Naga, Nāga, Nāgā: 63 definitions


Naga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nag.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Nāga (लोह, “Lead”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Lead has no varieties.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

The lowest metal on the alchemical hierarchy is lead, most commonly called nāga, “serpent” or sīsa/sīsaka, an allomorph of the name of the cosmic serpent Śeṣa; or, more rarely, ahirāja, “serpent king.” The Rasakāmadhenu (2.1.4) and Rasendra-bhāskara (4.108) state that lead arose from the semen of Vāsuki, the king of a mythic race of serpents known for the great wealth it possessed in its subterranean treasure hoards.

This bird-serpent opposition is made most explicit in the ca. sixteenth century Rasakāmadhenu, which identifies gold, at the summit of the hierarchy of metals, with semen shed by Agni, and lead, at the base of the system, with the seed of Vāsuki. Let us also recall here the Rāmāyana myth, related at the beginning of this chapter, in which lead and tin (often used interchangeably) are said to arise from the residue (mala) or after-birth of the generation of gold.

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Nāga (lead):—That which looks black on cutting, heavy in weight, snigdha (smooth) on touch, melts quickly, looks ujjvala (bright) and black from out side is considered śuddha-nāga (pure lead) and that is useful, not otherwise.

Nāga-bhasma can destroy all the premaha-rogas, vātaja-rogas, specially dhanurvāta-rogas etc., and also twenty types of śleṣmaja-(kaphaja)-rogas undoubtedly.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

1) Naga (नग) is synonymous with Mountain (śaila) and is mentioned in a list of 24 such synonyms according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Naga], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

2) Naga (नग) also refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).

3) Nāga (नाग) is the name of a tree (Nāg-kesara) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Āśleṣā, according to the same chapter. Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Nāga], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Nāga (नाग) (identified with Mesua ferrea) is used in various bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis such as manipulating the scent of flowers, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “All types of flowering plants produce excellent fragrance if earth strongly scented by their own flowers is filled around the base (of the trees) and then fed with water mixed with Cyperus rotundus, Erythrina stricta, and Valeriana wallichii leaves. The same treatment used in the evening at their blossoming time along with fat, milk, blood and water extract of Saussurea lappa intensifies the natural fragrance of the blossoms of Calophyllum inophyllum, Mesua ferrea [e.g., Nāga], Mimusops elengi, etc.”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Nāga (नाग) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Nāga (नाग) refers to Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox) and is the name of a medicinal plant dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs (viz., Nāga) during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

The calcification (bhasma) of Nāga (“tin”) is mentioned as an ingredient of metallic drugs for the treatment of Kāsa and Śvāsa in chapter 3.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Nāga (नाग):—Element Lead-Plumbum with chemical symbol Pb at at. no 82

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Nāga (नाग).—An asura (demon). (See under Nāgāstra).

2) Nāga (नाग).—A class of serpents. It is stated in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Sarga 14, that of the ten daughters of Kaśyapa, from Surasā, the nāgas and from Kadrū, the Uragas (both are serpents) came into the world.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Nāga (नाग) refers to a group of inhabitants of ancient Kaśmīra (Kashmir valley) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nāga deities of the Nīlamata have power over rain, storm and snow, and dwell generally in lakes, pools and springs. The Nīlamata informs us that the valley of Kaśmīra called Satīdeśa was occupied in ancient times by the Nāgas only. It is stated that they were the progeny of Prajāpati Kaśyapa and his wife Kadrū—the daughter of Dakṣa. A list containing 603 names of the Nāgas occurs in the work and there are occasional references to the worship of the Nāgas.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Naga (नग) refers to a “mountain”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.8.—Accordingly, Nārada said to Himavat:—“[..] Performing a penance she will fascinate Śiva’s mind towards herself. He too will marry none else except her. A love akin to this pair will not be found anywhere. Never in the past was it seen nor will it occur in future. Nor it is current now. O best of mountains [i.e., naga-śreṣṭha], the two will fulfil the work of the gods. They will resuscitate those who have breathed their last. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Naga (नग).—(Vāsiṣṭha) a sage of the epoch of III Sāvarṇa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 79.

1b) A mountain surrounding the back portion of the Śilā at Gayā; here the Pitṛs give bali to Yamarāja and Dharmaraja.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 28.

2a) Nāga (नाग).—Mt. north of the Mahābhadra lake;1 on the north of Meru.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 31.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 30.

2b) As the Yajñopavīta of Śiva, as a source of Mūrchana (Music).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 32. 19; 61. 53.

