Kumbha: 26 definitions
Kumbha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Kumbha (कुम्भ, ‘pot’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Kumbha (“pot”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The other miscellaneous articles found as attributes in the hands of the deities are, for example, Kumbha.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
1) Kumbha (कुम्भ) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 63. The temple is mentioned being part of the group named Nāgara, which contains twenty different Prāsādas (temples/buildings). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Kumbha is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 60, where it is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas (temples) having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās.
Kumbha is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
Kumbha is also listed in the Matsyapurāṇa which features a list of 20 temple types. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.
2) Kumbha (कुम्भ) refers to “capital”. It is sculptured as a part of the pillar (stambha).
3) Kumbha (कुम्भ) corresponds with the Aquarius zodiac sign and refers to the eleventh of twelve rāśi (zodiacal sign), according to the Mānasāra. Rāśi is one of the three alternative principles, besides the six āyādiṣaḍvarga, used to constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular rāśi (eg., kumbha) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). All twelve rāśis, except the eighth (vṛścika) are auspicious.Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Kumbha (कुम्भ).—One of the components of a kumbhapañjara (a decorative motif);—Kumbha is the pot base, which is generally placed on a pedestal, which may be circular or square and may be ornate or non-ornate. The kumbha is generally globular and some times it is cuboid with its two comers ridged and sides rounded. The body of the pot is often decorated with a fillet, ratnapaṭṭika, puṣpapaṭṭika, vajrapaṭṭika, etc.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Aruṇoda and mount Mandara, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Mandara mountain lies on the eastern side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kumbha (कुम्भ).—One of the three sons of Prahlāda, the other two being Virocana and Nikumbha. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 19).
2) Kumbha (कुम्भ).—Son of Kumbhakarṇa, whose wife Vajrajvālā bore him two sons called Kumbha and Nikumbha. Both of them were very powerful, and Kumbha, in the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war defeated the army of monkeys on various occasions. Many of the ministers of Sugrīva tried to defeat Kumbha. Aṅgada, son of Bāli also could not stand up to him. Then Sugrīva fought against Kumbha and flung him into the sea when the water in it rose up to the level of mount Vindhya. Kumbha came ashore from the sea roaring but was fisted to death by Sugrīva. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Canto 76).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1b) A son of Muṇḍīśvara, an avatār of the lord of the 25th dvāpara.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 211.
1c) Helped Soma in the Tārakāmaya war.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 6. 14.
1d) A palace in the shape of a pot, with 9 bhūmikas and a toraṇa of 16 hastas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 37-49.
1e) Fit for śrāddha.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 47.
1f) A water vessel, being an adjunct of vratas to be given as gift.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 7. 10 and 18.
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.19, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumbha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Kumbha (कुम्भ) corresponds to “aquarius” (mid February to mid March) and refers to one of the zodiac signs (rāśī) in the Vedic calendar.—Rāśī refers to the different signs of the zodiac through which the sun travels. For precise dates, please refer to a Vedic calendar. In accordance with the zodiac sign the sun is situated in, one would utter [for example, kumbha-rāśī sthite bhāskare]
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “pitcher”.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Cāmuṇḍā Devī they preside over Pauṇḍravardhana: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). Their weapon is the khaṭvāṅga. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kumbhī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kumbha] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Kumbha (कुम्भ) is the father of Mallinātha, the nineteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The wife of Kumbha is Prabhāvatī. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.
2) Kumbha (कुम्भ).— The kumbhas are a group of celestial beings living in the lower regions of adholoka (lower world) according to Jaina cosmology. Adholoka is made up of seven regions and offers residence to the infernal beings existing within these lands.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Kumbha (कुम्भ) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kumbha] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Kumbha (कुम्भ) is the father of Mallinātha: the nineteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Mallinātha’s father was the king of Mithila in Vaṅga (Bengal) and belonged to the Ikṣvāku race. His name was Kumbha and his queen was called Prajāvatī. According lo the Śvetāmbara sect, Mallinātha was a woman. [...] The Jina acquired the name of Malli as his mother longed for fragrant Malli (a kind of Jasmine) flowers while bearing him in the womb.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kumbha.—(EI 5), the pinnacle of a temple; same as kalaśa. See also kumbhaka. Note: kumbha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kumbha : (m.) water-pot.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kumbha, (for etym. s. kūpa and cp. Low Ger. kump or kumme, a round pot) 1. a round jar, waterpot (=kulālabhājana earthenware DhA. I, 317), frequent in similes, either as illustrating fragility or emptiness and fullness: A. I, 130, 131=Pug. 32; A. V, 337; S. II, 83; Miln. 414. As uda° waterpot Dh. 121; J. I, 20; Pv. I, 129.—2. one of the frontal globes of an elephant Vin. II, 195 (hatthissa); VvA. 182 (°ālaṅkārā ornaments for these).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kumbha (कुंभ).—m (S) A water jar or pitcher. 2 The sign Aquarius.
