Kushmanda, aka: Kuṣmāṇḍa, Kūṣmāṇḍa; 13 Definition(s)
Kushmanda means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kuṣmāṇḍa and Kūṣmāṇḍa can be transliterated into English as Kusmanda or Kushmanda, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Kūṣmāṇḍa (चिर्भट) is a Sanskrit word referring to Benincasa hispida (ash gourd), a plant species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Certain plant parts of Kūṣmāṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. The plant has the following botanical synonym: Benincasa cerifera.
According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 7.160), the ash gourd (kūṣmāṇḍa) has 7 synonyms: Karkoṭikā, Kuṣmāṇḍī, Kumbhāṇḍī, Bṛhatphalā, Suphalā, Kumbhaphalā and Nāgapuṣpaphalā.
Properties according to Caraka-saṃhitā: The ripe fruit of Kūṣmāṇḍa is alkaline, sweet, sour, light, diuretic, laxative and alleviates all doṣas.
Properties according to the Rājanighaṇṭu: It cures anuria, controls prameha (the obstinate urinary disorders, including diabetes), expels urinary stones and relieves dysuria. It makes the flow of urine and passing out of the stools easy. It overcomes the discomfort of the excessive thirst. It is health giving to the fatigued and worn out parts of the body. It is aphrodisiac, tasty, cures anorexia, gives strength and is anti-pitta.
Usage: Its young fruits are used as vegetable and the famous Pethā (sweets) is prepared out of ripe ones. This has a proved beneficial effect in amla-pitta (gastritis) and internal haemorrhages.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड, “pumpkin gourd”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Kūṣmāṇḍavināyaka, Kūṣmāṇḍagaṇeśa and Kūṣmāṇḍavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Kūṣmāṇḍa is positioned in the Western corner of the second circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “near Chandishvara, Phulwaria village”. Worshippers of Kūṣmāṇḍa will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “checking disturbance and giving peace”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.19667, Lon. 82.58084 (or, 25°11'48.0"N, 82°34'51.0"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Kūṣmāṇḍa, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purāṇa
Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “gourd”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kūṣmāṇḍa is recommended as an offering for the sage Agastya (verse 743). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “pumpkin gourd”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, “a charitable gift given to a needy person yields the utmost benefit. If it is given after entreaties it yields only half the benefit. [...] The gift of pumpkin gourd (kūṣmāṇḍa) is conducive to nourishment”.Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
1a) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—A Vināyaka.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 183. 63.
1b) A sūkta of the Yajur Vedins to be recited in tank rituals.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 239. 10.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 8. 24; X. 6. 27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 384 and 41. 29.
- 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 12. 13.
Kuṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) is a representation of Bali as a prisoner in Sutala, according to the Śrī Hari-vaṃśa (2.116.44)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Harivamsha
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड) refers to “the creator of the universe” or “the mother of the universe”, according to the Nava-durgā Stotra.Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “pumpkin fruits” and is used in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.137-141a of the 8th-century Īśvarasaṃhitā. Accordingly, “... they [eg., kuṣmāṇḍa] are already cooked, filling the cooking vessels (sthālī) and dishes (śarāva) are to be kept in all broad frying vessels (ambarīṣa). They are to be placed on vessels (pātra) smeared with (within) ghee (ghṛta), are hot and are to be spread out there. They which are heated and made greasy with powdered peppers, jīraka and ghee are to be stirred again and again with ladle. They are to be kept in vessels covered with clothes etc”.Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Jainism)
Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to both the Digambara and Śvetāmbara traditions of Jainism. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).
The deities such as Kūṣmāṇḍas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्मांड).—m (S) A pumpion-gourd, Cucurbita Pepo. 2 n corruptly kuṣpāṇḍa n A false accusation; a malicious fabrication. v kara, kāḍha, uṭhava, yōja, raca.
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kusmāṇḍa (कुस्मांड).—n sometimes kuspāṇḍa n (Properly kuṣmāṇḍa) A malicious machination or fabrication. v kara, kāḍha, raca, uṭhava.
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kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्मांड).—n (S) A fabrication; a tale or invention to frighten, cheat, ruin, injure. 2 m S A pumpion gourd, Cucurbita Pepo. 3 A kind of sprite or imp.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्मांड).—n A malicious fabrication. m A pumpion-gourd.
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kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्मांड).—n A fabrication. m A pumpion gourd.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड).—1 A kind of pumpkin gourd.
2) A fals conception.
3) A particular religious formula.
-ḍī 1 A religious ceremony.
2) An epithet of the wife of Śiva.
Derivable forms: kuṣmāṇḍaḥ (कुष्माण्डः).
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1) A kind of pumpkin gourd.
2) A kind of spell or magical formula; cf. Vāj.2.14-16.
3) A kind of spirit, or imp; Bhāg.2.6.44.
-ḍī Name of Durgā.
Derivable forms: kūṣmāṇḍaḥ (कूष्माण्डः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड).—mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā or -ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd, (Cucurbita pepo.) m.
(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. One of a class of demigods attached to Siva. 2. State of the womb in gestation. f. (-ṇḍī) 1. A name of Durga. 2. A drug. A religious ceremony, a certain rite performed as a penance or expiation; also kuṣmāṇḍaka.
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Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd, (Cucurbita pepo.) m.
(-ṇḍaḥ) A kind of spirit or imp, of which there exists a Gana or class. f. (-ṇḍī) A name of Durga; also kuṣmāṇḍa and kūṣmāṇḍaka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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