Shuka, Sūka, Śuka, Suka, Śūka: 45 definitions


Shuka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śuka and Śūka can be transliterated into English as Suka or Shuka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śuka (शुक) refers to the “parrot” as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śuka is mentioned in a discusses regarding the reaction of certain insects and other living beings on consumption of poisionous food. The after-effect of intake of poison for Śuka (parrot) is defined as: “utkrośanti (cry aloud just at the sight of poisoned food)”.

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

1) Śuka (शुक) (lit. “the bright one”) refers to the Parrot, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

2) Śuka (शुक) also refers to the Blue-winged parakeet (Psittacula Columboides).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Śuka (शुक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “parrot”, or “green parakeet”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Śuka is part of the sub-group named Pratuda, refering to animals “who eat while striking”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

The meat of the parrot (śuka) is astringent-sour, rūkṣa (kaṭu) in Vipāka, śītala, useful in phthisis, cough and wasting; constipating, light and appetiser.

2) Śuka (शुक) is a synonym for Śirīṣa (Albizia lebbeck, “Siris tree”), from the Fabaceae (“legume”) family. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā. The literal translation of Śuka is “parrot”.

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume II

Śuka (a kind of irritating water insect).

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Śuka (शुक)—Sanskrit word for a bird corresponding to “parrot”. This animal is from the group called Pratuda (which peck). Pratuda itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Śuka (शुक):—Sting (small, thorn like).

2) Parrot

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Śuka (Parrot) - Truth, the transmission of the teachings. The parrot repeats exactly what it hears without clarification, modification or contortion.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śuka (शुक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “parrot”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 5.12)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Śuka (शुक).—Name of a settlement (janapada) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śuka (शुक).—(śukadeva) The son of Vyāsa. Birth. The sage Vyāsa once wished to have a son. So he began to worship Śiva for the purpose. His desire was to have a son who would combine in him the essential qualities of fire, earth, water, air and ether He did tapas for a hundred years. Because of the austerity of his tapas, his locks of hair began to blaze like flames of fire. At last Śiva appeared and blessed him to have a son according to his wish. (See full article at Story of Śuka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Śuka (शुक).—A messenger of Rāvaṇa. This Śuka had a friend named Sāraṇa. These two persons were expert spies who used to gather secret and important pieces of information from the strongholds of Rāvaṇa’s friends and enemies and passed them on to Rāvaṇa.

2) Soon after Śrī Rāma entered Laṅkā, Rāvaṇa sent Śuka and Sāraṇa to Śrī Rāma’s camp. After taking a distant view of the surroundings, they entered the camp of Śrī Rāma in the form of monkeys. Taking care not to come within the observation of Vibhīṣaṇa, they went about the military camps, gathering secret information. Just then they were met by Jāmbavān and Hanūmān. After closely observing them for a considerable time, they understood that they were enemy spies. The monkey-heroes promptly seized them and produced them before Sugrīva. Confused and frightened under a shower of questions they sought the protection of Śrī Rāma. While Śrī Rāma was interrogating them, Vibhīṣaṇa happened to come there. At his sight, Śuka and Sāraṇa were alarmed. Grasping the whole situation in an instant, Vibhīṣaṇa kicked both of them when they assumed their former shapes as Rākṣasas. The monkey-leaders sprang at them. The Rākṣasas begged for pardon and prayed for Śrī Rāma’s protection. Śrī Rāma forgave them and set them free. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa; Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa).

3) Śuka (शुक).—A king of the Lunar dynasty. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

4) Śuka (शुक).—A king of the Śaryāti dynasty. He was the son of Pṛṣata. He had conquered all countries in the world and after performing many yāgas, he renounced his kingdom and attained Mokṣa by doing tapas on Śataśṛṅga mountain. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, Chapter 123).

5) Śuka (शुक).—Son of Subala, king of Gāndhāra. He was slain by Irāvān in the course of the Bhārata Yuddha. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 26).

6) Śuka (शुक).—Son of the monkey Śarabha. Ṛkṣa was the son of Śuka by Vyāghrī. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 3, 8, 208).

7) Śuka (शुक).—A Maharṣi who was the contemporary of Aṇuha of Dakṣiṇa Pāñcāla and of king Brahmadatta. This sage lived before the time of the other Śuka who was the son of Vyāsa.

