Naga, Nāga, Nāgā: 38 definitions

Introduction

Naga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Nāga (लोह, “Lead”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. Lead has no varieties.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

The lowest metal on the alchemical hierarchy is lead, most commonly called nāga, “serpent” or sīsa/sīsaka, an allomorph of the name of the cosmic serpent Śeṣa; or, more rarely, ahirāja, “serpent king.” The Rasakāmadhenu (2.1.4) and Rasendra-bhāskara (4.108) state that lead arose from the semen of Vāsuki, the king of a mythic race of serpents known for the great wealth it possessed in its subterranean treasure hoards.

This bird-serpent opposition is made most explicit in the ca. sixteenth century Rasakāmadhenu, which identifies gold, at the summit of the hierarchy of metals, with semen shed by Agni, and lead, at the base of the system, with the seed of Vāsuki. Let us also recall here the Rāmāyana myth, related at the beginning of this chapter, in which lead and tin (often used interchangeably) are said to arise from the residue (mala) or after-birth of the generation of gold.

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Nāga (lead):—That which looks black on cutting, heavy in weight, snigdha (smooth) on touch, melts quickly, looks ujjvala (bright) and black from out side is considered śuddha-nāga (pure lead) and that is useful, not otherwise.

Nāga-bhasma can destroy all the premaha-rogas, vātaja-rogas, specially dhanurvāta-rogas etc., and also twenty types of śleṣmaja-(kaphaja)-rogas undoubtedly.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Nāga (नाग) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

1) Naga (नग) is synonymous with Mountain (śaila) and is mentioned in a list of 24 such synonyms according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Naga], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

2) Naga (नग) also refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).

3) Nāga (नाग) is the name of a tree (Nāg-kesara) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Āśleṣā, according to the same chapter. Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Nāga], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Nāga (नाग).—An asura (demon). (See under Nāgāstra).

2) Nāga (नाग).—A class of serpents. It is stated in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Sarga 14, that of the ten daughters of Kaśyapa, from Surasā, the nāgas and from Kadrū, the Uragas (both are serpents) came into the world.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Nāga (नाग) refers to a group of inhabitants of ancient Kaśmīra (Kashmir valley) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nāga deities of the Nīlamata have power over rain, storm and snow, and dwell generally in lakes, pools and springs. The Nīlamata informs us that the valley of Kaśmīra called Satīdeśa was occupied in ancient times by the Nāgas only. It is stated that they were the progeny of Prajāpati Kaśyapa and his wife Kadrū—the daughter of Dakṣa. A list containing 603 names of the Nāgas occurs in the work and there are occasional references to the worship of the Nāgas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Naga (नग).—(Vāsiṣṭha) a sage of the epoch of III Sāvarṇa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 79.

1b) A mountain surrounding the back portion of the Śilā at Gayā; here the Pitṛs give bali to Yamarāja and Dharmaraja.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 28.

2a) Nāga (नाग).—Mt. north of the Mahābhadra lake;1 on the north of Meru.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 31.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 30.

2b) As the Yajñopavīta of Śiva, as a source of Mūrchana (Music).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 32. 19; 61. 53.

2c) Creatures born with human forms above the naval and of snakes below; born of Kaśyapa and Kadru; their capital was Bhogavatī; their chief was Ananta;1 came to Dvārakā with the gods;2 attacked the chariot of the Lord;3 residents of the Naiṣadha Hill, of all talams and especially Pātalam; capital Māhiṣmatī, renowned for Karkoṭaka sabhā; worship Pitṛs;4 Vāsuki, as their overlord;5 when milking the cow-earth Takṣaka was the calf;6 celebrated the marriage of Śiva and Umā;7 to be worshipped in Palace buildings.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 11; II. 6. 13; III. 20. 48; XI. 16. 19; 24. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 261. 47-50.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 6. 3; 12. 3; 14. 6.
  • 3) Ib. XII. 11. 48.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 9, 21; 17. 34; 20. 45; III. 69. 26; IV. 2. 26; 6. 72; 9. 72; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 4.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 8. 7.
  • 6) Ib. 10. 19-20.
  • 7) Ib. 154. 462.
  • 8) Ib. 266. 46; 268. 17; 273. 71.

