Tamasa, Tāmasa, Tamasā, Tamasha, Tamāṣā, Tāmāṣā, Tamāsa, Tamāsā: 29 definitions


Tamasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Tamāṣā and Tāmāṣā can be transliterated into English as Tamasa or Tamasha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Tāmasa (तामस) is a Sanskrit word referring to a classification of human constitution (prakṛti) where Tamas-quality has its dominance. The word is used throughout Ayurvedic (India medicine) literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. A skilled physician should monitor the constitution of a patient during treatment with medicines and prescribing his diet.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

The person of Tāmasa nature is foolish, dull, fearful, averse to cleanliness, quarrelsome, dislikes good people, sleeps too much and eats stale food.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Tamasā (तमसा).—Name of a river originating from Ṛkṣa, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.

Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Tamasā (तमसा).—A sacred river. People of Bhārata were using the water of this river for drinking. (Śloka 3, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva). The famous āśrama of Vālmīki was on the banks of this river. This place was the scene of the well-known episode of the Krauñca birds and the famous curse of Vālmīki beginning with 'Mā niṣāda'. (Bāla Kāṇḍa, Sarga 2, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

2) Tāmasa (तामस).—The fourth Manu. (See under Manvantara). Svāyambhuva Manu, son of Brahmā, was the first Manu. He had two sons of Purāṇic fame named Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. Of these Priyavrata married the beautiful and virtuous daughters of Viśvakarmā the Prajāpati. They were Surūpā and Barhiṣmatī. Of his first wife Surūpā, he got ten sons Agnīdhra and others. The youngest child was a daughter named Ūrjjasvatī. Of the sons, Kavi, Savana and Mahāvīra became detached from worldly life and became learned in spiritual knowledge. Priyavrata got of his second wife Barhiṣmatī three sons named Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata. They were very valiant and they gradually became chiefs of Manvantaras. (8th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tamasā (तमसा) is the name of a sacred river as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.12, “somehow men must strive to find a residence in a holy centre. On the shores of the ocean in the confluence of hundreds of rivers there are many such holy centres (puṇyakṣetra or tīrtha) and temples. [...] the river Tamasā is of twelve mouths and Revā has ten mouths.”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Tamasā (तमसा).—A river from the Rkṣavat in Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 30; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 25; 163. 64; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 100, 136.

2a) Tāmasa (तामस).—A son of Priyavrata, and a Manvantara adhipati.1 The fourth Manu and brother of Uttama. He had Pṛthu and nine other sons. During this epoch the gods went by the name of Satyakas, Haris, etc. Triśikha was Indra. Jyotirdhāmā and others were the seven sages.2 Brother of Raivata.3 For different names of Gods, sages and Indra in this epoch;4 represents ukāra;5 twenty-seven gaṇas of Gods mentioned in this epoch—Supāra, Haraya, etc. Śibi was Indra; Nara and Khyāti, his sons.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 28; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 24.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 27-28.
  • 3) Ib. VIII. 5. 2.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 3, 42-50; Matsya-purāṇa 9. 15.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 36; 62. 3.
  • 6) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 6, 16-19.

2b) The quality of Bhūtādi swallowed by Mahat of which Buddhi is the guṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 19-20.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Tamasā (तमसा) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.30). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Tamasā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Tāmasa (तामस) refers to one of the three different forms of mahat, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—[...] From the disturbed prakṛti and the puruṣa sprang up the seed of mahat, which is of the nature of both pradhāna and puruṣa. The mahat-tattva is then covered by the pradhāna and being so covered it differentiates itself as the sāttvika, rājasa and tāmasa-mahat. The pradhāna covers the mahat just as a seed is covered by the skin. Being so covered there spring from the three fold mahat the threefold ahaṃkāra called vaikārika, taijasa and bhūtādi or tāmasa.

2) Tāmasa (तामस) or Tāmasāhaṃkāra is another name for Bhūtādi: one of the three forms of ahaṃkāra, originating from mahat.—[...] The pradhāna covers the mahat just as a seed is covered by the skin. Being so covered there spring from the three fold mahat the threefold ahaṃkāra called vaikārika, taijasa and bhūtādi or tāmasa.

