Kushmanda, Kūṣmāṇḍa, Kuṣmāṇḍa, Kūṣmāṇḍā: 24 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kushmanda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kūṣmāṇḍa and Kuṣmāṇḍa and Kūṣmāṇḍā can be transliterated into English as Kusmanda or Kushmanda, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kūṣmāṇḍa (चिर्भट) is a Sanskrit word referring to Benincasa hispida (ash gourd), a plant species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Certain plant parts of Kūṣmāṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. The plant has the following botanical synonym: Benincasa cerifera.

According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 7.160), the ash gourd (kūṣmāṇḍa) has 7 synonyms: Karkoṭikā, Kuṣmāṇḍī, Kumbhāṇḍī, Bṛhatphalā, Suphalā, Kumbhaphalā and Nāgapuṣpaphalā.

Properties according to Caraka-saṃhitā: The ripe fruit of Kūṣmāṇḍa is alkaline, sweet, sour, light, diuretic, laxative and alleviates all doṣas.

Properties according to the Rājanighaṇṭu: It cures anuria, controls prameha (the obstinate urinary disorders, including diabetes), expels urinary stones and relieves dysuria. It makes the flow of urine and passing out of the stools easy. It overcomes the discomfort of the excessive thirst. It is health giving to the fatigued and worn out parts of the body. It is aphrodisiac, tasty, cures anorexia, gives strength and is anti-pitta.

Usage: Its young fruits are used as vegetable and the famous Pethā (sweets) is prepared out of ripe ones. This has a proved beneficial effect in amla-pitta (gastritis) and internal haemorrhages.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to the “pumpkin gourd” and represents a type of vegetable, according to the Kāmasūtra IV.1.29, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—From the Kāmasūtra, it appears that kūṣmāṇḍa (pumpkin gourd), āluka (an esculent root), palaṃki (a pot herb), damanaka, āmrātaka, ervāruka (a kind of cucumber), trapusa (cucumber), bottle gourd and brinjal were in common use.

According to Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya Sūtrasthāna VIII.42-43 (also Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha Sūtrasthāna VII.134), paṭola, kūṣmāṇḍa, suniṣaṇṇaka, jīvanti, unripe radish and vāstuka are good vegetables.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kūśmāṇḍa (कूश्माण्ड) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cobn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kūśmāṇḍa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड, “pumpkin gourd”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Kūṣmāṇḍavināyaka, Kūṣmāṇḍagaṇeśa and Kūṣmāṇḍavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Kūṣmāṇḍa is positioned in the Western corner of the second circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “near Chandishvara, Phulwaria village”. Worshippers of Kūṣmāṇḍa will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “checking disturbance and giving peace”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.19667, Lon. 82.58084 (or, 25°11'48.0"N, 82°34'51.0"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Kūṣmāṇḍa, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “gourd”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kūṣmāṇḍa is recommended as an offering for the sage Agastya (verse 743). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “pumpkin gourd”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, “a charitable gift given to a needy person yields the utmost benefit. If it is given after entreaties it yields only half the benefit. [...] The gift of pumpkin gourd (kūṣmāṇḍa) is conducive to nourishment”.

2) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Kūṣmāṇḍa] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—A Vināyaka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 183. 63.

1b) A sūkta of the Yajur Vedins to be recited in tank rituals.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 239. 10.

1c) A kind of evil spirits. To this group Kapi's sons belonged; said to harass children;1 disturbed Dhruva's samādhi.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 8. 24; X. 6. 27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 384 and 41. 29.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 12. 13.
Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Harivamsha

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) is a representation of Bali as a prisoner in Sutala, according to the Śrī Hari-vaṃśa (2.116.44)

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Shaktism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड) refers to “the creator of the universe” or “the mother of the universe”, according to the Nava-durgā Stotra.