This sage Śuka had six sons, named Bhūriśravas, Śambhu, Prabhu, Kṛṣṇa, Saura (Sauraprabha) and Devaśruta by his two wives Pīvarī and Ekaśṛṅgā. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 3-8-93: Vāyu Purāṇa, 70-84; Devī Bhāgavata, 1-14; Nārada. 1-58).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śuka (शुक) refers to a “parrot”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Śiva described Pārvatī: “Is this your face or the moon? Are these your eyes or lotus petals? These two eyebrows are the bows of Kāma of noble soul. Is this your lower lip or Bimba fruit? Is this your nose or the beak of a parrot [i.e., śuka-cañcukā]? Do I hear your voice or the cooing of the cuckoo? Is this your slender waist or the sacrificial altar? How can her gait be described? How can her comely appearance be described? How can the flowers be described? How can the clothes be described? [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śuka (शुक).—A son of Vyāsa and Araṇī and a great yogin; superior to his father as a yogi; seeing him firm in renunciation, Vyāsa taught him the bhāgavata; renounced worldly life before his upanayana. Wandered naked from place to place and reached the country of Kurujāngalas. When at Hāstināpura he stopped for a few minutes at the threshold of householders to purify their abode.1 Sūta's salutation to: called on Parīkṣit doing prāyopaveśa and imparted knowledge to him, addressed by the king as to the best way of spending his last moments for attaining mokṣa. Enlightened him by the Bhāgavata episodes;2 went with Kṛṣṇa to Mithilā, and to Syamantapañcaka for the solar eclipse. Took part in defending Dvārakā against Śālva.3 On saura gaṇa as seven for each month. Heard the story of Citraketu from Vyāsa, Nārada and Devala.4 In the form of a Brahman; one of the twelve who knew the dharma ordained by Hari.5 A Madhyamādhvaryu; married Pīvarī and got by her five sons all yogācāryas and a daughter Kīrtimatī, a yoginī; of superior bhakti; (married Pīvarī, the mind-born daughter of the Barhiṣad Manes and had by her a daughter and four sons, Matsya-purāṇa) the sons were Kṛṣṇa, Gama, Prabhu, Śambhu and Bhūriśruta.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 2-3; 4. 2-8; 7. 8; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 8.
  • 2) Ib. I. 12. 3; 19. 25-39; 1. 3; XII. 6. 8.
  • 3) Ib. X. 86. 18; 76. 14; 82. 6.
  • 4) Ib. XII. 11. 27; VI. 14. 9.
  • 5) Ib. XII. 13. 21; VI. 3. 20.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 150; II. 33. 14; III. 8. 92-4; 10. 80-82; 34. 38; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 84; 73. 28; 108. 42 and 60.

1b) A son of Gārhapatya agni.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 12.

1c) A son of Śarabha and father of Ṛkṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 207.

1d) The father-in-law of Aṇuha.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 57; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 179.

1e) Parrots, children of Śuki;1 cry in the presence of poisoned food;2 of the Tamra line.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 31.
  • 2) Ib. 219. 20.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 16.

2) Śūka (शूक).—A deva gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 21.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śuka (शुक) refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śuka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Śuka (शुक) is the son of Kṛṣṇa-Dvaipāyana an grandson of Parāśara, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Nārada gave a daughter to Vasiṣṭha. She was Arundhati and Śakti was born to her. Śakti begot Parāśara and from Parāśara was born Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana. Śuka was born to Dvaipāyana and Śuka had five sons—Bhūriśravā, Prabhu, Śaṃbhu, Kṛṣṇa and Gaura and a daughter—Kīrtimati.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Śuka (शुक) refers to:—A male parrot. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śuka (शुक) refers to a “parrot”, according the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 7), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When Mercury should disappear, the chief towns in the land will be besieged by enemies, but when he reappears the siege will be raised. According to some writers, the latter occurs only when Mercury reappears as an evening star; and learned writers also say that the chief rulers will also get an accession of territories. If Mercury should be of the colour of gold or of a parrot [i.e., śuka-varṇa] or if he should resemble the hue of the Sasyaka gem, or if his disc should appear glossy or big in size, mankind will be happy; but if otherwise, they will be afflicted with miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Śuka (शुक) is the name of an ancient king having performed the pacificatory ritual described chapter 47 of the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[This rite] should be employed by utterly glorious Sovereigns when they are in distress—[...] Ambarīśa, Śuka, Alarka, Māndhātṛ, Purūravas, Rājoparicara, Dhundhu, Śibi and Śrutakīrtana—those Kings of old attained Universal Sovereignty after performing this. They became free of diseases and free of enemies. Their fame was widely spread and blameless”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Kama-shastra (the science of Love-making)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (kama)

Śuka (शुक) refers to “parrots”.—Cf. Śukasārikāpralāpana which refers to “training parrot and mynas to speak and sing”, representing one of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The references of sixty four kinds of kalā are found in the Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Śaiva-Tantras, Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa etc.

