Subhadra, Subhadrā, Su-bhadra: 45 definitions


Subhadra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा, “glittering”):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Yogeśa (emanation of Ananta, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

2) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Subhadrā) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is a Sanskrit name of one of the five cow-mothers, born from the churning of the milk ocean and descended on earth from Śiva’s world at the latter’s behest for the welfare of the people, according to the Śivadharmottarapurāṇa

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Subhadra (सुभद्र):—One of the eight gatekeepers who are said to embody the eight siddhis (‘yogic powers’).

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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Subhadra (सुभद्र) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Miśraka, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Miśraka group contains nine out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Subhadra is mentioned in another list of 40 temples, in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 57, where it is mentioned as one of the nine temples being a favorite of Bhagavatī, as well as one of the twenty temples being a favorite of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Subhadra (सुभद्र) refers to a variety of maṇḍapa (halls attached to the temple), according to the Matsya-purāṇa (verses 270.1-30). The subhadra-maṇḍapa is to be built with 12 pillars (stambha). The Matsyapurāṇa is one of the eighteen major purāṇas dating from the 1st-millennium BCE.

Accordingly (verse 270.15-17), “These maṇḍapas (e.g., subhadra) should be either made triangular, circular, octagonal or with 16 sides or they are square. They promote kingdoms, victory, longevity, sons, wife and nourishment respecitvely. Temples of other shape than these are inauspicious.”

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—A type of aṅgavibhakti (‘indendations’ in a wall line);—If the bhadra is provided with another offset projection, that projection is called by the name subhadra.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) refers to one of the hundred types of Temples (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is quite difficult to say about a definite number of varieties of Hindu temples but in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa hundred varieties of temples have been enumerated. For example, Subhadrā. These temples are classified according to the particular shape, amount of storeys and other common elements, such as the number of pavilions, doors and roofs.

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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is another name (synonym) for Śaṭī, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Hedychium spicatum (spiked ginger lily). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 6.226-227), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Subhadra in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा).—Sister of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Birth. Subhadrā was the daughter of Vasudeva by his wife Devakī. She had two brothers, Kṛṣṇa and Sāraṇa and she was her father’s pet child. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 217, Verse 18). (See full article at Story of Subhadrā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा).—A daughter of Surabhi. She lives in the western region. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102 Verse 9).

3) Subhadra (सुभद्र).—A banyan tree. Garuḍa went to Devaloka to fetch amṛta after marking this tree as a sign-post. See under Garuḍa. (Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Canto 35).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Subhadra (सुभद्र).—One of the seven divisions of Plakṣadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 3.

1b) A son of Pauravī and Vasudeva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 47.

1c) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Bhadrā: fought with Sangrāmajit deluded by Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 17; XI. 30. 16.

1d) An Yakṣa; a son of Puṇyajanī and Maṇibhadra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 124; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 156.

2a) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा).—A daughter of Vasudeva and Devakī: queen of Arjuna, mother of Abhimaṇyu, and grandmother of Parīkṣit, younger sister of Kṛṣṇa of dark complexion;1 taken by Kṛṣṇa to Dvārakā;2 heard from the wives of Kṛṣṇa of their marriage and was in wonder;3 grieved at Kṛṣṇa's departure from Hastināpura: welcomed Vidura;4 the pride of the Vṛṣṇis.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 55; 22. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 15; 50. 56; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 175-6; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 51. 99. 249.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 64 [11];
  • 3) Ib. X. 84. 1.
  • 4) Ib. I. 10. 9; 13. 3.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 177-8.

2b) The goddess enshrined at Śoṇasamgama.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 45.

2c) The wife of Aniruddha.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 40.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.68.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Subhadra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Subhadrā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.85).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Subhadra (सुभद्र) refers to a type of upapīṭha (sub-structure, beneath the adhiṣṭhāna), according to the Mayamata 13.5.

Subhadra is constructed with the following major mouldings (aṃśa):

  1. upāna,
  2. jagati,
  3. gala,
  4. adhaḥpadma,
  5. paṭṭikā.

Subhadra has two varieties according to the Mayamata, and is listed as identical to the vedibhadra (except for the surface treatments, which is plain with little ornamentation).

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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the name of a meter belonging to the Uṣṇik class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the second, the fourth, the penultimate and the last one long, is subhadrā”.

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Subhadra in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the daughter of the Asura prince Sumāya, and was given to Sūryaprabha in marriage according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 45. Accordingly, “... and the next day Sumāya, a prince of the Asuras, after presenting an invitation, conducted him with all his friends to his underworld, the sixth; there he too gave him his daughter, by name Subhadrā, with body black as a stalk of durvā grass, like a female incarnation of the God of Love; and Sūryaprabha spent that day with that black maiden, whose face was like a full moon”.