2c) Creatures born with human forms above the naval and of snakes below; born of Kaśyapa and Kadru; their capital was Bhogavatī; their chief was Ananta;1 came to Dvārakā with the gods;2 attacked the chariot of the Lord;3 residents of the Naiṣadha Hill, of all talams and especially Pātalam; capital Māhiṣmatī, renowned for Karkoṭaka sabhā; worship Pitṛs;4 Vāsuki, as their overlord;5 when milking the cow-earth Takṣaka was the calf;6 celebrated the marriage of Śiva and Umā;7 to be worshipped in Palace buildings.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 11; II. 6. 13; III. 20. 48; XI. 16. 19; 24. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 261. 47-50.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 6. 3; 12. 3; 14. 6.
  • 3) Ib. XII. 11. 48.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 9, 21; 17. 34; 20. 45; III. 69. 26; IV. 2. 26; 6. 72; 9. 72; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 4.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 8. 7.
  • 6) Ib. 10. 19-20.
  • 7) Ib. 154. 462.
  • 8) Ib. 266. 46; 268. 17; 273. 71.

2d) Sons of Kaṇḍu;1 country of the.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 311; 69. 68; 94. 26.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 18; 101. 28.

2e) Nine in number ruled from Campāvatī (Padmāvatī, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) seven ruled from Mathurā for 383 years the territory surrounding the Gangā and Prayāga. Sāketa and Magadha were under their control.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 74. 194-5, 267; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 453; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 63.

2f) Elephants; created for use in the Devāsura wars; other names are Dvirada, Hasti, Kari, Vāraṇa, Danti, Gaja, Kuñjara, Mātaṅga, Dvīpa, Sāmaja: turning of the tongue due to the curse of Agni and two tusks and enormous strength by curse of the Gods; see also dignāgas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 34, 334-5.

2g) Elephants born of Sāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 334-5.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Nāga (नाग) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.34, I.35, I.31.6, I.35, I.60.66) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Nāga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Nāga is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Nāga].

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Nāga (नाग).—Nāgas have been treated in great extent, as the heroine of the story is a Nāga princess. They are divided into eight Kulas or families, namely

  1. Āvanta,
  2. Vāsuki,
  3. Takṣaka,
  4. Karkoṭa,
  5. Kulika,
  6. Śaṅkhapāla,
  7. Mahāpadma,
  8. Padma.

They reside in the nether world (pātāla). They assume different forms at their will. Their movement is unobstructed in all the worlds. They are beautiful, divine and strong. An enemy dies as soon as he is touched by them. They are indifferent to the wealth of others and therefore they are appointed as the protectors of wealth by people. It is wonderful that they live, like Yogins, only on wind as their food.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Nāga (नाग).—Description of a women of nāga type;—A woman who has a pointed nose and sharp teeth, slender body, reddish eyes, complexion of a blue lotus, is fond of sleep, very irascible, has an oblique (tiryak) gait and unsteady efforts, takes pleasure in the company of many persons (lit. beings), and loves sweet scent, garlands and similar other objects, is said to possess the nature of a nāga.

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Nāga (नाग) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the northern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Nāga).

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Nāga (नाग) represents “state of desirelessness”, referring to one of the attributes of Lord Śiva, commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The accessories should be made of the same material with which the main image has been fashioned. Each of these accessories denotes the attributes of the images while in certain circumstances they denote particular divinity or character by themselves. Nāga, for example, signifies the attributes of Lord Śiva.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Nāga (नाग) refers to a certain class of personalities which follows specific guidelines in the tradition of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the rules of Painting of different classes have been elaborately discussed. According to this work, the size of [e.g., Nāga], [...] in a picture should be equal to the size of mālyava type of men. The Nāgas are the members of a class of demigods who have the body with half human form and half in serpent’s form. They should have the shape of god and are adorned with snake hood. Thus the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa establishes the fact that even in the pictures; the people belonging to different class and profession [e.g., Nāga] were projected with specific attire so that general people can equate the picture with the practical character.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Nāga (नाग) refers to “divine serpent”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Nāga (नाग) or Nāgavīthi refers to one the nine divisions of the ecliptic, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The ecliptic is divided into nine divisions known as Vīthis (paths), According to some each division consists of three constellations beginning from Aśvini. [...] According to others the Nāga Vīthi consists of the constellations of Svāti, Bharaṇī and Kṛttikā; [...]”.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Nāga (नाग) (or Vāsuki) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Nāga] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Nāga as a doorway deity is associated with the Nakṣatra called Svāti and the consequence is kandarpa. [...] The Mayasaṃgraha (verse 5.156-187) describes a design for a 9-by-9-part pura, a residential complex for a community and its lead figure. [...] This record lists a place for flowers at Nāga, Mukhya and Bhalvāṭa (ahitraye).