Kamashastra book cover
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Kamashastra (कामशास्त्र, kāmaśāstra) deals with ancient Indian science of love-making, passion, emotions and other related topics dealing with the pleasures of the senses.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śuka (शुक, ‘parrot’) is mentioned in the Rigveda, where a desire is expressed to transfer to the Śuka and the Ropaṇākā the yellowness of jaundice. The bird is included in the list of sacrificial victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda-saṃhitās. It is described as yellow and as ‘of human speech’ (puruṣa-vāc). According to Bloomfield, this word is the correct reading for the second half of the obscure Śāriśākā of the Atharvaveda.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Shuka was the son of the sage Vyasa. According to tradition, Vyasa, who compiled all the Vedas and composed the Mahabharata, taught them along with the Puranas to Shuka and other disciples.

When Vyasa realized that he was issueless and knew that the issueless cannot aspire to heaven and higher regions, he was wondering which deity he should pray to. According to Narada's advice, he prayed to Devi (Shakti) and obtained a boon that an illustrious son would be born to him.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Shuka was the son of the sage Vyasa (credited as the organizer of the Vedas and Puranas) and the main narrator of the Bhagavata Purana. Most of the Bhagavata Purana consists of Shuka reciting the story to the dying king Parikshit. Shuka is depicted as a sannyasin, renouncing the world in pursuit of moksha (liberation), which most narratives assert that he achieved.

According to the Mahabharata, after one hundred years of austerity by Vyasa, Shuka was churned out of a stick of fire, born with ascetic power and with the Vedas dwelling inside him, just like his father. The Mahabharata also recounts how Shuka was sent by Vyasa for training to King Janaka, who was considered to be a Jivanmukta, or one who is liberated while still in a body.

In the Devi-Bhagavata Purana, Shuka is convinced by Janaka to follow the ashrama tradition, and returns home to marry and follow the path of yoga. He has five children with his wife Pivari—four sons and a daughter. The story concludes in the same vein as the common tradition, with Shuka achieving moksha.

A place called Shukachari is believed to be the cave of Shuka, where he disappeared in cave stones as per local traditions.

etymology: Shuka (also Shukadeva, Shuka deva, Suka, Sukadev, Sukadeva Gosvami, )

2) Shuka in Sanskrit means parrot and thus the name is derived from the large number of parrots found around the Shukachari hills.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śuka (शुक, “parrot”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. If sensual desires (kāmarāga), passion and ignorance (avidyā) were predominant in them [people], they are reborn as [for example] parrot (śuka); thus they become one of the hundred thousand kinds of birds. If they are guilty of lust, their body becomes covered with hairs and feathers; their plumage is fine and smooth; their beak, big and wide; thus they cannot distinguish touch (sparśa) and taste (rasa).

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Śuka (शुक) refers to “parrots” (responsible for crop-destruction, etc.), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches a pacification ritual]: “[...] All stinging insects, mosquitos, ants, flying insects, bees, quivering bees, bumble bees, worms, ones with a sting, vātālikas, owls, mice, long-mouthed ones and so on and various sorts of pests perish. They will not appear. They will be destroyed. All crows, large birds, sparrows, cañcaṭikas, pigeons, surikas, owls, wagtails, parrots (śuka), mynas and so on perish. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śuka (शुक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Śukī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Śuka] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Śuka (शुक) refers to a “parrot”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] Songs of a jīvaṃjīvaka bird, peacock, kokila bird, parrot (śuka), cakrāṅka, haṃsa, and a bull bring auspiciousness. If [these creatures] are seen, it brings prosperity. [...]”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Ṣūka (षूक) [=śūka?] refers to “prongs”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “[...] One thousand bindus are in the prongs (ṣūka), [which run] upward from the navel area. He should meditate on the bindus in the ten prongs (ṣūka) in sequence. By smoke and others, he should make move the 100 [bindus] in the seats of bindus. From that, however subtle the thing might be, it is not a [discriminated] object of sense for the Awakened Ones. He [becomes] completely awakened, [which is] the mahāmudrā or Great Seal, through the meditation on the adamantine vital airs [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śuka (शुक) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śuka] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Śuka (शुक) is the name of an ancient country, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, as the messenger said to Aikṣvāka (Daśaratha): “[...] In the city Mayūramāla, the ornament of this country, there is a cruel Mleccha-king, Ātaraṅgatama. His sons by the thousands have become kings and enjoy territories also, Śuka, Maṅkana, Kāmboja, et cetera. Now. Ātaraṅga, surrounded on all sides by them as commanders of inexhaustible complete armies, ravages Janaka’s country. Hard-hearted, they destroy the shrines everywhere. For from birth the destruction of dharma is dearer to them than wealth. So rescue dharma and Janaka continually beloved. You have become their life”.