2d) Sons of Kaṇḍu;1 country of the.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 311; 69. 68; 94. 26.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 18; 101. 28.

2e) Nine in number ruled from Campāvatī (Padmāvatī, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) seven ruled from Mathurā for 383 years the territory surrounding the Gangā and Prayāga. Sāketa and Magadha were under their control.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 74. 194-5, 267; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 453; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 63.

2f) Elephants; created for use in the Devāsura wars; other names are Dvirada, Hasti, Kari, Vāraṇa, Danti, Gaja, Kuñjara, Mātaṅga, Dvīpa, Sāmaja: turning of the tongue due to the curse of Agni and two tusks and enormous strength by curse of the Gods; see also dignāgas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 34, 334-5.

2g) Elephants born of Sāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 334-5.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Nāga (नाग) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.34, I.35, I.31.6, I.35, I.60.66) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Nāga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Nāga (नाग).—Nāgas have been treated in great extent, as the heroine of the story is a Nāga princess. They are divided into eight Kulas or families, namely

  1. Āvanta,
  2. Vāsuki,
  3. Takṣaka,
  4. Karkoṭa,
  5. Kulika,
  6. Śaṅkhapāla,
  7. Mahāpadma,
  8. Padma.

They reside in the nether world (pātāla). They assume different forms at their will. Their movement is unobstructed in all the worlds. They are beautiful, divine and strong. An enemy dies as soon as he is touched by them. They are indifferent to the wealth of others and therefore they are appointed as the protectors of wealth by people. It is wonderful that they live, like Yogins, only on wind as their food.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Nāga (नाग).—Description of a women of nāga type;—A woman who has a pointed nose and sharp teeth, slender body, reddish eyes, complexion of a blue lotus, is fond of sleep, very irascible, has an oblique (tiryak) gait and unsteady efforts, takes pleasure in the company of many persons (lit. beings), and loves sweet scent, garlands and similar other objects, is said to possess the nature of a nāga.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Nāga (नाग) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the northern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Nāga).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Nāga (नाग) represents “state of desirelessness”, referring to one of the attributes of Lord Śiva, commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The accessories should be made of the same material with which the main image has been fashioned. Each of these accessories denotes the attributes of the images while in certain circumstances they denote particular divinity or character by themselves. Nāga, for example, signifies the attributes of Lord Śiva.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Nāga (नाग) appears once in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (xi. 2, 7, 12) in the form mahānāga, where ‘great snake’ or ‘great elephant’ may be meant. In the Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad (i. 3. 24), and in a citation found in the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa the sense of ‘elephant’ is clearly intended. In the Sūtras the mythic Nāga already occurs.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

The race of snakes, the Nagas is said to be the offspring of the great sage Kashyapa and Kadru, a daughter of Daksha prajapathi. They reside in Nagaloka. Their half-brother Garuda, the mount of Lord Vishnu is their natural enemy. Various snakes are mentioned as their king, including Vasuki, Takshaka and Adisesha.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Nāga (नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pali word for a minor deity taking the form of a very large snake, found in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The use of the term nāga is often ambiguous, as the word may also refer, in similar contexts, to one of several human tribes known as or nicknamed “Nāgas”; to elephants; and to ordinary snakes, particularly the King Cobra and the Indian Cobra, the latter of which is still called nāg (नाग) in Hindi and other languages of India.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsA term commonly used to refer to strong, stately, and heroic animals, such as elephants and magical serpents. In Buddhism, it is also used to refer to those who have attained the goal of the practice.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Naga

An eminent Thera of Ceylon, a teacher of the Vinaya. Vin.v.3.

