Gandhamadana, Gandhamādana, Gandha-madana, Gamdhamadana: 25 definitions
Gandhamadana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—A mountain situated east of Mount Meru. Renowned for its fragrant forests, it forms the boundary between Ilāvṛta-varṣa and Bhārata-varṣa.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—One of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Jambūdvīpa is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
2) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain on the southern side of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being. On the peak of mount Gandhamādana stands a Jambū tree hosting various devas, asuras and apsaras. The lake in this direction is called Mānasa around which are situated eighteen mountains.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—A monkey, who had been helpful to Śrī Rāma, was the son of Kubera. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Canto 17, Verse 11). This monkey usually stayed on Mount Gandhamādana. During the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war he led a contingent of monkeys. (Vana Parva, Chapter 283, Verse 5).
2) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—A Rākṣasa King, who stays in Kubera’s assembly: (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10).
3) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—A mountain famed in the Purāṇas and lying to the east of the Himālayas. (Bhāgavata, Pañcama Skandha). The purānic importance of the mountain may be summarised as follows:—
Kaśyapaprajāpati did tapas at this mountain. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 10).
Ananta (Ādiśeṣa) had once done tapas here. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 3).
Once Pāṇḍu went to the Śataśṛṅga mountain along with his wives Kuntī and Mādrī for doing tapas, and on that occasion they visited Gandhamādana also. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 48).
This mountain assumes the form of a divine person. attends Kubera’s assembly and worships him. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 32).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the company of Nārāyaṇarṣi spent 10,000 years on this mountain as an anchorite. (Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 11).
Arjuna on his way to Mount Kailāsa to do tapas crossed the Gandhamādana mountain. (Vana Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 41).
Only those who possess power got by tapas will be able to climb this mountain. (Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 22).
There is the Badari tree and under it there is an āśrama of Naranārāyaṇas on the heights of this mountain, and Yakṣas stay there always. (Vana Parva, Chapter 141, Verse 22).
Once the Pāṇḍavas, with the aid of Ghaṭotkaca mounted this mountain. (Vana Parva, Chapter 145).
It was here, at this mountain that Bhīma killed Maṇimān, a friend of Kubera. (Vana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 76).
Kubera, who was driven out of Laṅkā stayed at this mountain during the initial periods. (Vana Parva, Chapter 275, Verse 33).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.28. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“in the meantime when the celestial sages were on their way to Dakṣa’s sacrifice, with great eclat Satī the daughter of Dakṣa was engrossed in diverse sports, surrounded by her friends under the canopy of the fountain house on the mountain Gandhamādana. While she was thus gaily sportive, Satī saw the moon in the company of Rohiṇī going to the sacrifice of Dakṣa. Satī asked Vijayā her maiden-in-chief, her beloved friend, wishing her all welfare”.
Note: The location of the Gandhamādana is highly controversial. According to the Paurāṇic account Gandhamādana is a mountain that forms tile division between Ilāvrta and Bhadrāśva to the east of Meru and is renowned for its fragrant forests.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—A Vānara chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 231.
1b) A forest on the south of Ilāvṛta.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 25.
1c) A mountain range to the East of Ilāvṛta and to the W. of Meru and a boundary limit of Bhadrāśva. On its top falls the Sītā.1 The abode of Nara and Nārāyaṇa, visited by Brahmā.2 To this Mucukunda (s.v.) repaired after leaving the cave in which he slept.3 Location and length mentioned. Residence of Vānaras. Here Urvaśi stayed for some time with Aīla. Here Viṣṇu performed tapas as Dharmasuta and created Urvaśī.4 One of the Viṣkambagiris round Meru. Here are Ketumālavarṣa and Vaibhāja forest; the crown of Jambūdvīpa; full of celestial groups.5 A place of pilgrimage sacred to Kāmākṣī.6 On its south Ānīla and Niṣādhas, and on its East Mālyavan.7 The place where the Bhadari āśrama was situated and to which came Uddhava for penance.8
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 10: 17. 6. Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 18, 29 and 39:
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 58: V. 1. 8. Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 24. 5.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 3.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 40: 17. 16: III. 7. 194: 25. 67: 66. 7: IV. 31. 16: Matsya-purāṇa 61. 21: 24. 19.
- 5) Matsya-purāṇa 83. 22, 32-3: 113. 45: 154. 434: 183. 1.
- 6) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 26.
- 7) Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 35: 35. 16: 42. 25: 43. 1: 46. 17: 91. 7.
- 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 37. 34 and 37.
