Yama, Yāma, Yāmā: 41 definitions
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
- See also
Yama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Moral Disciplines; First step of the Ashtanga;
In Yoga philoshopy, there are five or ethical standards called the Fice Yama's. They act as moral guidelines.
The five yama's are:
Yama (यम, “forbearance”) is a Sanskrit word referring to “respect for others”. It is one of the eight brances of yoga, also known as the eightfold-path (aṣṭānga). Also see the fifth section of the Varāha-upaniṣad.
Yama is of ten kinds:
- ahiṃsā (nonviolence)
- satya (truthfulness)
- asteya (not stealing)
- brahmacarya (celibacy when single, not cheating on one's partner)
- kṣamā (forgiveness)
- dhṛti (fortitude)
- dayā (compassion)
- ārjava (non-hypocrisy, sincerity)
- mitāhāra (measured diet)
- śauca (purity, cleanliness)
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Yāma (याम):—Sanskrit technical term corresponding to 3 hours (or, 1/8th of a day and night), used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Yama (यम) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Yama) various roles suitable to them.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Yama (यम).—Kāla. (For more details see under Kāla).
2) Yāma (याम).—A band of special gods of the Svāyambhuva Manvantara (See under Manvantara).Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Yama (यम) refers to a deity that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Yama is the son of the god Sun, he is lord of the dead. His seven names are: Yama, Dharmarāja, Mṛtyu, Antaka, Vaivasvata, Kāla and Sarvaprāṇahara. Dhūmrorṇā who is the wife of Yama according to the Mahābhārata and the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa is mentioned in the Nīlamata, but her relation to Yama is not pointed out. Four places dedicated to Yama have been mentioned in the Nīlamata.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Yama (यम) refers to “self-restraint”. It is the first of the eight means of attaining mental concentration. The rest are “niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhāraṇā, dhyāna” and “samādhi”. For details see “bodhasāra”, pp. 121-128. Yamas are usually said to be ten.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Yama (यम).—(Vaivasvata) the Lord of Pitṛs; punishes men after death according to their actions, sinful or otherwise.1 A son of Vivasvat (Sūrya) and Samjñā; explains the nature of dharma and the glory of Hari to his messengers (Yamadūtas). Appeared in the form of a child before the queen and the subjects of Suyajña weeping over his dead body and showed the truth that no amount of wailing would bring the dead back to life;2 welcomed Rāma and Kṛṣṇa and fulfilled their desire by restoring Sāndipāni's son; presented Pṛṭhu with a rod of justice. Punished Nṛga to be a lizard for having given a cow of a Brahmaṇa as a gift to another, and as the owner refused to accept the apologies and compensation offered by Nṛga;3 fought with Kālanābha in the Devāsura war; rode on buffalo to help Indra against Kṛṣṇa taking away pārijāta, but discomfited, ran away in fear;4 his authority set aside in the case of Ajāmila. Dhruva is said to have set his foot on his head; was a Śudra for a hundred years owing to a curse;5 His penance at Gokarṇa and Śiva made him lokapāla; his city being Samyamana; represents the planet Śanaiścara; served as calf for Pitṛs milking the earth; Dharmarāja; Lord of three deva gaṇas— Amarttas, Aprakāśas, and Jyotiṣmantas;6 narrated to Śaśabindu varieties of śrāddha; protested against the ill-treatment by his stepmother Chāyā and was cursed by her to lose his legs. [Cursed his legs to be sores and worms. His father gave him a cock to eat them. m.p.]. The father assured their restoration after a temporary loss; overlord of Pitṛs.7 in charge of hells;8 buffalo, his riding animal;9 his active part in Tripuram, defeated by Kālanemi;10 burnt with Kāma and attained godhood again by pleasing Śankara by tapas;11 dialogue of, with his servant about those who could not be taken to his region.12 acted as calf when Antaka milked the cow-earth; other names of; world of;13 in the war against Tāraka: war with Grasana and the latter's success.14 saṃvāda with Sāvitrī; the latter's praise of;15 Kāla and Mṛtyu are assistants; god to be worshipped in house building.16 Image of, with Citragupta by the side; gift of buffalo pleasing to;17 (Dharmarāja): a golden image of him standing on a copper plate to be given to guru in Saptamīsvapana;18 weapon of daṇḍa, used by, in the battle of Tripuram;19 seen by Sāvitrī while taking the life of her husband; blessed her with three requests of hers and finally the life of her husband;20 meting out justice impartially;21 father of two daughters Upadānavī and Himā.22
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 26. 6; Matsya-purāṇa 8. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 186; 65. 52; 70. 8; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 22. 5.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 40; VIII. 13. 9; VI. 3. 12-34; VII. 2. 36-58;
- 3) Ib. X. 45. 42-6; IV. 15. 15; III. 30. 23; X. 64. 16-24.