2. Naga

Third of the ten sons of Mutasiva, and therefore a brother of Devanampiyatissa. Dpv.xi.6; xvii.75.

3. Naga

A thera of Ceylon during the pillage by Brahmans Tissa. His sister was an arahant theri named Naga (q.v.). For their story see MA.i.546f.; AA.ii.654f.

4. Naga

An Elder of Karaliyagiri in Ceylon. For eighteen years he gave up teaching the Dhamma, but later he taught the Dhatukatha, and his memory of the contents was perfect. Vsm.96.

5. Naga

See Coranaga, Mahanaga, etc.

-- or --

1. Naga

Chief woman disciple of Sujata Buddha. J.i.38; Bu.xiii.26.

2. Naga

One of the chief women supporters of Phussa Buddha. Bu.xix.21.

3. Naga

A former birth of Asokamala, when she was the wife of Tissa (later Saliya), an artisan of Mundaganga. MT.605.

4. Naga Theri

An arahant of Bhataragama. During the pillage of Brahmana Tissa, when all the villagers had fled, she went with her colleagues to a banyan tree, the presiding deity of which provided them with food. She had a brother, Naga; when he visited her she gave him part of her food, but he refused to accept food from a bhikkhuni. MA.i.546; AA.ii.654.

5. Naga

A class of beings. See Appendix.

6. Naga

An eminent Theri of Ceylon. Dpv.xviii.35.

7. Naga

A woman who lived near the Rajayatana cetiya. Once, seeing sixty monks return from the village with empty bowls, she, although already pledged to work by day, borrowed some money on promise to work at night as well, and gave them food. The monks retired to Mucalindavana and developed arahantship before eating. The deity of the kings parasol shouted applause, and the king, having heard the story, gave Naga the whole island, which thus came to be called Nagadipa. Ras.ii.16f.

8. Naga

A class of beings classed with Garulas and Supannas and playing a prominent part in Buddhist folk lore. They are gifted with miraculous powers and great strength. Generally speaking, they are confused with snakes, chiefly the hooded Cobra, and their bodies are described as being those of snakes, though they can assume human form at will. They are broadly divided into two classes: those that live on land (thalaja) and those that live on water (jalaja). The Jalaja naga live in rivers as well as in the sea, while the Thalaja naga are regarded as living beneath the surface of the earth. Several Naga dwellings are mentioned in the books: e.g., Manjerika bhavana under Sineru, Daddara bhavana at the foot of Mount Daddara in the Himalaya, the Dhatarattha naga under the river Yamuna, the Nabhasa Naga in Lake Nabhasa, and also the Nagas of Vesali, Tacchaka, and Payaga (D.ii.258). The Vinaya (ii.109) contains a list of four royal families of Nagas (Ahirajakulani): Virupakkha, Erapatha,

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nāga (नाग) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. Very generous (mahādātṛ) but short-tempered (krodhana) and crafty (kuṭilacitta), they take the form of [for example], a Nāga.

According to chapter XX, “when the Bodhisattva cultivates generosity (dāna),... He knows that an evil bad-tempered man, but one who practices generosity even though it be for tortuous and indirect intentions, will be reborn among the Nāgas where he will have a palace made of the seven jewels, good food and beautiful women”.

According to chapter XLVI, “just as the Nāga kings (Nāgarāja) and the birds with golden wings (Garuḍa), despite their great power (anubhāva) and their power of transformation, belong to the animal destiny (tiryaggati), so the Asuras belong to a good destiny, but one which is of lower order. [...] The Nāga kings (nāgarāja) and the birds with golden wings, even though they too enjoy bliss, walk horizontally and resemble animals in shape; this is why they are classed in the animal destiny”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Collection of Tantric Ritual Texts

Nāga (नाग) are serpent-liked sentient beings in Indian mythology; in Buddhism they are treated ambiguously—on the one hand, they are thought to have kept many esoteric Buddhist texts preached by the Buddha and later brought back to the humans by some great teachers and yogis such as Nāgārjuna, etc., on the other hand, the Nāgas can cause bad diseases and harm people.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Nāga (नाग) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Nāginī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Agnicakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the agnicakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Nāga] are red in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