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) refers to the name of a Mountain mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.32.3, V.158.12, VIII.30.78). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Gandhamādana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
1) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Gandhamādana) is named Bhūrvhuva. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.
2) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain-range situated to the west of Ilāvṛta, according to the Parākhyatantra 5.76. Ilāvṛta is a region (navakhaṇḍa) situated within Jambūdvīpa: one of the seven continents situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī). These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.
According to the Parākhyatantra, “to the west of Ilāvṛta is the mountain-range Gandhamādana. It seems there was long ago seen there an intoxicated Vidyādharī called Mālyā; steeped in fragrance she was smelt there by the sage Nārada. He was addressed thus by her: ‘O brahmin, my scent is intoxicating (gandho me mādanaḥ)’ . Therefore it iscalled Gandhamādana”.
The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—One of the mountains of Jambūdvīpa.—Gandhamādana according to the.Hindu geographers is a part of the Kailāsa range.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) refers to one of the thirteen places (sthāna) associated with the Goddess’ pilgrimage, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā (verse 1.36-37, 4.5, 4.26-132), which is an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A mountain range beyond the seven ranges ofCullakala Mahakala Nagapalivethana Candagabbha Suriyagabbha Suvannapassa Himava
It is one of the five mountain ranges that encircle Anotatta. It is crowned with a tableland, is green in colour (muggavanna), and covered with various medicinal plants. It shines from afar like a glowing fire on a new moon night.
In the range is an inclined slope (pabbhara) named Nandamulaka containing three caves, Suvanna-, Mani- and Rajata guha, which are the abodes of Pacceka Buddhas.
At the entrance to Maniguha is a tree named Manjusaka, one league in height and in girth; on this tree bloom all the flowers that grow both on land and in water, and especially do they bloom on the occasions of the Pacceka Buddhas visits; round the tree is the Sabbara tanamala.
There the Sammajjanakavata sweeps the ground, the Samakaranavata levels the sand, and the Sincanakavata sprinkles water from Anotatta.
The Sugandhakaranavata brings all the perfumes of Himava, the Ocinakavata plucks flowers, and the Santharanakavata spreads them.
In the mala seats are always ready for the Pacceka Buddhas, who on fast days and on their own birthdays assemble there. When a new Pacceka Buddha arises in the world, he goes first to Gandha madana and other Pacceka Buddhas, who may be in the world, assemble there to greet him, and they all sit rapt in samadhi. Then the senior among them asks the new comer to describe how he came to be a Pacceka Buddha (SNA.i.52, 66f; ii.437; AA.ii.759; UdA.300, etc.; MA.ii.585).
The Pacceka Buddhas who live on Gandhamadana will often enter into samadhi for seven days, and at the end of that period seek alms from someone on whom they wish to bestow a special favour, that he may thereby obtain merit (E.g., DhA.iii.368f; iv.121, 199f; J.iv.16). These Buddhas will sometimes leave the mountain, and, having admonished those whom they wish to help, return again (E.g., J.iii.453).
Besides Pacceka Buddhas, others are also mentioned as having resided in Gandhamadana - e.g., Narada (J.iv.393), Nalinika (J.v.186), Bahusodari (J.vi.83); also the deva king Nagadatta (ThagA.i.138), and Vessantara, with his family, after he renounced his kingdom (J.vi.528f.). It is also said that Kinnaras (J.iv.438) and Nagas (Rockhill, 169) lived on the slopes of Gandhamadana. It was among the places visited by Khadira vaniya Revata (AA.i.139).
It is not explicitly mentioned that all Pacceka Buddhas die in Gandhamadana, but the inference seems to be such. Thus, once, five hundred Pacceka Buddhas led by Mahapaduma died there, and their bodies were cremated (ThagA.ii.141).
The Jataka Commentary (vi.79) explains Gandhamadana as gandhena mada karo pabbato.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Gandhamādana).Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain associated with Lakṣmīvana: the south-eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain situated to the north of mount Meru and south of mount Nīla. In between Gandhamādana and Mālyavat are the bhogabhūmis (enjoyment-lands) known as Uttarakuru in which there are the mountains known as Yamaka standing along the banks of the river Sitā.