2) Śuka (शुक) refers to one of the warriors in Rāvaṇa’s army, according to chapter 7.7 [The killing of Rāvaṇa].—Accordingly, “[...] When the battle had been going on for a long time, the army of the Rākṣasas was broken by the Vānaras like a forest by winds. [...] From anger at the killing of Hasta and Prahasta, [Mārīca, ...] and others in Daśānana’s army advanced. [...] The Vānara Durita killed Śuka. [...] Then the soldiers of Rāma and Rāvaṇa returned, purifying their own men, killed and unkilled”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Suka in Papua New Guinea is the name of a plant defined with Saccharum officinarum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Saccharum officinarum var. oceanicum Endl. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte (1836)
· Report of the Harvard Botanical Gardens, Soledad Estate, Cienfuegos, Cuba (1927)
· USDA Handb. (1958)
· Pl. Corom. (1819)
· Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis (1778)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Suka, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

suka : (m.) a parrot. || sūka (m.), awn of barley, etc.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sūka, (cp. Sk. śūka) the awn of barley etc. S. V, 10, 48; A. I, 8. (Page 721)

— or —

Suka, (Vedic śuka, fr. śuc) a parrot J. I, 458; II, 132; instead of suka read sūka S. V, 10. See suva. (Page 715)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śuka (शुक).—m S A male parrot. śukī f A female parrot.

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śūka (शूक).—m n S Awn or beard (of grains and grasses). 2 A bristle, a spicula. 3 A caterpillar.

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sukā (सुका).—a (śuṣka S) Dry, not wet, not moist, not succulent or sappy. 2 fig. Unproductive or unprofitable: also hollow, heartless, insincere: also empty, unsolid, unsubstantial: also void of significance or meaning.

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sūka (सूक).—m (Corr. of śukra S) The planet Venus.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śuka (शुक).—m A male parrot. śukī f A female parrot.

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sukā (सुका).—a Dry. Fig. Unproductive. Insincere.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śuka (शुक).—[śuk-ka]

1) A parrot; आत्मनो मुखदोषेण बध्यन्ते शुकसारिकाः (ātmano mukhadoṣeṇa badhyante śukasārikāḥ) Subhāṣ तुण्डैराताम्रकुटिलैः पक्षैर्हरितकोमलैः । त्रिवर्ण- राजिभिः कण्ठैरेते मञ्जुगिरः शुकाः (tuṇḍairātāmrakuṭilaiḥ pakṣairharitakomalaiḥ | trivarṇa- rājibhiḥ kaṇṭhairete mañjugiraḥ śukāḥ) || Kāv.2.9.

2) The Śirīṣa tree.

3) Name of a son of Vyāsa. (He is said to have been born from the seed of Vyāsa. which fell at the sight of the heavenly nymph Ghṛtāchī while roaming over the earth in the form of a female parrot. Śuka was a born philosopher, and by his moral eloquence successfully resisted all the attempts of the nymph Rambhā to win him over to the path of love. He is said to have narrated the Bhāgavata Purāṇa to king Parīkṣit. His name has become proverbial for the most rigid observer of continence.] -kam 1 Cloth, clothes.

2) A helmet.

3) A turban.

4) The end or hem of a garment.

Derivable forms: śukaḥ (शुकः).

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Śūka (शूक).—1 The awn of barley &c., beard.

2) A bristle; वृतं च खलु शूकैः (vṛtaṃ ca khalu śūkaiḥ) Bv.1.24.