- 4) Ib. VIII. 10. 29; X. [65 (v) 41]; [66 (v) 33-5]; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 30. 60; VI. 5. 44.
- 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 3. 2; IV. 12. 30; I. 13. 15.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 31; 24. 49; 29. 65; 36. 208; III. 1. 52; 7. 253 and 330; 13. 72; Matsya-purāṇa 93. 14; 266. 21 and 63; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 88; 69. 215; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 9; III. 7. 19, 35.
- 7) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 18. 1; 24. 4; 59. 23, 52-80; Matsya-purāṇa 11. 4-20.
- 8) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 151; 7. 54.
- 9) Matsya-purāṇa 67. 11.
- 10) Ib. 133. 63; 137. 32; 138. 25; 177. 50.
- 11) Ib. 191. 112-4.
- 12) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 6; III. 7. 5, 13-20.
- 13) Matsya-purāṇa 10. 19; 31. 12; 93. 14; 102. 22-3; 124. 22; 146. 77.
- 14) Ib. 148. 79-81; 150. 1-49; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 2.
- 15) Matsya-purāṇa 211. 14-28 and ch. 213 (whole).
- 16) Ib. 250. 46; 253. 25.
- 17) Ib. 261. 12; 268. 13.
- 18) Ib. 68. 20.
- 19) Ib. 135. 77.
- 20) Ib. 210. 5, chh. 211-14.
- 21) Ib. 213. 3.
- 22) Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 23; 69. 61; 75. 56; 82. 1; 101. 150, 286; 106, 46; 108. 4 and 31; 110 10 and 38.
1b) A Yājñiya god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 33.
1c) A muhūrta of the night.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 42.
1d) A Sukha god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 18.
1e) A son of Havirdhāna.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 45.
1f) An Āditya.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 4.
1g) The father of Ilinā, (s.v.).*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 9.
1h) A Vasu; a son of Dharma and Sudevī.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 47.
1i) The agent of a class of devas.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 72.
1j) The son of Sureṇu and Vivasvan; ill-treated by stepmother Chāyā, was about to kick her when she cursed him that he would lose his leg; he became Dharmarāja, lord of Pitṛs and Protector of the world.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 22, 56-61.
1k) A mukhya gaṇa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 14.
2) Yāma (याम).—The twelve devas born of Yajña and Dakṣiṇā and waited on Hariyajña;1 they are Yadu, Yayāti, Vivadha, Srāsata, Mati, Vibhāsa, Kratu, Prayāti, Viśruta, Dyuti, Vāyavya and Samyama,2 born in the epoch of Svāyambhuva Manu.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 12; VIII. 1. 18.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 45; 13. 89-90; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 20; 31. 3, 6-7.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 9. 3; 51. 40; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 21; 12. 12.
Yama (यम).—In the Mahābhārata (XII.92: 38), Yama is subordinate to Śiva by whose appointment he becomes Lord of the Ancestors (Pitṛpati)—in other words Yama loses his automatic right to this position which he had initially earned through blazing a trail to the underworld as the first mortal. He does however gain compensation in other areas.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Yama (यम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.15, IX.44.27) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Yama) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Yama (यम).—Yama also called Daṇḍa and Antaka bas been mentioned fifty times in Ṛgveda and three whole hymns are dedicated to him in the 1st and the 10th maṇḍalas. He gives bliss to the good and woe to the bad in Ṛgveda. He is the god of death who destroys the world.