2) Nāga (नाग) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Nāginī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Nāga] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Great serpents (or dragons, or water creatures). The king of the Nagas protected Buddha from a storm.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Nāga (नाग) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Candraprabha are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Candraprabha is the eighth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Mahāsena and his mother is Lakṣmaṇā according to Śvetāmbara but Lakṣmī according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Nāga (नाग) is the shorter name of Nāgadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Nāgasamudra (or simply Nāga), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Nāga is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

1) Nāga (नाग) or Nāgakeśara refers to the tree associated with Candraprabha: the eighth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The main iconographic details to be gleaned from the Jaina books distinguish the image of Candraprabha from all other Indian images. His Lāñchana or technical emblem is the moon or the crescent. His special tree is Nāga (Nāgakeśara). The goblins are Vijaya and Bhṛkuṭi (Jvālāmālinī). The chowri-bearer, who does him honour is called Dānavīrya.

2) Nāga (नाग) or Malli also refers to the tree associated with Suvidhinātha: the ninth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas.—Suvidhinātha has two names given to him, another being Puṣpadanta. There is a dispute over his emblem. Some say, it is a dolphin (Makara); others declare it is a crab. His Yakṣa and Yakṣiṇī are named Ajita and Sutārī Devī (Digambara: Mahākalī) respectively. The chowri-bearer has the name of Maghavatarāja. The religious tree under which he attained the Kevala knowledge is the Nāga according to some authorities, Malli according to other authorities.

3) Nāga (नाग) also refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism.—Nāga is to be imaged as a figure seated on a lotus and having a snake in his hand. He rules over nether world or Pātāla, the region of the snakes. [...] The Digambaras do not seem to have accepted not more than eight guardian gods. Brahmā and Nagā being left out from their descriptive list.

Source: HereNow4U: Sectarian Differences In Jain Order (II)

Nāga (नाग).—Originally Bhāraśiva Nāgas were the inhabitants of Padmāvatī, Kāntipurī and Vidiśā. There is mention of them as Vṛṣa (the bull Nandi, vehicle of Lord Śiva) in Brahmāṇda Pūrāṇa and Vāyu Pūrāṇa. According to these epics, they annexed and established their authority over a vast expanse which includes Bhadra (East Punjab), Rajputana (present Rajasthan), Madhya Pradeśa, Uttar Pradeśa, Mālwa, Bundelkhand and Bihar, etc.

Apart from these, the fact that, after the Śuṃga dynasty, the eight Nāga kings-Bhūtanandī, Śiśunandī, Yaśanandī, Puruṣadāta, Usabhadāta, Kāmadāta, Bhavadāta, and Śivanandī ruled over the Vidisa kingdom is substantiated by inscriptions and coins of those times. During the last phase of the first century A.D., the Nāgas had to abandon their original inhabitation like Vidhisa, Padmāvatī and Kāntipurī and collectively migrated to Central India at the time of expansion of Kuṣāṇa Kingdom by Kaniṣka. They started living in the vicinity of Vindhyā Mountains like exiles.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: academia.edu: The Chronological History of Tibetan Buddhism

In Sanskrit, Naga kings were also called Uragas. The Tibetan word O-rgyan or U-rgyan might have derived from Sanskrit word Uraga. Therefore, the Naga kingdom of Kashmir was the birthplace of Garab Dorje not Swat valley.

