Abhaya, Abhayā: 29 definitions
Abhaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
(+37 more images available)
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Abhayā (अभया):—One of the seven varieties of Harītakī (‘yellow myrobalan tree’), a tree from the Combretaceae family, which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is available throughout Champa (Bhagalpur area). Its official botanical name is Terminalia chebula and is commonly known in English as “chebulic myrobalan”. It has nut-like fleshy fruits, the seed of which is used in Āyurveda and Tibetan medicine as a universal panacea (remedy). The word Abhayā is derived from the Sanskrit abhaya, literally translating to “fearless, not dangerous, secure”Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
The Abhayā (Chebulic Myrobalans) proves curative in cases of ulcers, is heat-making (in its potency), and acts as a purgative, tends to reduce corpulency and subdues the deranged humours. It is appetising and invigorating to the eye-sight, has an acid and astringent taste, and proves curative in œdema and cutaneous affections.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā
Abhayā (अभया) (or Harītakī, Pathyā) (one of the Triphala) refers to the medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Retz., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Abhayā] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Abhayā (अभया) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Terminalia chebula Retz.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning abhayā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Abhaya (अभय) was one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīmasena. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 104; Droṇa Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 62).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Abhaya (अभय) refers to the “abode of safety” which is mentioned as being held in one of the hands (hasta) of the Goddess (Devī), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.12. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] on seeing the mother of the universe cosmic in form, Dakṣa the lord of the subjects considered himself well rewarded. With various sorts of prayer he eulogised and bowed to the Goddess (Devī) mother of the universe, Kālikā seated on a lion, dark-complexioned, with four arms (caturbhuja) and beautiful face, the bestower of the boon, the abode of safety (abhaya), holding a blue lotus and the sword in her hands (hasta), comely with reddish eyes and with beautiful dishevelled hair”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Abhaya (अभय).—Son of Dharma and Dayā: a sage.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 50; Matsya-purāṇa 198. 3.
1b) One of the seven continents of Plakṣadvīpa. (Jambūdvīpa—Burnouf).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 3.
1c) A R. of Krauñcadvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.
2) Abhayā (अभया).—The goddess enshrined in Uṣṇatīrtha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 42.
Abhaya (अभय) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.12) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Abhaya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Abhaya (अभय, “absence of fear”) refers to the seventh of nine aṃśa (part), according to the Mānasāra. Aṃśa is the alternative sixth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular aṃśa (e.g., abhaya) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among the nine taskara, the ones named ṣaṇḍa and vipat are inauspicious, and should therefore be avoided.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
1) Abhaya (अभय) represents “peraruludaimai” (benevolence), referring to one of the attributes of Lord Śiva, commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The accessories should be made of the same material with which the main image has been fashioned. Each of these accessories denotes the attributes of the images while in certain circumstances they denote particular divinity or character by themselves. Abhaya, for example, signifies the attributes of Lord Śiva.
2) Abhaya (अभय) or Abhayahasta refers to “fear not” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., abhaya-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Abhayā (अभया):—Sanskrit word which could stand for the Yellow myrobalan tree (Terminalia Chebula).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Abhaya Thera - An arahant. He was a Brahmin of Savatthi who, having heard the Buddha preach, entered the Order. One day, while going to the village for alms, he was disturbed in mind by an attractively dressed woman, but he recollected himself and developed insight (Thag.v.98; ThagA.i.201-2).
In a former birth he had met Sumedha Buddha in the forest and had offered him a wreath of salala flowers. Nineteen kappas ago he was born sixteen times as king, his name being Nimmita. He is probably to be identified with the Thera Vatamsakiya of the Apadana (i.174).
2. Abhaya - Commonly called Abhayarajakumara.
He was the son of King Bimbisara and of Padumavati, the belle of Ujjeni. When the boy was seven years old, his mother sent him to the king and he grew up with the boys of the court. He first came under the influence of the Nigantha Nataputta, who taught him a dilemma to set the Samana Gotama. In the Buddhas reply, the prince recognised the defeat of the Nigantha and the supreme Enlightenment of the Exalted One, whose disciple he then became. Later, when the king died, Abhaya was disturbed in mind, and entered the Order. On the occasion of the preaching of the Talacchiggalupama Sutta (probably the same as S.v.455 and M.iii.169), he became a Stream enterer and afterwards attained arahantship (Thag.26; ThagA.i.83-4 also ThagA.39. In ThagA. his mothers name does not appear). The Abhayarajakumara Sutta (M.i.392ff ) contains the dilemma episode. It also mentions that at the time the prince had a little son of whom he was evidently very fond.
In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.v.126-8) he is stated as having visited the Buddha at Gijjhakuta and discussed with him the views of Purana Kassapa. The Buddha teaches him about the seven bojjhangas.
In the Vinaya (i.269), Abhaya is mentioned as having discovered Jivaka Komarabhacca lying on a dung heap (cast there by the orders of his mother, the courtesan Salavati), and having brought him up.