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Nāga (नाग) or “tin” is used as an ingredient of a mixture of Vajralepa (“a special kind of hard cement”) which was used in the construction of a Temple and as a binding agent for joining bricks, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, five procedures of preparing the vajralepa are suggested.—The fourth kind of vajralepa is made by the mixture of some metals [e.g., eight parts of nāga i.e., tin]. It is seen that the portions of the metals, suggested in the Bṛhatsaṃhitā are similar as stated in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

1) Naga (नग) represents the number 7 (seven) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 7—naga] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

2) Nāga (नाग) represents the number 8 (eight) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā).

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Nāga (नाग) refers to a “snake”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.121-128, while describing the prevention of natural disasters]—“[...] [He performs the ritual when people are afflicted by] skin diseases, etc., fevers, untimely death or various sorts of pain, past faults or seizing spirits. Diseases from snake poison, etc. (nāga-viṣanāgādiviṣadoṣāśca), insect bites, etc., rheumatism, change in form, phlegm, hemorrhoids, eye diseases, skin diseases, etc., internal disease, and sickness caused by wounds, etc., by the thousands [can occur] if various sorts of evils touch the Maṇḍala, a defect arises from offense [occurs]. [...]”.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Nāga (नाग) appears once in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (xi. 2, 7, 12) in the form mahānāga, where ‘great snake’ or ‘great elephant’ may be meant. In the Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad (i. 3. 24), and in a citation found in the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa the sense of ‘elephant’ is clearly intended. In the Sūtras the mythic Nāga already occurs.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

The race of snakes, the Nagas is said to be the offspring of the great sage Kashyapa and Kadru, a daughter of Daksha prajapathi. They reside in Nagaloka. Their half-brother Garuda, the mount of Lord Vishnu is their natural enemy. Various snakes are mentioned as their king, including Vasuki, Takshaka and Adisesha.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Nāga (नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pali word for a minor deity taking the form of a very large snake, found in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The use of the term nāga is often ambiguous, as the word may also refer, in similar contexts, to one of several human tribes known as or nicknamed “Nāgas”; to elephants; and to ordinary snakes, particularly the King Cobra and the Indian Cobra, the latter of which is still called nāg (नाग) in Hindi and other languages of India.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsA term commonly used to refer to strong, stately, and heroic animals, such as elephants and magical serpents. In Buddhism, it is also used to refer to those who have attained the goal of the practice.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Naga

An eminent Thera of Ceylon, a teacher of the Vinaya. Vin.v.3.

2. Naga

Third of the ten sons of Mutasiva, and therefore a brother of Devanampiyatissa. Dpv.xi.6; xvii.75.

3. Naga

A thera of Ceylon during the pillage by Brahmans Tissa. His sister was an arahant theri named Naga (q.v.). For their story see MA.i.546f.; AA.ii.654f.

4. Naga

An Elder of Karaliyagiri in Ceylon. For eighteen years he gave up teaching the Dhamma, but later he taught the Dhatukatha, and his memory of the contents was perfect. Vsm.96.

5. Naga

See Coranaga, Mahanaga, etc.

-- or --

1. Naga

Chief woman disciple of Sujata Buddha. J.i.38; Bu.xiii.26.

2. Naga

One of the chief women supporters of Phussa Buddha. Bu.xix.21.

3. Naga

A former birth of Asokamala, when she was the wife of Tissa (later Saliya), an artisan of Mundaganga. MT.605.

4. Naga Theri

An arahant of Bhataragama. During the pillage of Brahmana Tissa, when all the villagers had fled, she went with her colleagues to a banyan tree, the presiding deity of which provided them with food. She had a brother, Naga; when he visited her she gave him part of her food, but he refused to accept food from a bhikkhuni. MA.i.546; AA.ii.654.

5. Naga

A class of beings. See Appendix.

6. Naga

An eminent Theri of Ceylon. Dpv.xviii.35.

7. Naga

A woman who lived near the Rajayatana cetiya. Once, seeing sixty monks return from the village with empty bowls, she, although already pledged to work by day, borrowed some money on promise to work at night as well, and gave them food. The monks retired to Mucalindavana and developed arahantship before eating. The deity of the kings parasol shouted applause, and the king, having heard the story, gave Naga the whole island, which thus came to be called Nagadipa. Ras.ii.16f.