Nīla is one of the seven mountain ranges (varṣadharaparvata) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain range in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“To the north of Meru and to the south of the Nīla Mountains are the Gandhamādana and Mālyavat Mountains, with the shape of an elephant’s tusk. Between them are the very charming Uttarakurus with 100 golden mountains at the sides of the 5 lakes divided by Śītā. On the banks of the river Śītā are 2 mountains named Yamaka, corresponding to the golden Vidtrakūṭa and Citrakūṭa”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन) is the name of a mountain situated in Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the Gaṅgamāla Jātaka we are told that a certain ascetic came from the mountain Gandhamādana to Benares to see the king. It is a part of the Rudra Himalaya, but according to the epic writers it forms a part of the Kailāsa range.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
gandhamādana : (m.) name of a mountain in the Himālayas.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—a. intoxicating with fragrance. (-naḥ) 1 a large black bee.
3) an epithet of Rāvaṇa.
-naḥ, -nam Name of a particular mountain to the east of Meru, renowned for its fragrant forests
-nam the forest on this mountain.
Gandhamādana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms gandha and mādana (मादन).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Gandhamadana (गन्धमदन).—(?) , name of a mountain, = Gandhamā-dana: Mahā-Māyūrī 253.26. Occurs in Skt ([Boehtlingk]), allegedly only m.c.; prose in Mahā-Māyūrī! Perh. corruption for °mādana.
--- OR ---
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—(1) name of a park in the city Ratana- kholaka: Mahāvastu i.186.18; (2) name of a pratyekabuddha: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 40.22; 64.12 (here, according to Lalou Iconographie 35 n. 7, taken by Tibetan and Chin. as two names; she follows them, but the interpretation is impossible in the other passages and must certainly be rejected); 111.10; Avadāna-śataka i.156.20 (here a future pr. b.); (3 = Sanskrit and Pali id., name of a mountain, which in Pali is persistently associated with pacceka- buddhas, compare 2 above: Mahāvyutpatti 4151; Mahāvastu ii.53.17; 55.4; Divyāvadāna 157.27 etc.)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ-naṃ) The name of a particular mountain, forming the division between Ilavritta and Bhadraswa or to the east of Mern. m.
(-naḥ) 1. A large black bee. 2. Sulphur. 3. The name of one of the monkey chiefs. f. (-nī) Spiri tuous liquor; also in some books read gandhamādinī. E. gandha smell, mad to inebriate in the causal form and lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—i. e. gandha-mad, [Causal.], + ana, m. 1. The name of a mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 54, 28. 2. A name of Rāvaṇa, Mahābhārata 2, 410. 3. The name of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 16, 13.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन).—[masculine] [Name] of a mountain and forest.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Gandhamadana (गन्धमदन):—[=gandha-madana] [from gandha] metrically for gandha-mādana q.v.
2) Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन):—[=gandha-mādana] [from gandha] m. ‘intoxicating with fragrance’ = -modana, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] ‘delighting in fragrances’, a large black bee, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a mountain (forming the division between Ilāvṛta and Bhadrāśva, to the east of Meru, renowned for its fragrant forests), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (once gandha-madana, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 6, 24])
5) [v.s. ...] Name of Rāvaṇa, [Mahābhārata ii, 410]
6) [v.s. ...] of a monkey (attendant of Rāma), [Mahābhārata iii, 16273; Rāmāyaṇa i, 16, 13]
7) [v.s. ...] [iv; v, 73, 26]
8) [v.s. ...] [vi]
9) [=gandha-mādana] [from gandha] n. the forest on the mountain Gandha-mādana, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gandhamādana (गन्धमादन):—[gandha-mādana] (naḥ-naṃ) 1. m. n. The name of a particular mountain. m. A large black bee; sulphur; a monkey chief. f. Spirituous liquor.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Gandhamadanavarisha.
Full-text (+116): Gandhamodana, Gandhamadanavarisha, Bhujaka, Amaragandika, Kamuka, Ashtakulacala, Ashvaratha, Suriyagabbha, Bahusodari, Gandhamadani, Nagapalivethana, Candagabbha, Jambudvipa, Cullakala, Suvannapassapabbata, Mahakitaparvata, Gandharvamadana, Bhadrashva, Pratipada, Ratanamalaka.
Search found 41 books and stories containing Gandhamadana, Gandhamādana, Gandha-madana, Gandha-mādana, Gamdhamadana, Gaṃdhamādana; (plurals include: Gandhamadanas, Gandhamādanas, madanas, mādanas, Gamdhamadanas, Gaṃdhamādanas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)
Jataka 442: Saṅkha-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Jataka 485: Canda-Kinnara-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Jataka 504: Bhallāṭiya-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter I - Introduction < [Book I - Vairagya khanda (vairagya khanda)]
Chapter CXIV - Description of the prospects all around < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter XXVII - Past lives of lila < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.2.107 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.2.110 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.2.108 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)