or pātāla); द्यौर्भूमिरापो हृदयं यमश्च (dyaurbhūmirāpo hṛdayaṃ yamaśca) Pt. 1.182; R.2.74.

2) Soil, ground; उत्खातिनी भूमिः (utkhātinī bhūmiḥ) Ś.1; विदूरभूमिः (vidūrabhūmiḥ) Ku.1.24.

3) A territory, district, country, land; विदर्भभूमिः (vidarbhabhūmiḥ).

4) A place, spot, ground, plot of ground; प्रमदवनभूमयः (pramadavanabhūmayaḥ) Ś.6; अधित्यकाभूमिः (adhityakābhūmiḥ) N.22.41; R.1. 52;3.61; Ku.3.58.

5) A site, situation.

6) Land, landed property.

7) A story, the floor of a house; as in सप्तभूमिकः प्रासादः (saptabhūmikaḥ prāsādaḥ); प्रासादैर्नैकभूमिभिः (prāsādairnaikabhūmibhiḥ) Rām.4.33.8.

8) Attitude, posture.

9) A character or part (in a play); cf. भूमिका (bhūmikā).

1) Subject, object, receptacle; विश्वासभूमि, स्नेहभूमि (viśvāsabhūmi, snehabhūmi) &c.; मात्राणि कर्माणि पुरं च तासां वदन्ति हैकादशवीर भूमिः (mātrāṇi karmāṇi puraṃ ca tāsāṃ vadanti haikādaśavīra bhūmiḥ) Bhāg.5.11.9.

11) Degree, extent, limit; प्रकुपितमभिसारणे- ऽनुनेतुं प्रियमियती ह्यबलाजनस्य भूमिः (prakupitamabhisāraṇe- 'nunetuṃ priyamiyatī hyabalājanasya bhūmiḥ) Ki.1.58.

12) The tongue.

13) The number 'one'.

14) The area.

15) The base of any geometrical figure.

Derivable forms: bhūmiḥ (भूमिः).

--- OR ---

Bhūmī (भूमी).—The earth; see भूमि (bhūmi).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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