The Anguttara Commentary (i.216), on the other hand, says that Abhaya was Jivakas natural father.
As a reward for quelling a disturbance on the frontier, Abhaya was given a skilled nautch girl by his father, Bimbisara. For seven days he enjoyed her company to the exclusion of all else, but on the seventh day she died. Disconsolate, he sought comfort from the Buddha, who assuaged his grief (DhA.iii.166-67; cf. the story of Santati).
The Apadana (ii.502-4) gives the story of his past. He had been a brahmin of Hamsavati, skilled in the Vedas; having heard the Buddha Padumuttara preach, he was converted and joined the Order, where he spent his time singing the greatness of the Buddha.
The Theragatha Commentary (i.83-4) quotes, in his story, some verses in the Apadana, which in the Apadana itself are ascribed to a Thera Ketakapupphiya.
-- or --
A Theri. Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Abhaya (अभय) is the son of king Bimbisāra and Āmrapāli according to the Sarvāstivādin Vinaya mentioned in a note at the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII).—According to the Sarvāstivādin Vinaya, the son of Bimbisāra and Āmrapālī was called Abhaya (Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 2, p. 22), while Jīvaka was the son of Bimbisāra and the wife of a merchant whose name is not given. In the Pāli sources, Vimala-Kondañña is given as the son of Bimbisāra and Āmrapālī (Theragāthā Comm., I, p. 146): Jīvaka’s father was Abhaya-Rājakumāra—one of Bimbisāra’s sons—and his mother, a courtesan of Rājagṛha called Sālavati.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
1) Abhayā (अभया) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Abhayā).
2) Abhayā (अभया) is also the name of a Yakṣiṇī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahySource: archive.org: Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1963
Abhaya is the name of a convent (monastary for bhikkuṇis) built by Mahāsena (275-301) in the Citadel (inner city) of Anurādhapura.—It is likely that the Abhaya and Uttara convents were in the Abhayagiri Entourage. The cital (inner city) of Anurādhapura was included in Paṇḍukābhaya’s 4th-century layout of this town and featured gates on the cardinal faces. The town also included buildings such as the Abhaya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Abhaya.—(EI 24), pose of hand (mudrā); see abhaya-mudrā. (SITI), place of security to persons in distress; called añjinānpugal-idam in Tamil. Cf. abhaya-śāsana. Note: abhaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
abhaya : (adj.) safe; fearless. (nt.), safety. || abhayā (f.), yellow myrobalan.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Abhaya, (adj.) (a + bhaya) free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dh.258. — nt. abhayaṃ confidence, safety Dh.317, cp. DhA.III, 491. For further refs. see bhaya. (Page 61)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
abhaya (अभय).—n (S a & bhaya Fear) An assurance or engagement of security or impunity. 2 (For abhaya- mudrā) An encouraging countenance. Ex. a0 tayātēṃ dēījē ||
--- OR ---
abhaya (अभय).—a (S) Fearless, intrepid.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
abhaya (अभय).—n An assurance of security or im- punity. a Fearless.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Abhaya (अभय).—a. [na. ba.] Free from fear or danger, secure, safe; वैराग्यमेवाभयम् (vairāgyamevābhayam) Bh.3.35.
-yaḥ [na bhayaṃ yasmāt]
1) An epithet of the Supreme Being, or knowledge concerning that being.
2) Name of Śiva.
3) One devoid of all worldly possessions.
4) One who fearlessly executes scriptural commandments.
5) Name of a Yoga (conjunture or time) favourable to a march or expedition.
6) A refugeoffering pose of the hand of an image; Māna.12. 12-21. See अभयमुद्रा (abhayamudrā).
-yā 1 Name of a plant (harītakī), Mar. हिरडा (hiraḍā)).
2) A form of the goddess Durgā.
-yam 1 Absence or removal of fear.
2) Security, safety, protection from fear or danger. मया तस्याभयं दत्तम् (mayā tasyābhayaṃ dattam) Pt.1; अभयस्य हि यो दाता (abhayasya hi yo dātā) Ms.8.33; Ś.2.17.
2) Name of a sacrificial hymn.
3) The root of a fragrant grass (vīraṇamūlam, uśīram).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Abhaya (अभय).—m. (1) name of a king of Kaliṅga, converted by Buddha: Mahāvastu i.178.11; 180.6, 9; (2) name of a sārthavāha: Mahāvastu ii.2.11; (3) name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu iii.237.1 f.; (4) name of a people (? compare Kirfel, [Kosmographie der Inder] 76); sc. lipi, the script used by them: Mahāvastu i.135.7, read ramaṭhābhaya- for text ramaṭha-bhaya- (v.l. cama°); (5) name of a son of King Bimbisāra and Āmrapālī (not corresponding exactly to Pali Abhaya, either 2 or 3 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names), but perhaps a con- fusion of the two): Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.22.20 ff.
