Rucaka: 26 definitions


Rucaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Ruchaka.

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Rucaka: One of the Pañca-puruṣa (‘five stereotypes of men’).—As the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa (III.36.5) says, a rucaka type is reddish brown like the autumn, he has a conch-like neck and is highly intelligent, courageous, laborious, strong and endowed with great taste. The Bṛhat Saṃhitā (69.27) explains that a person belonging to the rucaka type, influenced by Mars, has fine brows and hair, dark and red complexion, conch-like neck and an oblong face. He is heroic, cruel, a leader among men, a minister, the leader of a gang of thieves and hard working. The Sārāvalī (37.5–7) adds that he has attractive eyebrows, blue hair, thin shanks and he knows the mantras.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to one of the five types of men, defined according to the principles of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, a specific measurement of every limb of a man as well as of a woman is elaborately and systematically discussed. According to this book, there are five types of men viz., rucaka, [...] The rucaka type of man bears the white complexion like autumn and he has a conch shaped neck.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Vairāja, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Vairāja group contains twenty-four out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). The group represents temples (e.g. Rucaka) that are to be square shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Rucaka is mentioned in another list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, being part of the group named Lalita, containing 25 unique temple varieties.

Rucaka is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Vairāja, featuring square-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Rucaka (रुचक).—A type of stambha mentioned in the Texts on architecture (Bṛhatsaṃhitā 5.28) is called by the name rucaka-stambha. It is the simplest form of a pillar. Rucaka, in Sanskrit, literally means “agreeable” or “acceptable”. That means the pillar that is according to physical laws. It should be basically fimctional in character and decorations are optional. A fimctional pillar should possess a pedestal, a shaft and a corbel. Therefore, rucaka, according to the Text, should have a pedestal, a shaft and a corbel above. All the other additions in the form of capital, abacus and other decorations of the shaft are optional in nature.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Rucaka (रुचक).—A mountain at the base of Meru;1 south of Meru (Viṣṇu-purāṇa);2 East of Aruṇoda.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 26.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 28.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 19; 42. 29.

1b) A son of Uśanas and father of Purujit and four other sons.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 34-35.

1c) A Yakṣa—son of Puṇyajanī and Maṇibhadra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 123.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Rucaka (रुचक) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Rucaka) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to a “neck ornament” and represents one of the various insignias (i.e., mudrās) worn by a Kāpālika, according to the Āgamaprāmāṇya.—The Kāpālika, as his name—‘Skull Bearer’—implies, carried a skull as part of his penance modelled on that prescribed for having murdered a Brahmin. Along with the skull he was to wear six insignias, namely, a necklace (kuṭhikā), neck ornament (rucaka), earrings (kuṇḍala), crest jewel (śikhāmaṇi), ashes (bhasma) and sacred thread (yajñopavīta). These are described by Yāmunācārya in his Āgamaprāmāṇya and by Rāmānuja who draws from him in his commentary on the Brahmasūtra. The wearing of similar insignia was common practice amongst Buddhist Tantric ascetics who were inspired in their own way by the same model.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to a “man’s anklet”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 9.—Accordingly, “[...] [The Lord spoke]:—[...] On one half, there should be a forehead mark; on one half a [forehead] eye. A ring [should be] in one ear; a [pendant] ear-ornament in one ear. He should put a trident in his right hand and a breast on his left side, a girdle on the left half, a bangle on the left arm, a woman’s anklet on the left leg, a man’s anklet (rucaka) on the right leg and a muñja-grass belt. At the hips, he should put a loin-cloth on the right and wear a woman’s garment on the left.”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to “armlets” and represents one of the five mudrās (tantric ornaments) of Vajravārāhī, according to the 12th-century Abhisamayamañjarī. These mudrās are depicted upon Vajravārāhī’s body and are all made of human bone. They are made to represent the five signs of kāpālika observance.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (tantric buddhism)

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to “bracelets”, representing one of the “five insignias” (Pañcamudrā) worn by the initiate who observed the outer form of the Vow of Knowledge, according to the Buddhist Hevajratantra.—Accordingly, “He receives the five symbolic adornments, crown [cakrī], earrings [kuṇḍala], necklace [kaṇṭhī], bracelets [rucaka], and girdle, as signs of his success. These he wears on those set occasions... when perfected Yogins and Yoginīs come together, to consume flesh and wine, to sing and dance, and realised their consummation of bliss. He is free from all conventions and wanders as he pleases, knowing no distinction between friend and foe, clean or unclean, good or evil”.