Yama in his epithet Antaka or Kṛtānta has been referred to by Soḍḍhala as devouring the worlds, Bhuvanabhojin and also bearing the deadly daṇḍa.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: WikiPedia: Upanishads
In the Katha Upanishad, Yama is portrayed as a teacher. He is the father of Yudhisthira (also known as Dharmaraja), the oldest brother of the 5 Pandavas (Karna was born prior to Kunti's wedlock, so technically Karna is Yudhishthira's older brother) and is said to have incarnated as Vidura by some accounts in the Mahabharata period.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Yama (यम) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the southern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Yama).Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
Yama (यम) is explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—While the Yogasūtras list five yamas and five niyamas (2.30, 2.32), the Śaradātilaka lists ten each (7–9ab). The ten yamas are specified as abstaining from harming others, truthfulness, refraining from theft, celibacy, forbearance, sincerity, patience/forgiveness, steadfastness, moderation in eating, and purity. Lakṣmaṇadeśika’s lists are similar to the ones found in later texts, such as the Yogakāṇḍa of the Vasiṣṭha-saṃhitā, and in Yoga-upaniṣads (e.g. Darśana-upaniṣad 1.6 and 2.1, Śāṇḍilya-upaniṣad 1.4 and 2.1, Varāha-upaniṣad 5.12cd–14ab and Triśikhibrāhmaṇa-upaniṣad 2.32cd–34ab).
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Yama (यम).—One of pair, a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal; cf. वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे परे मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः (vargeṣvādyānāṃ ceturṇo pañcame pare madhye yamo nāma pūrvasadṛśo varṇaḥ prātiśākhye prasiddhaḥ) S.K. on P.VIII. l.1;
2) Yama.—Name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; cf. मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः (mandramadhyamatrākhyeṣu triṣu vācaḥ sthāneṣu pratyekaṃ sata stharabhedā bhavanti kuṣṭaprathamadvitīyatṛtīyacaturthamandrātitvāryaḥ yamāḥ) ' T. Pr. XXIII. 13,14.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices
Yama (यम, “self-restraint”) forms part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person. Students living with the teacher (Guru or Ācārya) led a life of self-control, abstinence, obedience and devotion and regulated their lives by adhering to yama (self-restraint) and niyama (five observances), that is, śauca — purity of body, mind, thought; santoṣa — positive contentment; tapas — austerity; svādhyāya — self-study, introspection; and īśvarapraṇidhāna — faith in and surrender to the gods.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Yama (यम) is one of the Aṣṭadikpālaka (“eight guardians of the directions”), as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The hand poses for the eight dikpālas (guardians of directions) are described in the Abhinayadarpaṇa and they are followed in the dance performance. Yama is found holding a club in his left hand near the left shoulder and in the right hand holding the rope of the buffalo on which he rides. In Abhinayadarpaṇa, the hastas described for Yama are as follows: When the left and the right hands hold pāśa and sūcī-hastas respectively, then it is yama-hasta. If the left hand assumes sūcī-hasta and is placed above the shoulder while the right hand holding alapadma-hasta indicates offering of piṇḍas (balls of rice) to Pitṛs (manes), then it is called yama-hasta. When the left hand assumes sūcī-hasta and is placed on the left shoulder while the right hand holds alapallava-hasta on the chest, then also it is called yama-hasta.