--- OR ---
kumbhā (कुंभा).—m (kumbha S) The name of a bird. 2 A wild tree. Its leaves are thick, and useful for summer-heads, iralēṃ &c., and rope is made from its bark. 3 A low, spreading, milky bush. The flowers are offered to Shiva, and leaves are used medicinally. It is the same with dudhāṇī & śētavaḍa or śētāḍa q. v.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kumbha (कुंभ).—m A water-jar. The sign Aquarius.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kumbha (कुम्भ).—[kuṃ bhūmiṃ kutsitaṃ vā umbhati pūrayati umbh-ac śakaṃ° Tv.]
1) A pitcher, water-pot, jar; इयं सुस्तनी मस्तकन्यस्तकुम्भा (iyaṃ sustanī mastakanyastakumbhā) Jag.; वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुम्भं पयोमुखम् (varjayettādṛśaṃ mitraṃ viṣakumbhaṃ payomukham) H.1.74; R.2.36; so कुच°, स्तन° (kuca°, stana°).
2) The frontal globe on the forehead of an elephant; इभकुम्भ (ibhakumbha) Māl.5.32; मत्तेभकुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः (mattebhakumbhadalane bhuvi santi śūrāḥ) Bh.1.59.
3) Aquarius, the eleventh sign of the zodiac.
4) A measure of grain equal to 2 droṇas; धान्यं दशभ्यः कुम्भेभ्यो हरतोऽभ्यधिकं वधः (dhānyaṃ daśabhyaḥ kumbhebhyo harato'bhyadhikaṃ vadhaḥ) Ms.8.32.
5) (In Yoga phil.) Closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing.
6) The paramour of a harlot.
7) An urn in which the bones of dead bodies are collected.
8) A kind of heart-disease.
9) Name of a plant (and also of its fruit); क्वचिद् बिल्वैः क्वचित्कुम्भैः क्वचिच्चा- मलकमुष्टिभिः (kvacid bilvaiḥ kvacitkumbhaiḥ kvaciccā- malakamuṣṭibhiḥ) Bhāg.1.18.14.
-bhā A harlot, a whore.
-bham A fragrant resin (guggula).
Derivable forms: kumbhaḥ (कुम्भः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-mbhaḥ) 1. A small water jar. 2. The frontal globe on the upper part of the forehead of an elephant; there are two of these projection, which swell in the rutting season. 3. A sign of the zodiac, (Aquarius.) 4. A proper name, the nephew of Ravana considered as a Rakshasa or demon. 5. The paramour of a harlot, a bully, a flash or fancy man. 6. (In Yoga phil) A religious exercise, closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing. 7. A measure of grain equal to twenty Dronas, a little more than three bushels and three gallons, or a Comb: some make it to Dronas or sixty-four Seers. n.
(-mbhaṃ) 1. A fragrant resin or the plant which bears it, (Bdellium.) 2. A plant commonly Teori: see trivṛt. f. (-mbhī) 1. A pot, an earthen cooking vessel, a small jar. 2. Kayap'hal, a small tree, the seeds of which are used in medicine: see kaṭphala 3. An aquatic plant, (Pistia stratiotes.) 4. Trumpet flower, (Bignonia suave-olens.)
(-mbhā) A harlot, a whore. E. ku the earth, or base, vile, &c. umbh to fill, and aṇ or ac affix, deriv, irr.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kumbha (कुम्भ).—[kumbh + a] (the vb. kumbh, kubh, from which this noun is derived, is lost in the corresponding signification, but cf. kubja ; Engl. hump; [Old High German.] hofar; [Latin] cŭbitus, the elbow, lying, etc., cŭbare, concumbere, etc.; and at the end of this article. From these and other instances, we may infer that the original signification of the vb. kubh was ‘to be crooked’), I. m., and f. bhī. 1. A pot, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 186; Mahābhārata 18, 84. 2. A measure of grain, equal to twenty droṇas, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 320; 4, 7. Ii. m. 1. dual, The two frontal globes of an elephant, which swell in the rutting season, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 351. 2. The paramour of a harlot, [Śṛṅgāratilaks] 9. 3. The name of a Dānava, Mahābhārata 1, 2527; of a Rākṣasa, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 79, 15.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kumbha (कुम्भ).—[masculine] jar, pot (also kumbhī), funeral urn; [dual] the two frontal globes of an elephant, which swell in the time of rutting.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Kumbha (कुम्भ) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a nāṭaka. Quoted in Sāhityadarpaṇa p. 183.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kumbha (कुम्भ):—m. a jar, pitcher, water-pot, ewer, small water-jar [often ifc. (f(ā). ) e.g. chidra-k, a perforated pitcher, [Rāmāyaṇa]; āma-k, a jar of unbaked clay, [Pañcatantra]; hema-k, a golden ewer, [Raghuvaṃśa ii, 36; Amaru-śataka]; jala-k, a water-pot, [Pañcatantra]] [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.