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to “bracelets” and represents one of the five auspicious symbols of Nairātmā.—The Indian Museum image is the only image of this goddess [Nairātmā] which conforms to the description given in the sādhana. Here the goddess, in accordance with the Dhyāna, has a terrible appearance with canine teeth, garland of heads and three eyes rolling in anger. She stands on the corpse lying on its back, and dances in the ardhaparyaṅka attitude. Burning flames radiate from her person, and her hair rise upwards in the shape of a flame. She is decked in the five auspicious symbols, the kaṇṭhikā (torque), rucaka (bracelets), ratna (jewels), mekhalā (girdle), and bhasma (ashes) or the sūtra (sacred thread) in the form of a garland of heads. She bears the image of her sire Akṣobhya on her crown and carries the menacing kartri in the right hand. The left hand holding the kapāla is broken. The khaṭvāṅga, as usual, hangs from her left shoulder.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Rucaka (रुचक) refers to “(possesing) bracelets” which is used to describe Cakrasaṃvara, according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—Accordingly, [while describing the iconography of Cakrasaṃvara]: “In the Saṃvara Maṇḍala atop Mount Sumera within a vajra-canopy there is a variegated lotus, on top of that a palace, in the middle of which is the Blessed Lord, standing in ālīḍhāsana, "archer's pose", [...] possessing a naraśiromālā-śatārdha, "garland of fifty (fresh) human heads" around the neck, the ṣaṇmudrā, "six insignia", bone ornaments, which are the kaṇṭhikā, "necklace", rucaka, "bracelets", kuṇḍala, "ear-rings", mekhalā, "girdle", śiromaṇi, "crest jewel", and bhasmitiḥ, "covered in ashes", a jaṭā-makuṭa, "crest of dreadlocks", kapālamālā, "crown of (five) skulls", topped by an ardhacandra, "crescent moon", and viśvavajra, "world vajra" or "double vajra", a vikṛitānana, "fierce face", and daṃṣṭrotkaṭa, "horrible gigantic fangs".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Rucaka (रुचक) is the shorter name of Rucakadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Rucakasamudra (or simply Rucaka), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Rucaka is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Rucaka (रुचक) is the name of a continent (i.e., Rucakadvīpa) and an ocean, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Then the ocean Nandīśvara surrounds Nandīśvara; after that Aruṇadvīpa and Aruṇoda. Then come Aruṇavaradvīpa and the ocean by that name; next Aruṇābhāsa and Aruṇābhāsa Ocean. Then Kuṇḍaladvīpa and the ocean Kuṇḍaloda come next; then Rucakadvīpa and Rucaka Ocean. The oceans and continents with these auspicious names are each twice as large as the preceding one. Of these the last is the ocean Svayambhūramaṇa”.

2) Rucaka (रुचक) is the name of a circular mountain-range situated in the Rucakadvīpa continent.—On this in the four directions are 4 temples, and on both sides of each temple are 4 mountain peaks, making 8 peaks in each direction. Each peak is inhabited by a Dikkumārī.—(cf. ‘Die Kosmographie der Inder’ pp. 257f).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Rucaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Citrus medica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Sarcodactilis helicteroides Gaertn. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Fieldiana, Botany (1946)
· Revista Brasil. Genét. (1997)
· Supplementum Carpologiae (1805)
· Reise nach Ostindien und China (1765)
· Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (1950)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Rucaka, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Rucaka, (nt.) (cp. Sk. rucaka a golden ornament) (gold) sand Vv 351; VvA. 160 (=suvaṇṇa-vālikā). (Page 572)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rucaka (रुचक).—n S rucakāsthi f n In Hindu osteology. That kind of bone of which the teeth are composed. See asthi.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rucaka (रुचक).—a. [ruc-kvun Uṇādi-sūtra 2.36.]

1) Agreeable, pleasing.

2) Stomachic.

3) Sharp, acrid.

-kaḥ 1 The citron; पूर्णान्यक्षतपात्राणि रुचकं रोचनास्तथा (pūrṇānyakṣatapātrāṇi rucakaṃ rocanāstathā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.82.21.

2) A pigeon.