8. Naga

A class of beings classed with Garulas and Supannas and playing a prominent part in Buddhist folk lore. They are gifted with miraculous powers and great strength. Generally speaking, they are confused with snakes, chiefly the hooded Cobra, and their bodies are described as being those of snakes, though they can assume human form at will. They are broadly divided into two classes: those that live on land (thalaja) and those that live on water (jalaja). The Jalaja naga live in rivers as well as in the sea, while the Thalaja naga are regarded as living beneath the surface of the earth. Several Naga dwellings are mentioned in the books: e.g., Manjerika bhavana under Sineru, Daddara bhavana at the foot of Mount Daddara in the Himalaya, the Dhatarattha naga under the river Yamuna, the Nabhasa Naga in Lake Nabhasa, and also the Nagas of Vesali, Tacchaka, and Payaga (D.ii.258). The Vinaya (ii.109) contains a list of four royal families of Nagas (Ahirajakulani): Virupakkha, Erapatha,

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nāga (नाग) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. Very generous (mahādātṛ) but short-tempered (krodhana) and crafty (kuṭilacitta), they take the form of [for example], a Nāga.

According to chapter XX, “when the Bodhisattva cultivates generosity (dāna),... He knows that an evil bad-tempered man, but one who practices generosity even though it be for tortuous and indirect intentions, will be reborn among the Nāgas where he will have a palace made of the seven jewels, good food and beautiful women”.

According to chapter XLVI, “just as the Nāga kings (Nāgarāja) and the birds with golden wings (Garuḍa), despite their great power (anubhāva) and their power of transformation, belong to the animal destiny (tiryaggati), so the Asuras belong to a good destiny, but one which is of lower order. [...] The Nāga kings (nāgarāja) and the birds with golden wings, even though they too enjoy bliss, walk horizontally and resemble animals in shape; this is why they are classed in the animal destiny”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Nāga (नाग) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Nāga).

Source: A Collection of Tantric Ritual Texts

Nāga (नाग) are serpent-liked sentient beings in Indian mythology; in Buddhism they are treated ambiguously—on the one hand, they are thought to have kept many esoteric Buddhist texts preached by the Buddha and later brought back to the humans by some great teachers and yogis such as Nāgārjuna, etc., on the other hand, the Nāgas can cause bad diseases and harm people.

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Nāga (नाग) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Nāginī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Agnicakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the agnicakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Nāga] are red in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

2) Nāga (नाग) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Nāginī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Nāga] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

1) Great serpents (or dragons, or water creatures). The king of the Nagas protected Buddha from a storm.

2) Naga:—A half man, half snake, this beast lives deep under water.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Nāga (नाग) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Candraprabha are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Candraprabha is the eighth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Mahāsena and his mother is Lakṣmaṇā according to Śvetāmbara but Lakṣmī according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Nāga (नाग) is the shorter name of Nāgadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Nāgasamudra (or simply Nāga), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Nāga is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

1) Nāga (नाग) or Nāgakeśara refers to the tree associated with Candraprabha: the eighth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The main iconographic details to be gleaned from the Jaina books distinguish the image of Candraprabha from all other Indian images. His Lāñchana or technical emblem is the moon or the crescent. His special tree is Nāga (Nāgakeśara). The goblins are Vijaya and Bhṛkuṭi (Jvālāmālinī). The chowri-bearer, who does him honour is called Dānavīrya.

2) Nāga (नाग) or Malli also refers to the tree associated with Suvidhinātha: the ninth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas.—Suvidhinātha has two names given to him, another being Puṣpadanta. There is a dispute over his emblem. Some say, it is a dolphin (Makara); others declare it is a crab. His Yakṣa and Yakṣiṇī are named Ajita and Sutārī Devī (Digambara: Mahākalī) respectively. The chowri-bearer has the name of Maghavatarāja. The religious tree under which he attained the Kevala knowledge is the Nāga according to some authorities, Malli according to other authorities.

3) Nāga (नाग) also refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism.—Nāga is to be imaged as a figure seated on a lotus and having a snake in his hand. He rules over nether world or Pātāla, the region of the snakes. [...] The Digambaras do not seem to have accepted not more than eight guardian gods. Brahmā and Nagā being left out from their descriptive list.

Source: HereNow4U: Sectarian Differences In Jain Order (II)

Nāga (नाग).—Originally Bhāraśiva Nāgas were the inhabitants of Padmāvatī, Kāntipurī and Vidiśā. There is mention of them as Vṛṣa (the bull Nandi, vehicle of Lord Śiva) in Brahmāṇda Pūrāṇa and Vāyu Pūrāṇa. According to these epics, they annexed and established their authority over a vast expanse which includes Bhadra (East Punjab), Rajputana (present Rajasthan), Madhya Pradeśa, Uttar Pradeśa, Mālwa, Bundelkhand and Bihar, etc.