Yama can also be depicted with muṣṭi-mudrā in the left hand as if holding the gadā and kapittha-mudrā in the right hand as if holding the pāśa. This position of the hands for Yama is not mentioned in Abhinayadarpaṇa.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Yāma (याम) refers to a basic unit of time and equals 3 hours, while 8 yāmas corresponds to 24 hours (= one day). The Arcanāṅgavidhi of Pūrvakāmikāgama first details the time measurement used before explaining the pūjā schedule. The Āgama divides a day into eight major time periods, further divided into smaller units. The smallest and most basic unit of time is one svāsa. Sixty svāsa constitute one prāṇa. Sixty prāṇa constitute one ghaṭikā. Calculation is made from sunrise. Seven and a half ghaṭikā is equal to one yāma. A day consists of eight yāma, or sixty ghaṭikā. The intersection of two yāma periods is called sandhi, thus there are eight sandhi in a day.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Yama (यम, “binder, restraint”):—He is the vedic deity of death and judges them before his throne. He represents the embodiment of righteousness (Dharma). He is the son of Vivasvat, the Sun God, his brother is Manu and his twin sister is Yamī. He is married to ten daughters of Dakṣa (‘ritual skill’) and lives in Samyamini with his scribe Citragupta.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Yama (यम) denotes ‘twins’, the birth of which is frequently alluded to in Vedic literature. Twins of different sex seem to be indicated by the expression yamau mithunau. There are traces of the belief—widely spread among negro and other races—that twins are uncanny and of evil omen, but there are also vestiges of the opposite opinion, that twins are lucky.Source: Red Zambala: Iconography of the Vedic Deities
Yama (the Binder) is the god of death, the sovereign of the infernal regions. The wrathful one, who judges the dead, whom his messengers drag before his throne. He is the embodiment of righteousness (Dharma) and the king- of-justice (dharma-rāja). He is, however, compassionate. In the Vedas, Yama is the First Ancestor and the king-of- Ancestors (pitṛ-rāja). He rules over the kingdom of the dead where the Ancestors dwell. He is also the king-of- ghosts (preta-rāja).
Yama is the son of the resplendent Sun god —Vivasvat (Rig Veda 10.14.5), the embodiment of social morality represented as one of the aspects of the Sun and envisaged as the progenitor of humankind. Yama's brother is the Lawgiver, Manu, who shares with him the title of progenitor of humankind.Source: Institute of Buddhist Studies: Buddhist Forum, Volume 4 (hinduism)
Yama (यम) is called Death (mṛtyu) and Ender (antaka); he is now the god of Death itself, not merely god of the dead. He grows in significance and menace along with the doctrine of transmigration which, in the Brāhmaṇas, is invariably seen as an unpleasant succession of deaths:
“Verily there are deaths connected with all the worlds and were he not to offer oblations to them, Death would get hold of him in every world; when he offers oblations to the Deaths he wards off death in every world.” (Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa XIII, 5.1.2)
As Death Yama has knowledge of death and knowledge of the means of escaping its clutches. Occasionally, he can be made to reveal aspects of this knowledge, which he does in ways which belie his dread nature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
The god of death. (See, e.g., DhA.iii.337; Yamassa santikam = Maranasantikam).
When beings die they are led before him to be judged according to their deeds. Birth, old age, illness, punishment for crime and death, are regarded as his messengers, sent among men as a warning to abstain from ill and do good. Yama questions beings brought before him as to whether they have seen these messengers and profited by them. If the answer is in the negative, the nirayapalas take them away to the different hells (M.iii.179ff).
In the Mahasamaya Sutta (D.ii.259) mention is made of two Yamas (duve Yama), which the Commentary explains (DA.ii.690) by dve Yamakadevata (the twins, whom Rhys Davids calls the Castor and Pollux of Indian Mythology, in Dial.ii.290, n.1). Elsewhere (AA.i.374; MA.ii.953) Buddhaghosa speaks of four Yamas (im c esa eko va hoti, catusu pana dvaresu cattaro jana honti) at the four gates (of the Nirayas?). He says that Yama is a Vemanikapetaraja, who sometimes enjoys all the pleasures of heaven, in a celestial mansion, surrounded by kapparukkhas, and at other times experiences the fruits of his kamma. He is a good king.
In the Jatakas* the Nirayas are particularly mentioned as Yamas abode (Yamakkhaya, Yamanivesana, Yamasadana, etc.); but, more generally, all Samsara is considered as subject to Yamas rule, and escape from samsara means escape from Yamas influence, Yama being the god of Death. It is evidently in this sense that Yama is called Vesayi (q.v.) (J.ii.317, 318). Yama is sometimes mentioned** with Indra, Varuna, Soma, Pajapati, etc., as a god to whom sacrifices are offered. There is a tradition (A.i.142) that once Yama longed to be born as a human being and to sit at the feet of a Tathagata.