Source: Hare-Krsna: Nava-Durgā

Kuṣmāṇḍā (कुष्माण्डा) refers to one of the nine Navadurgā which literally means the “nine forms of Goddess Durgā”, and constitute, according to Vedic scriptures, the manifestation of Durgā in Her nine different aspects. [...] Each goddess [viz., Kuṣmāṇḍā] has a different form and a special significance.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to “pumpkin fruits” and is used in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.137-141a of the 8th-century Īśvarasaṃhitā. Accordingly, “... they [eg., kuṣmāṇḍa] are already cooked, filling the cooking vessels (sthālī) and dishes (śarāva) are to be kept in all broad frying vessels (ambarīṣa). They are to be placed on vessels (pātra) smeared with (within) ghee (ghṛta), are hot and are to be spread out there. They which are heated and made greasy with powdered peppers, jīraka and ghee are to be stirred again and again with ladle. They are to be kept in vessels covered with clothes etc”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड) refers to “squash” (a kind of vegetable), according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.3.44ff—Accordingly:—“[...] among the cooked vegetables were paṭolas, squash [viz., kuṣmāṇḍa], mānakacu and a salad made with pieces of ginger and various types of spinach. [...] Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa was offered all the food, and the Lord took it very pleasantly”

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kuṣmāṇḍa).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to both the Digambara and Śvetāmbara traditions of Jainism. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).

The deities such as Kūṣmāṇḍas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्मांड).—m (S) A pumpion-gourd, Cucurbita Pepo. 2 n corruptly kuṣpāṇḍa n A false accusation; a malicious fabrication. v kara, kāḍha, uṭhava, yōja, raca.

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kusmāṇḍa (कुस्मांड).—n sometimes kuspāṇḍa n (Properly kuṣmāṇḍa) A malicious machination or fabrication. v kara, kāḍha, raca, uṭhava.

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kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्मांड).—n (S) A fabrication; a tale or invention to frighten, cheat, ruin, injure. 2 m S A pumpion gourd, Cucurbita Pepo. 3 A kind of sprite or imp.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्मांड).—n A malicious fabrication. m A pumpion-gourd.

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kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्मांड).—n A fabrication. m A pumpion gourd.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushmanda in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड).—1 A kind of pumpkin gourd.

2) A fals conception.

3) A particular religious formula.

-ḍī 1 A religious ceremony.

2) An epithet of the wife of Śiva.

Derivable forms: kuṣmāṇḍaḥ (कुष्माण्डः).

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Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—

1) A kind of pumpkin gourd.

2) A kind of spell or magical formula; cf. Vāj.2.14-16.

3) A kind of spirit, or imp; Bhāg.2.6.44.

-ḍī Name of Durgā.

Derivable forms: kūṣmāṇḍaḥ (कूष्माण्डः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड).—mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā or -ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd, (Cucurbita pepo.) m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. One of a class of demigods attached to Siva. 2. State of the womb in gestation. f. (-ṇḍī) 1. A name of Durga. 2. A drug. A religious ceremony, a certain rite performed as a penance or expiation; also kuṣmāṇḍaka.

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Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd, (Cucurbita pepo.) m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) A kind of spirit or imp, of which there exists a Gana or class. f. (-ṇḍī) A name of Durga; also kuṣmāṇḍa and kūṣmāṇḍaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—I. m. A kind of imp, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 284. Ii. m., and f. ḍī, The name of certain holy texts, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 106; [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 304.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड).—[masculine] [Name] of a plant; [plural] a class of demons.

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Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड).—[masculine] a kind of imp or spirit; a cert. spell or magical verse (also [feminine] ī & [neuter]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Kūṣmāṇḍa.

2) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड):—vaid. Oudh. Xx, 4. 8. Xxi, 14. 20. Xxii, 26. 36.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuṣmāṇḍa (कुष्माण्ड):—m. (cf. kūṣm) a kind of pumpkin-gourd (Beninkasa cerifera), [Mahābhārata xiii, 4364] (kūśm [edition] [Bombay edition]), [Suśruta]

2) = bhrūṇāntara (a state of the womb in gestation, [Horace H. Wilson]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) false conception (?)

4) n. Name of the verses, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xx, 14 ff.; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka] (kūśm), [Mahābhārata xiii, 6236 ff.] (kūśm [edition] [Bombay edition])

5) m. [plural] a class of demons (or of demi-gods attached to Śiva; cf. kumbhāṇḍa), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x; Viṣṇu-purāṇa] (kūṣm), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) m. Name of a demon causing disease, [Harivaṃśa 9560] ([varia lectio] kūṣm)

7) Kūśmāṇḍa (कूश्माण्ड):—[varia lectio] for kuṣm q.v.

8) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड):—[varia lectio] for kuṣm q.v.

9) Kūṣmāṇḍā (कूष्माण्डा):—[from kūṣmāṇḍa] f. Name of Durgā

10) Kūṣmāṇḍa (कूष्माण्ड):—n. sg. and [plural] idem, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti viii, 106.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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