3) Tāmasa (तामस) or Tāmasamanvantara refers to the one of the fourteen Manvantaras.—Accordingly, “In the tāmasa-manvantara the Martyas and the Sudhiyas are the Gods, Jyoti, Dharma, Pṛthu, Kalpa, Caitrāgni, Savana and Pīvara are the seven sages. Śibi was the Indra”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Tāmasa (तामस) refers to a specific mode of classifying Hindu images, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—There are three modes in classifying the deities. Depending on the classical guṇa that they signify or embody, they are classified into sāttvika image, rājasa image and tāmasa image. The tāmasa image is represented with many arms and various implements of war in the arms either standing or riding on a vehicle. The deity is perceived as destroying the evil forces. It has a fearsome expression on its face and its posture reflects great pleasure in the acts of destruction. The images of Mahiṣāsuramardinī, Viṣṇu as Narasiṃha, Kṛṣṇa as Kāliya Dahana, Vīrabhadra, Skanda riding on the peacock are good examples of this [tāmasa] form.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Tāmasa (तामस) refers to a type of ketu, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots [i.e., tāmasa-kīlaka], also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. If these spots should appear on the solar disc, mankind will suffer miseries; if on the lunar disc mankind will be happy; but if they take the shape of a crow, a headless human body, or a weapon, mankind will suffer even though the spots should appear on the moon”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Tāmasa (तामस) refers to “Tamasic” (i.e., “having the nature of tamas”), according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [These] four states of mind should be known by the wise: disintegrated, coming and going, integrated and absorbed. The disintegrated [mind] is said to be Tamasic (tāmasa), the coming and going [mind], Rajasic, the integrated [mind], Sattvic and the absorbed [mind] is beyond [these] qualities. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Tamasā (तमसा) is the name of a river found in India.—The river Tamasā is modern Tamas or Tons of maps which rises in the old Mahiyur State, on the south of Nagaudh, and running through the north part of Rewah flows into the Gaṅgā about eighteen miles to the South-east of Allahabad.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana (history)

Tamasā (तमसा) is the name of a river and is identified with Tons which issues from the Ṛkṣapāda mountain, appears in the Bundelkhand region and flows into the Ganges below Allahabad.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tamāśā (तमाशा).—m ( P) A diverting exhibition; a show, play, farce, mock-fight &c. 2 The tricks of conjurers or feats of tumblers; sport or fun gen. tamāśācā manuṣya An odd, queer, eccentric fellow.

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tāmasa (तामस).—n (S) pop. tāmasī & tāmasīka a Affected by or appertaining to tama (the third quality or that of darkness and vice); viz. Hot, irascible, fiery; daring, desperate, reckless; dark, malignant, villainous; slothful, sluggish, torpid;--used of persons: horrible, atrocious, heinous; used of actions: heating, maddening, inflaming, stupefying;--used of drugs or articles of food. 2 Mentally dark or blind, ignorant. 3 Dark, literally.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tamāśā (तमाशा).—m A diverting exhibition; a show. Sport; a conjurer's tricks.

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tāmasa (तामस) [-sī, -सी].—a Hot, irascible, Desperate. Ignorant. Dark.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tamasa (तमस).—a. Dark-coloured.

-saḥ 1 Darkness.

2) A well.

-sā Name of a river.

-sam 1 Darkness.

2) A city.

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Tāmasa (तामस).—a. (- f.) [तमोऽस्त्यस्य अण् (tamo'styasya aṇ)]

1) Dark, consisting of darkness; व्यतिकर इव भीमस्तामसो वैद्युतश्च (vyatikara iva bhīmastāmaso vaidyutaśca) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.52; Uttararāmacarita 5.12.

2) Affected by or relating to तमस् (tamas) or the quality of darkness (the third of the three qualities of nature); ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये (ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā rājasāstāmasāśca ye) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 7.12;17.2; M.1.1; Manusmṛti 12.33-34.

3) Ignorant.

4) Vicious.

-saḥ 1 A malignant person, an incendiary, a villain.

2) A snake.

3) An owl.

4) Name of a son of Rāhu.

5) A kind of horse possessing the quality of तमस् (tamas); सात्त्विका राजसाश्चेति तामसाश्चेति ते हयाः (sāttvikā rājasāśceti tāmasāśceti te hayāḥ) Yuktikalpataru.

6) The 4th Manu; चतुर्थ उत्तमभ्राता मनुर्नाम्ना च तामसः (caturtha uttamabhrātā manurnāmnā ca tāmasaḥ) Bhāgavata 8.1.27.

-sam Darkness.

-sī 1 Night, a dark night.

2) Sleep.

3) An epithet of Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamasa (तमस).—n.

(-saṃ) 1. Darkness. 2. A city. f.

(-sā) A river, the Tamasa or Tonse. E. tam to be disturbed, (daylight, &c.) and asac aff.

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Tāmasa (तामस).—mfn.

(-saḥ-sī-saṃ) 1. Affected by or appertaining to the third quality, that of darkness or vice: belonging to it as a Purana, a system of philosophy, a ceremonial rite, &c. 2. Dark, of or belonging to darkness. m.