Yamas Nayanayudha is mentioned (SNA.i.225) among the most destructive of weapons.
* E.g., J.ii.318; iv.273; v.268, 274, 304. The Vetarani is mentioned as forming the boundary of Yamas kingdom (i.21; J.ii.317; iii.472; but see ii.318). At J.iv.405, Yamas abode is called Ussadaniraya. DhA.i.334 explains Yamaloka by Catubbidham apayalokam. Cp. PvA.33 (Yamaloko ti petaloko); ibid., 107 (Yamavisayam = Petalokam).
** E.g., J.vi.201; D.i.244; at Mil.37 the list includes Kuvera, Suyama and Santusita; cp. Mtu i.265; iii.68, 77; 77, 307.
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1. Yama. A class of Devas, mentioned in lists of devas between those of Tavatimsa and those of Tusita (E.g., Vin.i.12, A.i.228; iii.287; M.ii.194; iii.100, etc.). Two hundred years of human life are but one day to the Yama deva, and two thousand Years, composed of such days, form their life period (A.i.213; iv.253). Sirima, sister of Jivaka, was born after death in the Yama world and became the wife of Suyama, king of
Yamabhavana. From there she visited the Buddha with five
hundred others. SNA i.244f.; see also VvA.246 for an upasaka born in the Yama world. Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini
Yama (यम).—Protector deity of the southern cremation ground.—Yama is associated with the south and with the sun (vivasvat, descended from Sūrya), hence he is also Vaivasvata (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 34) or “Yamavaivasvata”. He is also god of death, Kāla, whose agents brings departed souls to Yamapurī. Iconographically, the Śmaśānavidhi describes Yama as mounted on a buffalo (mahiṣārūḍha), black, red-eyed, fat, fearsome, holding a stick/cudgel (daṇḍa) and a skull bowl.Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Yama (यम) is the name of the protector (dikpati) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These protectors (eg., Yama) are variously known as dikpati, dikpāla and lokāpala and can be traced to purāṇic legends where eight protectors are assigned to each direction by Brahmā. According to the Śmaśānavidhi verse 20, these protectors are in union with their wives and have four arms, two of which make the añjali gesture of obeisance, while the second pair usually holds a skull bowl and a tantric weapon. They are variously depicted upon their respective mounts, or sitting at the base of the tree.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
1) Yama (यम) refers to one of the eight direction-guardians (dikpāla) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Yama is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Vibhīṣaṇa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Cūta; with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Padma and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Āvarta.
2) Yama (यम) also refers to one of the female world-guardians (lokapālinī) of the Medinīcakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Yamā is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Saṃtrāsana; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Akṣiṭaka; with a female serpent (nāginī) and with a female cloud (meghinī).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Yāma (याम) is part of the six groups of Gods inhabiting the Kāmadhātu (the first of the three worlds), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The six classes of gods of the desire realm (kāmadhātu), attached to the five desirable objects, will fall into the hells (niraya) and be subjected to all the sufferings.