3) Point, tip, sharp end; शालिशूकनिभाभासं प्रासूतेमं तदाञ्जना (śāliśūkanibhābhāsaṃ prāsūtemaṃ tadāñjanā) Rām.7.35.21.

4) Tenderness, compassion.

5) A kind of poisonous insect.

6) The bristle or sharp hair of insects.

7) Ferment, yeast.

-kā 1 A Mucuna Pruritus (Mar. kuhilī).

2) Grief; L. D. B.

Derivable forms: śūkaḥ (शूकः), śūkam (शूकम्).

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Sūka (सूक).—

1) An arrow.

2) Air, wind.

3) A lotus.

Derivable forms: sūkaḥ (सूकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śuka (शुक).—(1) name of a brahmanical sage: Divyāvadāna 632.14; Śuka-paṇḍita, 651.8; (2) name of a (brahman) youth (māṇava, which Lévi seems to take as part of his name), son of Taudeya: Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 21.15 etc.; in Pali known as Subha; see Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) and Lévi's note, loc. cit.

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Śūka (शूक).—nt., (1) in manaḥ-śūka (possibly for śoka, grief? so Sanskrit Lex.; or simply mind-sting), either grief, or pangs of conscience: (katham ahaṃ khedaṃ na smariṣyāmi …yena mayā evaṃvidhaṃ) pāpakaṃ karma kṛtam ? tataḥ sa tayābhihitaḥ: na te °kam asminn arthe utpā- dayitavyaṃ Divyāvadāna 257.12; (2) fig. (an enemy's) offensive power: śatruś ca te 'grabala durbalabhagnaśūko Mahāvastu i.156.16 (verse), your mighty enemy's ‘sting’ is powerless and broken.

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Sūka (सूक).—perhaps for Sanskrit śūka, something sharp and sting- ing: śaṅkha-sūke, dual dvandva, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.55.17, in list of things painful to step on.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śuka (शुक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A parrot. 2. The son of Vyasa, the author or narrator of the Bhagavat. 3. The minister of Ravana. 4. The Sirisha tree. 5. A plant, commonly Seyala kanta. n.

(-kaṃ) 1. A drug and perfume, commonly Gant'hiala. 2. Cloth, clothes. 3. The ends or hem of a cloth. 4. A turban, a helmet. 5. A plant, (Bignonia Indica.) E. śubh to shine, kak Unadi aff., and the radical final rejected.

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Śūka (शूक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. The awn of barley, &c. 2. A bristle, a spicula. 3. Compassion, clemency, tenderness. 4. Top, point. 5. A kind of poisonous insect. f.

(-kā) Cowach. E. śo to make sharp or thin, ūka aff., deriv. irr.; or śvi-kak-sampra0 .

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Sūka (सूक).—n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Air, wind. 2. An arrow. 3. A lotus. E. ṣū to bring forth, kvip affix, and kan added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śuka (शुक).—I. m. 1. A parrot, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 41. 2. A proper name. Ii. m. and n. The name of several plants. Iii. n. 1. A turban. 2. The hem of a cloth. 3. Cloth. 4. A sort of perfume.

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Śūka (शूक).—m. and n. 1. The awn of barley. 2. A bristle, a spicula. 3. Compassion.

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Sūka (सूक).—[sū + ka] 2., m. 1. An arrow. 2. Air, wind.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śuka (शुक).—[masculine] parrot, a man’s name ([abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter]); [feminine] śukī female parrot or the myth. mother of parrots.

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Śūka (शूक).—[masculine] [neuter] awn or beard (of corn); [masculine] a kind of corn; [neuter] sting (lit. & [figuratively]).

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Suka (सुक).—[masculine] = śuka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Śuka (शुक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. Mentioned in Bhojaprabandha Oxf. 150^b.

2) Śuka (शुक):—Tattvapradīpa. Tattvānusaṃdhānaṭīkā. Nirvāṇaprakaraṇa (?).

3) Śuka (शुक):—Praśnottaramālā.

4) Śuka (शुक):—Yogatārāvalī.

5) Śuka (शुक):—Śukajātaka jy. Śukasūtra jy.