Apart from these, the fact that, after the Śuṃga dynasty, the eight Nāga kings-Bhūtanandī, Śiśunandī, Yaśanandī, Puruṣadāta, Usabhadāta, Kāmadāta, Bhavadāta, and Śivanandī ruled over the Vidisa kingdom is substantiated by inscriptions and coins of those times. During the last phase of the first century A.D., the Nāgas had to abandon their original inhabitation like Vidhisa, Padmāvatī and Kāntipurī and collectively migrated to Central India at the time of expansion of Kuṣāṇa Kingdom by Kaniṣka. They started living in the vicinity of Vindhyā Mountains like exiles.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Nāga (नाग) refers to a “snake”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The pleasures that are cherished, like the poison of a snake [com.—nāga-śarīra-sadṛśa—‘resembling the body of a snake’], are the thieves of life immediately and they are produced in the cycle of rebirth by the 30 gods”.

Synonyms: Bhujaṅga, Bhujaga, Bhogin, Vyāla.

2) Naga (नग) refers to a “tree”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “Fool, just as birds stay in a tree (naga), having come from another country, so sentient beings from another life [stay] in the tree of a family”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: The Chronological History of Tibetan Buddhism

In Sanskrit, Naga kings were also called Uragas. The Tibetan word O-rgyan or U-rgyan might have derived from Sanskrit word Uraga. Therefore, the Naga kingdom of Kashmir was the birthplace of Garab Dorje not Swat valley.

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Naga (“snake”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Naga) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Naga.—(IE 8-1-2), ‘seven’; rarely used to indicate ‘eight’. Note: naga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Nāga.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: nāga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Nāga (नाग) refers to one of the deities being worshiped in ancient India, as vividly depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] Page 256.31-2 ff.: Here is a mixed list of 25 gods and Godlings of all religions. These were worshipped and propitiated to obtain favours. The list includes [e.g., Nāga] [...].

Source: Academia: Ritual Period: A Comparative Study of Three Newar Buddhist Menarche Manuals

Nāga (नाग) refers to “serpent deities”, according to the “Vādhā byaṃ ke vidhi”: the name of two manuscripts written by (1) Kathmandu-based priest, Badriratna Bajracharya and (2) Buddharatna Bajracharya from Lalitpur.—Badriratna’s text pays the most attention to the invocations of celestial bodies and other cosmologically grouped agents. The list consists of [e.g., serpent deities (nāgas)]. In this list, we particularly find the dark forces that are especially adept at causing problems for women, children and, more specifically, girl children, addressed and harnessed.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Naga [नाग] in the Pali language is the name of a plant identified with Mesua ferrea L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family. For the possible medicinal usage of naga, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Naga in Philippines is the name of a plant defined with Pterocarpus indicus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lingoum echinatum Kuntze (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora de Filipinas (1837)
· Species Plantarum. (1802)
· Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia (1763)
· Austral. J. Pharm. (1886)
· A Numerical List of Dried Specimens (5915)
· Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État (1954)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Naga, for example health benefits, pregnancy safety, side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

naga : (m.) mountain. || nāga (m.), a cobra, an elephant; the iron-wood tree; a noble person.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nāga, (Ved. nāga; etym. of 1. perhaps fr. *snagh=Ags. snaca (snake) & snaegl (snail); of 2 uncertain, perhaps a Non-Aryan word distorted by popular analogy to nāga1) 1. a serpent or Nāga demon, playing a prominent part in Buddh. fairy-tales, gifted with miraculous powers & great strength. They often act as fairies & are classed with other divinities (see devatā), with whom they are sometimes friendly, sometimes at enmity (as with the Garuḷas) D. I, 54; S. III, 240 sq.; V, 47, 63; Bu. I. 30 (dīghāyukā mahiddhikā); Miln. 23. Often with supaṇṇā (Garuḷas); J. I, 64; DhA. II, 4; PvA. 272. Descriptions e.g. at DhA. III, 231, 242 sq.; see also cpds.—2. an elephant, esp. a strong, stately animal (thus in combination hatthi-nāga characterising “a Nāga elephant”) & frequent as symbol of strength & endurance (“heroic”). Thus Ep. of the Buddha & of Arahants. Popular etymologies of n. are based on the excellency of this animal (āguṃ na karoti=he is faultless, etc.): see Nd1 201=Nd2 337; Th. 1, 693; PvA. 57.—(a) the animal D. I, 49; S. I, 16; II, 217, 222; III, 85; V, 351; A. II, 116; III, 156 sq.; Sn. 543; Vv 55 (=hatthināga VvA. 37); Pv. I, 113. mahā° A. IV, 107, 110.—(b) fig. = hero or saint: S. II, 277; III, 83; M. I, 151, 386; Dh. 320; Sn. 29, 53, 166, 421, 518. Of the Buddha: Sn. 522, 845, 1058, 1101; Miln. 346 (Buddha°).—3. The Nāga-tree (now called “iron-wood tree, ” the P. meaning “fairy tree”), noted for its hard wood & great masses of red flowers (=Sk. nāgakesara, mesua ferrea Lin.): see cpds. °rukkha, °puppha, °latā.