3) A type of column with four rectangular sides; समचतुरस्रो रुचकः (samacaturasro rucakaḥ) Bṛ. S.5.28.

-kam 1 A tooth.

2) A golden ornament especially for the neck.

3) A tonic, stomachic.

4) A wreath, garland.

5) Sochal salt.

6) A curl on a horse's neck.

7) A lucky object.

8) A building having terraces on three sides and closed on the north only.

9) Alkali.

1) A stone for grinding sandalwood; L. D. B.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rucaka (रुचक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Agreeable, pleasing. 2. Sharp, acrid. 3. Tonic, stomachic. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The citron, (Citrus medica.) 2. A pigeon. n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Salt. 2. Natron, alkali. 3. Borax. 4. A garland, a chaplet. 5. A curl on a horse’s neck. 6. The woody Cassia. 7. Any auspicious or fortunate object. 8. A perfume, commonly Rochana. 9. An anthelmintic medicine, commonly Biranga, (Embelia ribes.) 10. A sort of temple. 11. A stomachic. 12. An ornament of the neck or breast. 13. A tooth. E. ruc to shine, &c., in the causal form, kvun aff.; the embellisher, the polisher, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rucaka (रुचक).—[ruc + aka], I. adj. Agreeable. 2. Sharp. 3. Tonic, stomachic. Ii. m. 1. An ornament of the neck and breast. 2. A tooth. 3. A pigeon. 4. The citron. Iii. n. 1. Any auspicious or fortunate object. 2. A garland, a chaplet. 3. A curl on a horse’s neck. 4. A perfume, commonly Rocanā. 5. Salt. 6. The fruit of the citron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rucaka (रुचक).—[neuter] tooth; a cert. golden ornament, necklace; a kind of building.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rucaka (रुचक):—[from ruc] mfn. very large, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([Horace H. Wilson] also ‘agreeable, pleasing; sharp, acid; tonic, stomachic’)

2) [v.s. ...] m. n. a tooth, [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a kind of golden ornament or necklace, [Daśakumāra-carita]

4) [v.s. ...] a ring, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] any object or substance supposed to bring good luck, [Suśruta]

6) [v.s. ...] a citron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a dove, pigeon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Ricinus Communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the five remarkable personages born under [particular] constellations, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of four-sided column, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Uśanas, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] ruruka)

13) [v.s. ...] of an author, [Pratāparudrīya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

14) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Purāṇa; Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

15) [v.s. ...] n. a horse-ornament, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a garland, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Embelia Ribes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] sochal salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] natron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] sweet juice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] a bright yellow pigment = go-rocanā q.v., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] a kind of tonic (See above)

23) [v.s. ...] a sort of building or temple having terraces on three sides and closed only on the north side, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

24) Rūcaka (रूचक):—[wrong reading] for racaka q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rucaka (रुचक):—[(kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a.] Pleasing; sharp; tonic. m. A citron; ornament of the neck; tooth; a pigeon. n. Salt; borax; garland; curl in the horse’s mane; woody cassia; a temple; a stomachic.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rucaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rucaka (ರುಚಕ):—

1) [adjective] agreeable; pleasing.

2) [adjective] acting as a digestive tonic; helping digestion; stomachic.

3) [adjective] (said of taste) strong; biting; pungent; sharp.

4) [adjective] propitious; favourable, favouring; conducive to success; auspicious.

--- OR ---

Rucaka (ರುಚಕ):—

1) [noun] any object or substance that is supposed to bring goodluck.

2) [noun] a kind of golden necklace.

3) [noun] a garland or a string of flowers.

4) [noun] a tooth.

5) [noun] the long hair growing from the back side of the neck of a horse; mane.

6) [noun] a kind of salt; sochal salt.

7) [noun] (archit.) a building which has entrance on sides other than north.

8) [noun] the food of gods; ambrosia.

9) [noun] the citrus tree Citrus medica (var. limonum) of Rutaceae family.

10) [noun] its sour fruit.

11) [noun] the small tree or bushy plant Ricinus communis of Euphorbiaceae family, whose seeds yield oil; castor oil plant.

12) [noun] one of the five classes of remarkable personages born under particular constellations.

13) [noun] the part of the body which connects the head to the rest of the body; the neck.

14) [noun] (jain.) name of a mythological mountain.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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