6) Śuka (शुक):—son of Jayarāma, father of Malla (Kirātārjunīyaṭīkā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śuka (शुक):—m. ([probably] [from] √1. śuc, and [originally] ‘the bright one’) a parrot, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) a poet (?), [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 31]

3) Acacia Sirissa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Zizyphus Scandens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Name of a son of Vyāsa (narrator of the Bhāgavata-Purāṇa to king Parikṣit), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

6) of a warrior, [Mahābhārata]

7) of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] śara)

8) of a king of the Gandharvas, [Rāmāyaṇa]

9) of a minister of Rāvaṇa, [ib.]

10) of a Brāhman ascetic, [Buddhist literature]

11) n. Name of various plants (Acacia Sirissa, Bignonia Indica etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) a [particular] drug and perfume (= granthi-parṇa, commonly called Gaṇṭhīāla), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) the hem of a garment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) cloth, clothes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) a helmet or turban, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Name of a mythical weapon, [Mahābhārata]

17) Śūka (शूक):—mn. ([gana] ardharcādi; derivation doubtful) the awn of grain, [Rāmāyaṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

18) a bristle, spicule, spike ([especially] the bristle or sharp hair of insects etc.), [Horace H. Wilson]

19) the sheath or calyx of a bud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) pity, compassion (in niḥ-śūka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) m. a species of grain (cf. dīrgha-ś), [Suśruta; Bhāvaprakāśa]

22) sorrow, grief, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) = abhi-ṣava, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) Śūkā (शूका):—[from śūka] f. scruple, doubt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] Mucuna Pruritus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) [v.s. ...] the sting of an insect (cf. above), anything that stings or causes pain, [Suśruta; Caraka]

27) [v.s. ...] a [particular] insect (produced in water and applied externally as an aphrodisiac), [ib.; Bhāvaprakāśa]

28) [v.s. ...] a kind of grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

29) Suka (सुक):—(for śuka), a parrot, [Atharva-veda i, 22, 4.]

30) Sūka (सूक):—[from ] m. (cf. sṛka) an arrow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

31) [v.s. ...] air, wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

32) [v.s. ...] a lotus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Hrada ([varia lectio] mūka), [Harivaṃśa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śuka (शुक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A parrot; prop. name. n. A drug and perfume; cloth; fringe; turban; plant.

2) Śūka (शूक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. The awn of barley; compassion. 1. f. Cowach.

3) Sūka (सूक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Air, wind; arrow; lotus.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śuka (शुक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sua, Sūa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shuka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śuka (शुक) [Also spelled shuk]:—(nm) a parrot; ~[nāsa/nāsikā] having a parrot-like nose.

2) Śūka (शूक) [Also spelled shuk]:—(nm) a bristle.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śuka (ಶುಕ):—

1) [noun] any of an order (Psittaciformes) of tropical or subtropical birds with a hooked bill, brightly coloured feathers, and feet having two toes pointing forward and two backward; a parrot.

2) [noun] name of a sage, son of Vyāsa.

3) [noun] Śiva.

4) [noun] the tree Bombax ceiba ( = B. malabaricum) of Bombacaceae family; Indian silk cotton tree.

5) [noun] the tree Albizzia julibrissin of Mimosae family; silken rose tree.

6) [noun] the tree Mangifera indica of Anacardiaceae family; mango tree.

7) [noun] the plant Artemisia indica of Asteraceae family.

8) [noun] another plant Artemisia maderaspatana ( = Grangea maderaspatana) of the same family.

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Śūka (ಶೂಕ):—

1) [noun] any bristlelike fiber or fibers, as on the head of barley, oats or wheat; the awn.

2) [noun] the pointed end of a weapon, instrument, awn, etc.

3) [noun] deep sympathy; compassion.

4) [noun] the bristlelike part (as the sting) of an insect.

5) [noun] any insect having such a part, as a caterpillar, wasp, scorpion, etc.

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Suka (ಸುಕ):—[noun] (correctly, ಶುಕ [shuka]) any of several tropical or subtropical birds of the Psittaciformes with a hooked bill, brightly coloured feathers, and feet having two toes pointing forward and two backward; a parrot.

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Suka (ಸುಕ):—

1) [noun] (correctly, ಸುಖ [sukha]) 1. a pleased feeling; enjoyment; delight; satisfaction; pleasure.

2) [noun] the state of being or doing well; condition of health, happiness, and comfort; well-being; prosperity; welfare.

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Sūka (ಸೂಕ):—

1) [noun] any bristlelike fibre or fibres, as on the head of wheat, barley, paddy, etc. awn.

2) [noun] similar sharp fibre on leaves of some plants.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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