— or —

Naga, (Sk. naga tree & mountain, referred by Fausböll & Uhlenbeck to na+gacchati, i.e. immovable (=sthāvara), more probably however with Lidén (see Walde under nāvis) to Ohg. nahho, Ags. naca “boat=tree”; semantically mountain=trees, i.e. forest) mountain S. I, 195= Nd2 136A (nagassa passe āsīna, of the Buddha); Sn. 180 (=devapabbata royal mountain SnA 216; or should it mean “forest”?); Th. 1, 41 (°vivara), 525; Pv. II, 961 (°muddhani on top of the Mount, i.e. Mt. Sineru PvA. 138; the Buddha was thought to reside there); Miln. 327 (id.); Vv 166 (°antare in between the (5) mountains, see VvA. 82). (Page 345)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naga (नग).—m (S) An ornament; a jewel or a trinket. 2 An article or item (as of implements, pieces of apparel &c., in numbering them), a piece. 3 Used in stating the number of a body of elephants, and before the numeral; as hattī naga dāhā Ten head of elephants. 4 The stone or gem of a ring &c. 5 A laḍa or string of raw silk: contrad. from kaṅkarī. 6 S A mountain.

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nāga (नाग).—m (S) A serpent, but esp Cobra de capello (Coluber Naga). 2 A demigod so called. 3 A poisonous root. 4 n The tenth of the astronomical karaṇa. 5 m One of the five upaprāṇa. 6 S An elephant.

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nāgā (नागा).—m ( P) Intermission, suspension, pause (in a work or course): also a day or single instance of intermission; a break, a gap.

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nāgā (नागा).—a (Usually nāgavā q. v.) Naked.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naga (नग).—m An ornament. An article; a piece. A mountain.

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nāga (नाग).—m A serpent. A demigod so called. A poisonous root. An elephant.

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nāgā (नागा).—m Intermission, pause; a day of intermission; a break.

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nāgā (नागा).—a Naked.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naga (नग).—[na gacchati, gam-ḍa]

1) A mountain; हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः (himālayo nāma nagādhirājaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.1;7.72; न गजा नगजा दयिता दयिताः (na gajā nagajā dayitā dayitāḥ) Bk. 1.9.

2) A tree; अभ्यधावत् क्षितितलं सनगं परिकम्पयन् (abhyadhāvat kṣititalaṃ sanagaṃ parikampayan) Bhāg. 1.15.29; Śiśupālavadha 6.79.

3) A plant in general.

4) The sun.

5) A serpent.

6) The number 'seven' (from saptakulācala-giri).

Derivable forms: nagaḥ (नगः).

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Nāga (नाग).—a. (- f.) Serpentine, formed of snakes, snaky.

2) Elephantine.

-gaḥ [na gacchati ityagaḥ na ago nāgaḥ]

1) A snake in general, particularly the cobra; नासुरोऽयं न वा नागः (nāsuro'yaṃ na vā nāgaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 15.12.

2) A fabulous serpentdemon or semi-divine being, having the face of a man and the tail of a serpent, and said to inhabit the Pātāla; अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानाम् (anantaścāsmi nāgānām) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.29; R.15.83.

3) An elephant; दिङ्नागानां पथि परिहरन् स्थूलहस्तावलेपान् (diṅnāgānāṃ pathi pariharan sthūlahastāvalepān) Meghadūta 14,36; Si.4.63; V.4.25.

4) A shark.

5) A cruel or tyrannical person.

6) (At the end of comp.) Any pre-eminent or distinguished person, e. g. पुरुषनागः (puruṣanāgaḥ) .

7) A cloud.

8) A peg projecting from a wall to hang anything upon.

9) Name of several plants as Mesua Roxburghii, Rottlera Tictoria, Piper betel; (Mar. nāgacāphā, nāgakeśara, pānavela, nāgaramothā etc.); Bhāgavata 8.2.18; Rām.7. 42.4.

1) One of the five vital airs of the body, that which is expelled by eructation.

11) The number 'seven'.

12) A trumpet (see nāgavelā).

-gam 1 Tin.

2) Lead.