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Naga (“snake”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Naga) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Naga.—(IE 8-1-2), ‘seven’; rarely used to indicate ‘eight’. Note: naga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Nāga.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: nāga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

naga : (m.) mountain. || nāga (m.), a cobra, an elephant; the iron-wood tree; a noble person.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nāga, (Ved. nāga; etym. of 1. perhaps fr. *snagh=Ags. snaca (snake) & snaegl (snail); of 2 uncertain, perhaps a Non-Aryan word distorted by popular analogy to nāga1) 1. a serpent or Nāga demon, playing a prominent part in Buddh. fairy-tales, gifted with miraculous powers & great strength. They often act as fairies & are classed with other divinities (see devatā), with whom they are sometimes friendly, sometimes at enmity (as with the Garuḷas) D. I, 54; S. III, 240 sq.; V, 47, 63; Bu. I. 30 (dīghāyukā mahiddhikā); Miln. 23. Often with supaṇṇā (Garuḷas); J. I, 64; DhA. II, 4; PvA. 272. Descriptions e.g. at DhA. III, 231, 242 sq.; see also cpds.—2. an elephant, esp. a strong, stately animal (thus in combination hatthi-nāga characterising “a Nāga elephant”) & frequent as symbol of strength & endurance (“heroic”). Thus Ep. of the Buddha & of Arahants. Popular etymologies of n. are based on the excellency of this animal (āguṃ na karoti=he is faultless, etc.): see Nd1 201=Nd2 337; Th. 1, 693; PvA. 57.—(a) the animal D. I, 49; S. I, 16; II, 217, 222; III, 85; V, 351; A. II, 116; III, 156 sq.; Sn. 543; Vv 55 (=hatthināga VvA. 37); Pv. I, 113. mahā° A. IV, 107, 110.—(b) fig. = hero or saint: S. II, 277; III, 83; M. I, 151, 386; Dh. 320; Sn. 29, 53, 166, 421, 518. Of the Buddha: Sn. 522, 845, 1058, 1101; Miln. 346 (Buddha°).—3. The Nāga-tree (now called “iron-wood tree, ” the P. meaning “fairy tree”), noted for its hard wood & great masses of red flowers (=Sk. nāgakesara, mesua ferrea Lin.): see cpds. °rukkha, °puppha, °latā.

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Naga, (Sk. naga tree & mountain, referred by Fausböll & Uhlenbeck to na+gacchati, i.e. immovable (=sthāvara), more probably however with Lidén (see Walde under nāvis) to Ohg. nahho, Ags. naca “boat=tree”; semantically mountain=trees, i.e. forest) mountain S. I, 195= Nd2 136A (nagassa passe āsīna, of the Buddha); Sn. 180 (=devapabbata royal mountain SnA 216; or should it mean “forest”?); Th. 1, 41 (°vivara), 525; Pv. II, 961 (°muddhani on top of the Mount, i.e. Mt. Sineru PvA. 138; the Buddha was thought to reside there); Miln. 327 (id.); Vv 166 (°antare in between the (5) mountains, see VvA. 82). (Page 345)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naga (नग).—m (S) An ornament; a jewel or a trinket. 2 An article or item (as of implements, pieces of apparel &c., in numbering them), a piece. 3 Used in stating the number of a body of elephants, and before the numeral; as hattī naga dāhā Ten head of elephants. 4 The stone or gem of a ring &c. 5 A laḍa or string of raw silk: contrad. from kaṅkarī. 6 S A mountain.

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nāga (नाग).—m (S) A serpent, but esp Cobra de capello (Coluber Naga). 2 A demigod so called. 3 A poisonous root. 4 n The tenth of the astronomical karaṇa. 5 m One of the five upaprāṇa. 6 S An elephant.

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nāgā (नागा).—m ( P) Intermission, suspension, pause (in a work or course): also a day or single instance of intermission; a break, a gap.

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nāgā (नागा).—a (Usually nāgavā q. v.) Naked.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naga (नग).—m An ornament. An article; a piece. A mountain.

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nāga (नाग).—m A serpent. A demigod so called. A poisonous root. An elephant.

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nāgā (नागा).—m Intermission, pause; a day of intermission; a break.