The story of Subhadrā and Sumāya was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Subhadrā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (Kāvya)

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the daughter of a merchant, as mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Accordingly, “Subhadrā, of Jaina obedience, became the wife of a lay Buddhist, who, out of love for her, converted to Jinism. But Subhadrā is rejected by her sisters-in-law. One day when she removes the dust bothering a Jaina monk with her tongue, and keeps track of it, they have the perfect opportunity to lose it with her husband. A god, attracted by his piety, agrees to produce a miracle: he will close the gates of the city and, only the virtuous woman, capable of carrying water in a colander, will be able to open it”.

Cf. Āvaśyakacūrṇi II 269.11-270.11; Āvasyakaniryukti (Haribhadra commentary) b.5-b.4; DasavCū 24.28-27.14; Bṛhatkalpabhāṣya 1633; Trad  : Mette 1991 p. 155-157; See also Schubring Kleine Schriften р. 330.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) refers to:—Sister of Śrī Kṛṣna, wife of Arjuna, and mother of Abhimanyu. She is worshiped with Śrī Jagannāthadeva in Purī. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Subhadra was the sister of Krishna and Balarama. Krishna wanted her to marry Arjuna but Balarama was against it. Finally, with the help of Krishna's plot, Subhadra and Arjuna eloped together and were married. The great boy-warrior Abhimanyu is their son.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Subhadra (सुभद्रा): Wife of Arjuna, sister of Sri Krishna and mother of Abhimanyu.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is the name of a Brahmacārin of 120 years old, according to the Subhadrabrahmacārisūtra as related in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VI). Accordingly, “The brahmacārin Subhadra, 120 years old and possessing the superknowledges (abhijñā), was on the shore of lake Anavatapta. During the night in a dream he saw everybody without eyes, with bodies naked and deep in shadow; the sun had disappeared, the earth destroyed, the ocean dried up and Sumeru toppled over by wind-storms”.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is the name of a Devaputra appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Caidya, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Devaputra Subhadra in Caidya], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the Śakti of Kelimālī, and together forms one of the eight Yakṣa and Śakti pairs occupying the double lotus in the sādhana of Jambhala (yab-yum form), as described in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—Accordingly, when represented in Yab-Yum, he sits on the moon under which there is a double lotus of eight petals. [...] The eight petals of the lotus seat are occupied by the eight Yakṣas [viz., Kelimālī], who are identical in all respects with the principal figure. Each Yakṣa is accompanied by a Śakti [viz., Subhadrā] with whom he remains in Yab-Yum in the same way as Jambhala remains with Vasudhārā [...]. The Yakṣiṇīs are identical in form with Vasudhārā, who is yellow in complexion, carries the ears of corn and shows the Varada-mudrā in her two hands.]

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the goddess presiding over one of the six petals of the western lotus of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala, according to the Vārāhyabhyudayatantra (largerly extracted from the 10th century Abhidhānottaratantra). These six petals are presided over by a kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Tārā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Subhadrā is associated with the sacred site (pīṭha) named Lampāka. All the goddess of the western lotus petals are to be visualised as dancing naked and being half-male / half-female (ardhanarīśvarī) with their two sides being red and yellow. In their four arms they brandish a bowl and staff, with a ḍamaru and their familial attribute.

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

1) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the name of a Ḍākinī (‘sacred girl’) presiding over Lampāka: one of the four Chandoha (‘sacred spot’) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. The Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts resided over by twenty-four Ḍākinīs (viz., Subhadrā) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Subhadrā has for her husband the hero (vīra) named Vajrabhadra. She is the presiding deity of Lampāka and the associated internal location is the ‘throat’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘stomach’.

2) Subhadra (सुभद्र) is the husband of Śyāmādevī: the name of a Ḍākinī (‘sacred girl’) presiding over Kaliṅga: another one of the four Chandoha (‘sacred spot’), according to the same work.

Śyāmādevī has for her husband the hero (vīra) named Subhadra. She is the presiding deity of Kaliṅga and the associated internal location is the ‘mouth’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘ribs’.

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Śyāmādevī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vajracakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Subhadra] each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum and a knife; they are dark-bluish-black in color.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Subhadra (सुभद्र) is the name of a Ḍāka (male consort) and one of the deities of the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Śyāmādevī and Subhadra:

Circle: vākacakra [=vākcakra?] (speech-wheel) (red);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Śyāmādevī;
Ḍāka (male consort): Subhadra;
Bīja: kaṃ;
Body-part: mouth;
Pīṭha: Kaliṅga;
Bodily constituent: guṇavarti (small intestine);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): samādhibala (power of concentration).

2) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is also the name of a Ḍākinī (female consort) associated with Vajrabhadra:

Circle: vākacakra [=vākcakra?] (speech-wheel) (red);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Subhadrā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Vajrabhadra;
Bīja: laṃ;
Body-part: throat;
Pīṭha: Lampāka;
Bodily constituent: udara (stomach);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): prajñābala (power of wisdom).

Source: WikiPedia: Tibetan Buddhism

Subhadra (सुभद्र) (in Tibetan: Shintu Zangpo) (727–827 CE) refers to the ninth of the twenty-five Kalki kings (of Shambhala) who represents the holders of the Kalachakra (“wheel of time”) teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni.—The king Subhadra is described as “holder of the sword and shield”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossarySubhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali. A Brahman of age 120, who became Shakyamunis disciple shortly before Shakyamunis death and is therefore known as the last disciple.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Subhadra (सुभद्र) refers to a class of yakṣa deities according to both the Śvetāmbara and the Digambara traditions. The yakṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The assigned color of yakṣas is black and their caitya-vṛkṣa (sacred tree) is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa).

The deities such as the Subhadras are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is also mentioned in the Tattvārtha-bhāṣya amongst a list of thirteen. The Tattvārtha-bhāṣya is a commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra, an ancient and foundational Jain text written in the 2nd century by Umāsvāti. It contains philosophy accepted as authoritative by both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara sects of Jainism.

2) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) is the mother of Vijaya: the second Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara, while the Digambara tradition mentions him as the first Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The stories of Subhadrā and Vijaya are narrated in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) refers to one of two wifes of king Brahmā from Dvārakā, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Now there is a city named Dvārakā, the face-ornament of Surāṣṭra, the base of its wall washed by the waves of the western ocean. Its king was Brahmā, whose strength was undulled, by whom everyone was subdued and repressed, like a rival of Jiṣṇu (Indra). Subhadrā and Umā were his wives, the most important of his harem, like the Gaṅgā and the Sindhu of the Lavaṇa Ocean. Brahmā enjoyed happily sensuous pleasures with these two wives, like Manmatha with Rati and Prīti. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Subhadra (सुभद्र) is one of the nine graiveyakas: a subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

The nava-graiveyakas (e.g., Subhadra) are the three layered residences above the sixteenth heaven (kalpa) where Ahamindra deities reside. Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration.

Source: JAINpedia: Women in the Jain tradition: Soḷ satī

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) refers to one of the 16 Satīs mentioned in the Brāhmī Candanbālikā.—In Jain contexts “Satī” revolves around fidelity to the Jain religion. Although Jains call many virtuous Jain women satīs, among Śvetāmbara Jains there is a group of satīs called the soḷ satī or 16 Satīs (i.e., Subhadrā). These Jain Satīs are revered as role models for women and their stories are widely known. Even though the general group of Satī grows over time, the group of 16 Satīs is unchanging.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) or Subhadrākathā refers to one of the 157 stories embedded in the Kathāmahodadhi by Somacandra (narrating stories from Jain literature, based on the Karpūraprakara), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Kathāmahodadhi represents a repository of 157 stories [e.g., Subhadrā-kathā] written in prose Sanskrit, although each of them is preceded by a verse. Together, they stage a large number of Jain characters (including early teachers). [...]

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Buddhist records of the Western World

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—To the west of Kuśinagara, not far off, is a stūpa. This is where Subhadra (Shen-hien) died (entered Nirvāṇa). Subhadra was originally a Brāhmaṇ teacher. He was 120 years of age; being so old, he had acquired in consequence much wisdom. Hearing that Buddha was about to die, he came to the two (sāla) trees, and asked ānanda, saying, “The Lord is about to die; pray let me ask him respecting some doubts I have, which still hamper me”.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Subhadra in India is the name of a plant defined with Ichnocarpus frutescens in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Chonemorpha malabarica (Lam.) G. Don (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Philippine Journal of Science (1922)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (1927)
· Journal of Botany (1923)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)
· Fl. Indo-Chine

If you are looking for specific details regarding Subhadra, for example side effects, extract dosage, diet and recipes, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—a. very happy or fortunate.

-draḥ Name of Viṣṇu; साकं साकम्पमंसे वसति विदधती बासुभद्रं सुभद्रम् (sākaṃ sākampamaṃse vasati vidadhatī bāsubhadraṃ subhadram) Viṣṇupāda S.31.