3) One of the astronomical periods (Karaṇas) called ध्रुव (dhruva)

4) The effects of that period on anything done during it.

5) The asterism called आश्लेषा (āśleṣā).

6) A captivating act of females (strībandhaḥ), gesticulation; L. D. B.

7) A kind of coitus; Nm.

-gī 1 A female Nāga.

2) A female elephant;

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naga (नग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. mountain. 2. A tree. E. na not, gam to go, affix ḍa, immoveable; or dah to burn, Unadi affix ga, ha rejected, and da changed to na.

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Nāga (नाग).—m.

(-gaḥ) Naga or demi-god so called, having a human face, with the tail of a serpent, and the expanded neck of the Koluber Naga; the race of these beings is said to have sprung from Kadru, the wife of Kasyapa, in order to people Patala or the regions below the earth. 2. A serpent in general or especially the spectacle snake, or cobra capella, (Coluber Naga.) 3. An elephant. 4. A cruel or tyrannical person. 5. A cloud. 6. (In composition,) Preeminent. 7. A pin or nail projecting from a wall to hang any thing upon. 8. A small tree, (Mesua ferrea.) 9. A sort of grass, (Cyperus pertenuis.) 10. A tree used in dying, (Rottleria tinctoria.) 11. One of the airs of the body, that which is expelled by belching. 12. Betel or Pan. 13. The name of a country. 14. A shark. n.

(-gaṃ) 1. Tin. 2. Lead. 3. One of the stronomical periods called Karanas; it is one of those termed invariable, and always corresponds to the last half of Amavasya or new moon. 4. The effects of that period on any thing done or happening during it. E. naga a mountain, and aṇ affix; living or produced in mountainous regions, &c. nage parvate bhavaḥ aṇ na gacchati agaḥ na ago vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naga (नग).—[na-ga], I. adj. Immoveable, Mahābhārata 12, 5730 (?). Ii. m. 1. A mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 83, 1. 2. A tree, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 330.

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Nāga (नाग).—i. e. naga + a, 1. m. 1. A serpent, especially the name of fabulous serpents, having a human face and inhabiting Pātāla, or the infernal regions, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 25, 30; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 37. 2. An elephant, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 6, 22. 3. A small tree, Mesua Roxburghii Wight., [Suśruta] 1, 171, 7. 4. One of the five vital airs, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 15. 5. A proper name, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 11537, 6. The name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 16, 27. Ii. f. , A female elephant, [Suśruta] 1, 178, 1. Iii. adj., f. . 1. Consisting of serpents, Mahābhārata 8, 2586. 2. Produced from an elephant, [Suśruta] 1, 194, 1. Iv. f. , A proper name, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 7, 293.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naga (नग).—[masculine] mountain; tree, plant i.[grammar]

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Nāga (नाग).—1. [masculine] serpent or serpent-demon; a cert. wind in the body, elephant, a man’s name. [feminine] nāgī a serpent-maid or fem. elephant.

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Nāga (नाग).—2. [adjective] relating to serpents or elephants.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Nāga (नाग) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a grammarian. Mentioned in Śrīkaṇṭhacarita 25, 64.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naga (नग):—[=na-ga] [from na] a m. See naga.

2) [=na-ga] b m. ‘not moving’ (cf. a-ga), a mountain (ifc. f(ā). ; cf. sa-naga), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the number 7 (because of the 7 principal mountains; cf. kula-giri), [Sūryasiddhānta]

4) [v.s. ...] any tree or plant, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a serpent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Nāga (नाग):—m. ([probably] neither [from] na-ga nor [from] nagna) a snake, ([especially]) Coluber Naga, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) (f. ī, [Suparṇādhyāya]) a Nāga or serpent-demon (the race of Kadru or Su-rasā inhabiting the waters or the city Bhoga-vatī under the earth; they are supposed to have a human face with serpent-like lower extremities [see [especially] [Nāgānanda v, 17; Religious Thought and Life in India 233 etc.]]; their kings are Śeṣa, Vāsuki, and Takṣaka, [ib. 323]; 7 or 8 of the Nāgas are particularly mentioned, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.; with Buddhists they are also represented as ordinary men, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 220])

9) Name of the numbers 7 ([Sūryasiddhānta]) or 8 ([Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi])

10) a cruel man, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) one of the 5 airs of the human body (which is expelled by eructation), [Vedāntasāra]

12) (sg. also collect.) an elephant (f(ī). , ifc. f(ā). ), [Kāvya literature; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

13) the best or most excellent of any kind (ifc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. ṛṣabha, vyāghra etc.)