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nāgā (नागा).—a Naked.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naga (नग).—[na gacchati, gam-ḍa]

1) A mountain; हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः (himālayo nāma nagādhirājaḥ) Ku.1.1;7.72; न गजा नगजा दयिता दयिताः (na gajā nagajā dayitā dayitāḥ) Bk. 1.9.

2) A tree; अभ्यधावत् क्षितितलं सनगं परिकम्पयन् (abhyadhāvat kṣititalaṃ sanagaṃ parikampayan) Bhāg. 1.15.29; Śi.6.79.

3) A plant in general.

4) The sun.

5) A serpent.

6) The number 'seven' (from saptakulācala-giri).

Derivable forms: nagaḥ (नगः).

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Nāga (नाग).—a. (- f.) Serpentine, formed of snakes, snaky.

2) Elephantine.

-gaḥ [na gacchati ityagaḥ na ago nāgaḥ]

1) A snake in general, particularly the cobra; नासुरोऽयं न वा नागः (nāsuro'yaṃ na vā nāgaḥ) Ki.15.12.

2) A fabulous serpentdemon or semi-divine being, having the face of a man and the tail of a serpent, and said to inhabit the Pātāla; अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानाम् (anantaścāsmi nāgānām) Bg.1.29; R.15.83.

3) An elephant; दिङ्नागानां पथि परिहरन् स्थूलहस्तावलेपान् (diṅnāgānāṃ pathi pariharan sthūlahastāvalepān) Me.14,36; Si.4.63; V.4.25.

4) A shark.

5) A cruel or tyrannical person.

6) (At the end of comp.) Any pre-eminent or distinguished person, e. g. पुरुषनागः (puruṣanāgaḥ) .

7) A cloud.

8) A peg projecting from a wall to hang anything upon.

9) Name of several plants as Mesua Roxburghii, Rottlera Tictoria, Piper betel; (Mar. nāgacāphā, nāgakeśara, pānavela, nāgaramothā etc.); Bhāg.8.2.18; Rām.7. 42.4.

1) One of the five vital airs of the body, that which is expelled by eructation.

11) The number 'seven'.

12) A trumpet (see nāgavelā).

-gam 1 Tin.

2) Lead.

3) One of the astronomical periods (Karaṇas) called ध्रुव (dhruva)

4) The effects of that period on anything done during it.

5) The asterism called आश्लेषा (āśleṣā).

6) A captivating act of females (strībandhaḥ), gesticulation; L. D. B.

7) A kind of coitus; Nm.

-gī 1 A female Nāga.

2) A female elephant;

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naga (नग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. mountain. 2. A tree. E. na not, gam to go, affix ḍa, immoveable; or dah to burn, Unadi affix ga, ha rejected, and da changed to na.

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Nāga (नाग).—m.

(-gaḥ) Naga or demi-god so called, having a human face, with the tail of a serpent, and the expanded neck of the Koluber Naga; the race of these beings is said to have sprung from Kadru, the wife of Kasyapa, in order to people Patala or the regions below the earth. 2. A serpent in general or especially the spectacle snake, or cobra capella, (Coluber Naga.) 3. An elephant. 4. A cruel or tyrannical person. 5. A cloud. 6. (In composition,) Preeminent. 7. A pin or nail projecting from a wall to hang any thing upon. 8. A small tree, (Mesua ferrea.) 9. A sort of grass, (Cyperus pertenuis.) 10. A tree used in dying, (Rottleria tinctoria.) 11. One of the airs of the body, that which is expelled by belching. 12. Betel or Pan. 13. The name of a country. 14. A shark. n.

(-gaṃ) 1. Tin. 2. Lead. 3. One of the stronomical periods called Karanas; it is one of those termed invariable, and always corresponds to the last half of Amavasya or new moon. 4. The effects of that period on any thing done or happening during it. E. naga a mountain, and aṇ affix; living or produced in mountainous regions, &c. nage parvate bhavaḥ aṇ na gacchati agaḥ na ago vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Nāga (नाग) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a grammarian. Mentioned in Śrīkaṇṭhacarita 25, 64.

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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