--- OR ---
Abhayā (अभया).—(1) name of an herb, presumably Terminalia chebula as in Sanskrit and Pali: Gaṇḍavyūha 496.21; (2) name of a goddess, to whom the infant Śākyamuni is presented to worship: Mahāvastu ii.26.4 ff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaṃ) 1. Absence or removal of fear. 2. The root of a fragrant grass, (Andropogon muricatum.) f.
(-yā) Yellow myrobalan, (Terminalia citrina.) mfn.
(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Fearless, undaunted. E. a neg. and bhaya fear; the plant removing the dread of disease.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhaya (अभय).—I. n. 1. safety, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 104, M. M. 2. protection from danger, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 247. 3. the name of a Dvīpa, or division of the world. 4. a fragrant grass, Andropogon muricatum. Ii. adj., f. yā, fearless, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 32. Iii. m. 1. epithet of Śiva. 2. a proper name. Iv. f. yā, a plant, Terminalia citrina, [Suśruta] 1, 139, 14. Akutobhaya, i. e.
Abhaya is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and bhaya (भय).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhaya (अभय).—[adjective] free from fear or danger, safe; [neuter] safety, [superlative] greatest [substantive]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Abhaya (अभय):—[=a-bhaya] mf(ā)n. unfearful, not dangerous, secure
2) [v.s. ...] mfn. fearless, undaunted, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv]
3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Śiva
4) [v.s. ...] of a natural son of Bimbisāra
5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Idhmajihva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
6) [v.s. ...] of a river in Krauñcadvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
7) Abhayā (अभया):—[=a-bhayā] [from a-bhaya] f. the plant Terminalia Chebula
8) Abhaya (अभय):—[=a-bhaya] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) absence or removal of fear, peace, safety, security, [Ṛg-veda] etc. (cf. abhaya-tama below)
9) [v.s. ...] ‘safety’, (applied as proper name to) a child of Dharma and his reign in Plakṣadvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] a kind of symbol procuring security, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
11) [v.s. ...] a sacrificial hymn recited to obtain personal security, [Kauśika-sūtra]
12) [v.s. ...] the root of a fragrant grass, Andropogon Muricatum.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+48): Abhaya Sutta, Abhaya Vihara, Abhaya-shasana, Abhayacala, Abhayacandra, Abhayada, Abhayadaganesha, Abhayadakshina, Abhayadana, Abhayadanasara, Abhayadatta, Abhayadavighnesha, Abhayadavinayaka, Abhayadayin, Abhayadeva, Abhayadi, Abhayadindima, Abhayagallaka, Abhayagana, Abhayagiri.
Ends with (+50): Adashchayabhaya, Adashchhayabhaya, Adrishtabhaya, Ajatabhaya, Akasmikabhaya, Akutabhaya, Akutracabhaya, Amandagamani Abhaya, Apabhaya, Arannaka Maha Abhaya, Arannaka-mahabhaya, Ashtamahabhaya, Atranabhaya, Bhangabhaya, Bhatikabhaya, Bhavabhaya, Bhayabhaya, Bodhisattvakshantilabhaya, Canndalatissa Mahabhaya, Corabhaya.
Full-text (+367): Abhayavac, Abhayamudra, Abhayapradana, Abhayadana, Abhayadindima, Abhayaprada, Abhayada, Abhayasani, Abhayatama, Abhayayacana, Haritaki, Abhayavacana, Abhayagirivihara, Abhayagirivasin, Abhayadakshina, Abhayahasta, Saptaharitaki, Pathya, Vacadi, Ushnatirtha.
Search found 56 books and stories containing Abhaya, Abhayā, A-bhaya, A-bhayā; (plurals include: Abhayas, Abhayās, bhayas, bhayās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
Note on “women whose love is scorned” < [Notes]
Vetāla 10: Madanasenā and her Rash Promise < [Appendix 6.1 - The Twenty-five Tales of a Vetāla]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 4: Continuation of Abhaya and Pradyota story < [Chapter XI - The story of Rauhiṇeya]
Part 2: Contest between Pradyota and Abhaya < [Chapter XI - The story of Rauhiṇeya]
Part 4: Initiation and death of Abhaya < [Chapter XII - Omniscience and wandering of Mahāvīra]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LII - Symptoms and Treatment of Cough (Kasa) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter XXI - Medical Treatment of Ear-disease < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter LI - Symptoms and Treatment of Asthma (Shvasa) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Abhaya Rājakumāra Sutta in Brief < [Chapter 42 - The Dhamma Ratanā]
Biography (9): Jīvaka, the Physician < [Chapter 45a - The Life Stories of Male Lay Disciples]
The Story of Elders who fulfilled Pātimokkhasaṃvara-sīla < [Chapter 6 - On Pāramitā]
Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka (by I. B. Horner)
The story of King Bimbisāra < [8. Robes (Cīvara)]
The story of Jīvaka < [8. Robes (Cīvara)]
The story of the merchant’s wife < [8. Robes (Cīvara)]
Mahavamsa (by Wilhelm Geiger)