14) shark, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) cloud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Name of sub voce plants (Mesua Roxburghii, Rottlera Tinctoria etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) Name of a serpent-demon, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) of a Sādhya, [Harivaṃśa]

19) of a teacher, [Buddhist literature]

20) of a dynasty of 9 or 10 princes, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

21) of sub voce authors (also -śarman and -bhaṭṭa), [Colebrooke]

22) of sub voce other men, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

23) of a mountain, [Purāṇa]

24) of a district, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) = -danta (below), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) f(ā and ī). Name of sub voce women, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

27) n. (m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) tin, lead, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

28) a kind of talc, [ib.]

29) a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

30) Name of the 3rd invariable Karaṇa (See sub voce), [Sūryasiddhānta; Varāha-mihira]

31) of the effects of that period on anything happening during it, [Horace H. Wilson]

32) of a district of Bhārata-varṣa, [Golādhyāya]

33) mf(ā, or ī)n. formed of snakes, relating to serpents or s°-demons, snaky, serpentine, serpent-like, [Mahābhārata] etc. (with āsana n. a [particular] attitude in sitting, [Catalogue(s)]; ā f. [scilicet] vīthī = nāga-v, below, [Varāha-mihira])

34) belonging to an elephant, elephantine (as urine), [Suśruta]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naga (नग):—(gaḥ) 1. m. A mountain; a tree.

2) Nāga (नाग):—(gaḥ) 1. m. A Nāga or demigod, the offspring of Kadru, having a human face with a serpent’s tail, &c.; a serpent; an elephant; a cruel man; a cloud; a wooden peg. n. Tin; lead; a cycle.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Naga (नग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇaya, Ṇāga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Naga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Naga (नग) [Also spelled nag]:—(nm) a gem, jewel, precious stone; a piece, number; an item; a mountain; ~[pati] the Himalayas.

2) Nāga (नाग) [Also spelled naag]:—(nm) a cobra, snake; an elephant; (a) treacherous, venomous; —[devatā] serpent god; ~[loka] the world of snakes —[pātāla], the nether world.

3) Nāgā (नागा):—(nm) a Shaivite sect (whose members go about nude); a member of this sect; a tribe inhabiting the north-east frontier in the hill state of Assam (in India); ~[laiṃḍa] the small north-east frontier state of the Indian Union.

4) (nf) absence from work.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ṇāga (णाग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Nāka.

2) Ṇāga (णाग) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Nāga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Naga (ನಗ):—

1) [noun] an accessory, article or detail used to beautify the appearance of something to which it is added or of which it is a part; an ornament; an embellishment.

2) [noun] a bundle of commodities of similar kind.

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Naga (ನಗ):—[noun] a large ocean-going vessel propelled by usu. engines; a ship.

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Naga (ನಗ):—[noun] = ನಖ - [nakha -] 4.

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Naga (ನಗ):—

1) [noun] that which does not move, as a mountain or tree.

2) [noun] (arith.) the symbol for the number seven.

3) [noun] a large number having twenty seven digits.

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Nāga (ನಾಗ):—

1) [noun] a snake or serpent.

2) [noun] any of several genera (esp. Naja) of very poisonous elapine snakes, having around the neck loose skin which is expanded into a hood when the snake is excited; a cobra.

3) [noun] (myth.) the descendents of the sage Kaśyapa and Kadru; the lineage of serpents.

4) [noun] an elephant.

5) [noun] a cloud.

6) [noun] a prominent man or leader of a group of people.

7) [noun] one of the minor winds in the body that causes belching, vomiting, etc.

8) [noun] lead, the heavy, soft, malleable, bluish-grey metal.

9) [noun] the tree Mallotus philippensis (= Rottlera tinctoria) of Euphorbiaceae family.

10) [noun] the large-sized, evergreen tree Mesua ferrea of Guttiferae family.

11) [noun] fire.

12) [noun] absence of light; darkness.

13) [noun] water.

14) [noun] the large, spiral, univalve shell of any of various marine mollusks; conch.

15) [noun] a species of large marine fish; a shark.

16) [noun] a cruel, ruthless fellow.

17) [noun] a peg driven into a wall or pillar for hanging a lamp or other articles.

18) [noun] the idol of a serpent carved in stone.

19) [noun] a branch of Mongolian race, mostly inhabiting in north-eastern regions of India; Nagas.

20) [noun] the tenth karaṇa or astronomical period.

21) [noun] (pros.) a verse of four lines, having a group consisting of two long syllablic instants followed by one short one followed by a long and a short syllable in first and third lines, and a group consisting of two long syllabic instants followed by one short one followed by a long syllable.

22) [noun] a symbol for the number eight.

23) [noun] a symbol for the number seven.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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