(-saḥ) 1. A snake. 2. An incendiary, a malignant and mischievous man, a villain. 3. An owl. 4. The fourth Menu. f. (-sī) A dark night. 2. A name of the goddess Durga. n.

(-saṃ) The quality of darkness. E. tamas the quality of drakness, &c. affix aṇ . tamaḥ asti asya .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamasa (तमस).—[tamas + a], I. n. a substitute for tamas, when the latter part of a comp. word, e. g. sam-, n. Intense darkness, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 22. Ii. f. , The name of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 2, 4.

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Tāmasa (तामस).—i. e. tamas + a, I. adj., f. . 1. Belonging to the dark guṇa, or quality, Mahābhārata 12, 33. 2. Immersed in darkness, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 40. 3. Referring to the Manu Tāmasa (see Ii.), [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 1, 28. Ii. m. The name of a Manu, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 62. Iii. f. , Night, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 137.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamasa (तमस).—[adjective] dark-coloured; [neuter] darkness.

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Tāmasa (तामस).—[feminine] ī dark, belonging to ignorance (ph.); [Name] of the fourth Manu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamasa (तमस):—[from tam] mfn. dark-coloured, [Atharva-veda xi, 9, 22]

2) [v.s. ...] m. darkness, [Uṇādi-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]] a well, [Uṇādi-vṛtti]

3) [v.s. ...] n. ifc. for mas, ‘darkness’ See andha-, dhā-, ava-, vi-, saṃ-

4) [v.s. ...] a city, [Uṇādi-vṛtti]

5) Tamasā (तमसा):—[from tamasa > tam] f. Name of a river (falling into the Ganges below Pratiṣṭhāna), [Mahābhārata iii, 14231; vi, 338; Harivaṃśa 12828; Rāmāyaṇa if.; iv, 40, 24; Raghuvaṃśa ix, 16.]

6) Tāmasa (तामस):—[from tāma] mf(ī)n. ([from] tamas) dark, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] appertaining to or affected by the quality tamas (q.v.), ignorant, various, [Manu-smṛti xii; Bhagavad-gītā] etc. (sī tanū, ‘the form assumed by the deity for the destruction of the world’ ; sī śakti, ‘the faculty of tamas’)

8) [v.s. ...] relating to Manu Tāmasa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, 1, 28]

9) [v.s. ...] m. a malignant person, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] an owl, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of a demon causing diseases, [Harivaṃśa 9562]

13) [v.s. ...] of the 4th Manu, [Manu-smṛti i, 62; Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, viii]

14) [v.s. ...] of an attendant of Śiva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

15) [v.s. ...] of a man, [Pravara texts i, 1 (J) ]

16) [v.s. ...] n. ‘darkness’ See andha-

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamasa (तमस):—(saṃ) 1. n. Darkness; a city. f. () The river Tamasā or Tonse.

2) Tāmasa (तामस):—[(saḥ-sī-saṃ) a.] Affected with bad passions; dark; wicked. m. A snake; an incendiary; an owl; 4th Manu. f. A dark night; Durgā. n. The quality of darkness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tāmasa (तामस) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Tamasa, Tāmasa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tamasa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Tamāśā (तमाशा):—(nm) a show, spectacle; entertainment; ~[ī] see [tamāśabīna].

2) Tāmasa (तामस) [Also spelled tamas]:—(nm) see [tamoguṇa].

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Tamasa (तमस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Tamas.

2) Tamasa (तमस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Tāmasa.

3) Tāmasa (तामस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Tāmasa.

4) Tāmasa (तामस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Tāmasa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tamasā (ತಮಸಾ):—[noun] name of a river in Uttar Pradesh in North India.

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Tāmasa (ತಾಮಸ):—

1) [adjective] dark or consisting of darkness.

2) [adjective] affected by or relating to the third of the three classes of qualities which include as aggressiveness, meanness, greed, lust, moral impurity.

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Tāmasa (ತಾಮಸ):—

1) [noun] absence of light; darkness.

2) [noun] the condition or quality of being ignorant; lack of knowledge esp. want of (spiritual) knowledge; ignorance.

3) [noun] that which is affected, influenced by ignorance.

4) [noun] a tendency to remain in a fixed condition without change; disinclination to move or act.

5) [noun] (myth.) the fourth of the fourteen successive progenitors or sovereigns of the earth and representatives of human race.

6) [noun] slowness; tardiness; dilatoriness.

7) [noun] a strong longing or craving, as for something that brings satisfaction or enjoyment.

8) [noun] an ignorant man.

9) [noun] a morally debased, depraved or despicable man.

10) [noun] an indolent, lazy man.

11) [noun] a class of qualities as offensiveness, aggressiveness, meanness, greed, lust, moral impurity, etc., as one of the three main types of qualities.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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