-drā Name of the sister of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa, married to Arjuna q. v. She bore to him a son named Abhimanyu.

Subhadra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and bhadra (भद्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—(1) (= Pali Subhadda, 6 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)) name of a brahmanical ascetic, converted by the Buddha shortly before his death: Divyāvadāna 152.22 ff.; 202.29; Avadāna-śataka i.228.3 ff.; (2) name of a householder: Divyāvadāna 262.8 ff.; (3) name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 247.12.

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Subhadrā (सुभद्रा).—(1) name of a householder's daughter: Gaṇḍavyūha 52.1; (2) name of a yoginī: Sādhanamālā 427.6; (3) name of a yakṣiṇī: Sādhanamālā 561.2; 562.4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—mfn.

(-draḥ-drā-draṃ) Propitious, auspicious, fortunate. m.

(-draḥ) A name of Vishnu. f.

(-drā) 1. The sister of Jagannat'H whose image is worshipped with those of that deity and his brother Balarama, and carried in procession with them in the Rat'ha- Yatra, or annual movement of the car of Jagannat'H; she is the wife of Arjuna. 2. A creeper, (Echites frutescens.) 3. A plant, commonly Ghrita-manda. E. su exceedingly, bhadra auspicious.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—I. adj. pro pitious, fortunate, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 17 v. r. Ii. m. Viṣṇu. Iii. f. , The sister of Jagannātha.

— Cf. [Gothic.] bats, bat + izo, bat + ista; A. S. bet; [Old High German.] baz; [Gothic.] ga-bat + non, bot + a, bot + jan; A. S. bót; [Latin] fastus (for fad-tus), fastigium, fastidium, festivus (but festus belongs rather to bhāṣ).

Subhadra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and bhadra (भद्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र).—[adjective] excellent, beautiful, auspicious, fortunate; [masculine] & [feminine] ā a man’s & woman’s name; [neuter] good fortune.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Subhadrā (सुभद्रा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a poetess. [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] Mentioned also in Subhāṣitamuktāvalī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Subhadra (सुभद्र):—[=su-bhadra] [from su > su-pakva] mf(ā)n. (su-) very glorious or splendid or auspicious or fortunate, [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Azadirachta Indica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] ([probably]) of Sanat-kumāra, [Pañcarātra]

5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] of a son of Idhmajihva, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] of the last man converted by Gautama Buddha, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]

9) [v.s. ...] of a scholar, Jain

10) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Pañcarātra]

11) Subhadrā (सुभद्रा):—[=su-bhadrā] [from su-bhadra > su > su-pakva] f. Name of various well-known plants (e.g. Ichnocarpus Frutescens; Curcuma Zedoaria; Prosopis Spicigera etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

13) [v.s. ...] a form of Durgā, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a younger sister of Kṛṣṇa and wife of Arjuna (she was forcibly carried off by Arjuna from Dvārakā wish Kṛṣṇa’s permission, as described in [Mahābhārata i, [chapter] 219; 220]; her image is borne in procession with those of Jagannātha and Bala-rāma), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] of a wife of Durgama, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Balin and wife of Avīkṣita, [ib.]

17) [v.s. ...] of a grand daughter of Rukmin and wife of Aniruddha, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of the Asura Su-māya, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

19) [v.s. ...] of a mythical cow, [Mahābhārata]

20) [v.s. ...] of a poetess, [Catalogue(s)]

21) Subhadra (सुभद्र):—[=su-bhadra] [from su > su-pakva] n. fortune, welfare, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

22) [v.s. ...] Name of a Catvara (q.v.), [Mahābhārata]

23) [v.s. ...] of a Varṣa in Plakṣadvīpa ruled by Su-bhadra, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Subhadra (सुभद्र):—[su-bhadra] (draḥ) 1. m. A name of Vishnu. 1. f. Sister of Jagannāth; a creeper. a. Auspicious.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Subhadra (सुभद्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Subhadda, Subhaddā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Subhadra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Subhadra (ಸುಭದ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] promising success; propitious; auspicious.

2) [adjective] very firm, stable; steady.

3) [adjective] being free from danger, damage, etc.; safe.

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Subhadra (ಸುಭದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being auspicious; auspiciousness.

2) [noun] the state or qulaity of being safe.

3) [noun] the quality of being firm, stable.

4) [noun] a superior elephant.

5) [noun] (jain.) one of the nine regions above the sixteen heavens.

6) [noun] (mus.) name of the one hundred and eight kinds of time-cycles.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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