2) an urn in which the bones of a dead person are collected, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
3) the sign of the zodiac Aquarius, [Jyotiṣa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.
4) a measure of grain (equal to twenty Droṇas, a little more than three bushels and three gallons; commonly called a comb; some make it two Droṇas or sixty-four Seers), [Manu-smṛti viii, 320; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
5) the frontal globe or prominence on the upper part of the forehead of an elephant (there are two of these prominences which swell in the rutting season), [Mahābhārata; Bhartṛhari] etc.
6) a particular part of a bed, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
7) Name of a plant (and also of its fruit), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 18, 14]
8) the root of a plant used in medicine
9) a religious exercise, viz. closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) the paramour of a harlot, bully, flash or fancy man, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) Name of a Mantra (pronounced over a weapon), [Rāmāyaṇa i]
12) Name of a Dānava (a son of Prahlāda and brother of Nikumbha), [Mahābhārata i, 2527; Harivaṃśa]
13) of a Rākṣasa (son of Kumbhakarṇa), [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
14) of the father of the nineteenth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [Jaina literature]
15) of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa iv, 33, 14]
16) one of the thirty-four Jātakas or former births of Śākya-muni, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) Name of [work] [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
18) Kumbhā (कुम्भा):—[from kumbha] f. a harlot, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] the plant Tiaridium indicum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) [v.s. ...] ([from] √kumbh) covering, [Vopadeva]
21) Kumbha (कुम्भ):—n. the plant Ipomoea Turpethum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) a fragrant resin (guggulu), or the plant which bears it, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
23) gold, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
24) cf. [Greek] κύμβη; [Latin] cymba.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+97): Kumbakonam, Kumbha Jataka, Kumbha Sutta, Kumbha Vagga, Kumbhabahu, Kumbhabandha, Kumbhabharamatta, Kumbhabhava, Kumbhabhisheka, Kumbhabhu, Kumbhabijaka, Kumbhabila, Kumbhadasa, Kumbhadasi, Kumbhadhanya, Kumbhadhara, Kumbhadharika, Kumbhaduhana, Kumbhagarttodaya, Kumbhaghona.
Ends with (+44): Addhakumbha, Agnikumbha, Akumbha, Amakumbha, Amritakumbha, Ashtakumbha, Asthikumbha, Ayahkumbha, Ayaskumbha, Bhaddakumbha, Bhadrakumbha, Bhinnakumbha, Devakumbha, Dhatugarbhakumbha, Gajakumbha, Ganeshakumbha, Ghritakumbha, Hastikumbha, Hatthikumbha, Hemakumbha.
Full-text (+262): Kumbhajanman, Kumbhakarna, Kucakumbha, Kumbhakara, Kumbhasambhava, Amakumbha, Upakumbha, Satakumbha, Kumbharashi, Kumbhashala, Kumbhanda, Udakumbha, Vishakumbha, Snanakumbha, Nikumbhila, Taptakumbha, Karikumbha, Nishkumbha, Kumbhodara, Kumbhayoni.
Search found 49 books and stories containing Kumbha, Kumbhā; (plurals include: Kumbhas, Kumbhās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 8.320 < [Section XLIII - Theft (steya)]
Verse 9.232 < [Section XXXI - Miscellaneous Punishments]
Verse 8.331 < [Section XLIII - Theft (steya)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.6.159 < [Chapter 6 - Abhīṣṭa-lābha: The Attainment of All Desires]
Verse 2.6.96 < [Chapter 6 - Abhīṣṭa-lābha: The Attainment of All Desires]
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 19 - The Superintendent of Weights and Measures < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 4 - Molestations, Obstructions and Financial Troubles < [Book 8 - Concerning Vices and Calamities]
Chapter 25 - The Superintendent of Liquor < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter CII - Repose of sikhidhvaja in the divine spirit < [Book VI - Nirvana prakarana part 1 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter XCIV - Enlightenment of sikhidhvaja < [Book VI - Nirvana prakarana part 1 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter CV - Metamorphoses of kumbha to a female form < [Book VI - Nirvana prakarana part 1 (nirvana prakarana)]
The Indian Buddhist Iconography (by Benoytosh Bhattachacharyya)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 7: Reincarnation of Acala (first of Malli’s six former friends) < [Chapter VI - Śrī Mallināthacaritra]
Part 4: Her parents (king Kumbha and queen Prabhāvatī) < [Chapter VI - Śrī Mallināthacaritra]
Part 14: Founding of Malli’s congregation < [Chapter VI - Śrī Mallināthacaritra]