The Yāma gods represents one of the seven destination of rebirths in kāmadhātu, according to chapter XLIX, “[...] another, of pure generosity and morality, who loves to learn and whose mind is gentle, is reborn among the Yāma gods”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Yama (यम) refers to the second of the “eight world protectors” (aṣṭalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 8). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., aṣṭalokapāla and Yama). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Yama (यम) refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism commonly depicted in Jaina art and iconography.—Yama, the god of death, who governs the south regions, is to be sculptured both according to the Śvetāmbaras and Digambaras, as riding on a buffalo and holding a staff. He is known to be the son of the sun and accompanied by his wife called Chāyā. His chief function is not only to guard the south but also to pronounce judgment on merits and demerits of departed souls.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Yama.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: yama is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Yāma.—(EI 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: yāma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
yama : (m.) the ruler of the kingdom of the dead. || yāma (m.), a watch of the night; 1/3 of a night.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Yama, 3 (m. nt.) (Vedic yama=yama2; fr. yam in meaning “to combine, ” cp. Av. y&schwamacr; ma twin, Mir. emuin id. ) (nt.) a pair, (m.) a twin Abhp 628. See der. yamaka. (Page 551)
2) Yama, 2 (Vedic Yama) the ruler of the kingdom of the dead. See details in Dicty. of Names. In cpds. often in general sense of “death” or “manes, ” or “petā”; e.g. —dūta Death’s messenger Sdhp. 287; cp. Yamassa dūtā Vv 522 (see VvA. 224), or deva-dūta A. I, 138 (see under dūta), alias niraya-pāla A. I, 138 and passim. —purisa (a)=°dūta Dh. 235 (cp. DhA. III, 335); VvA. 223; (b) °purisā Yama-people, i.e. Petas Pv IV. 33 (cp. PvA. 251). —loka the yama-world or world of the Petas Dh. 44, 45; PvA. 107 & frequent —visaya=°loka Pv. II, 82 & passim. —sādana Y’s kingdom, or the realm of the dead J. VI, 267, 304; VI, 457, 505. (Page 550)
3) Yama, 1 (fr. yam) restraint PvA. 98 (+niyama). (Page 550)
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Yāma, (fr. yam in both meanings of yamati & yama3) 1. restraint, only as cpd. cātu-yāma 4—fold restraint D. I, 57; III, 48; S. I, 66; M. I, 377; Vism. 416. Cp. Dial. I. 751.—2. a watch of the night. There are 3 watches, given as paṭhama, majjhima & pacchima (first, middle & last) Nd1 377 sq.; or purima, m. & pacchima Nd2 631 (under sadā).—A. I, 114; IV, 168; Dh. 157 (one of the 3; interpreted as the 3 vayas at DhA. III, 138); J. I, 243 (tīsu yāmesu ekasmiṃ yāme); Mhvs 21, 33; PvA. 217, 280.—3. (usually pl. Yāmā devā) one who belongs to Yama or the ruler of the Underworld; a subject of Yama; the realm of Yama;— pl. inhabitants of Yamaloka A. I, 210 (yāmā devā); SnA 244 (°bhavana the abode of the Y.); KhA 166 (Yāmato yāva Akaniṭṭhaṃ from the Underworld to the Highest Heaven); Vism. 225 (Yāmā); VbhA. 519 (Yāmā); VvA. 246 (id.); ThA. 169 (Y. devā).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
yama (यम).—m (S) Yama, the deity that judges the dead, and sends them, according to their deeds, to Swarg or Narak, Elysium or Tartarus. He corresponds with Pluto or Minos. In common use Yama is understood simply as the Punisher of the wicked. 2 Hence applied to a fierce, savage, pitiless man. yamācēṃ bulāviṇēṃ The summons of Yama; the call of Death. 2 fig. A summons from a very rigorous or severe person; any irresistible, imperative, and strongly disagreeable call or occasion.
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yama (यम).—m S Restraining, confining, controlling. (As distinguished from niyama Any religious and voluntary observance.) Restraint or government of the senses, affections, and passions. 2 The eight great observances or courses incumbent upon one who would work out his salvation (i. e. emancipation from personality and absorption into Brahma) are yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhyāna, dhāraṇā, samādhi. 3 A common term for five great acts or excellencies; viz. Refraining from violence, patience, sincerity, obedience to a Guru, observance of all purificatory ceremonies.
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yama (यम).—a S Twin, fellow, one of a pair or brace.
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yāma (याम).—m S The eighth part of a day; a watch of three hours. 2 Forbearance. 3 Cessation or desisting.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
yama (यम).—m The god of hell. A pitiless man. Confining, restraining. yamācēṃ bōlāvaṇēṃ The call of death. yamācyā dāḍhēnta paḍaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ Be under or fall under some great tormentor or trouble.
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yama (यम).—a Twin, fellow.
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yāma (याम).—m The eighth part of a day Forbearance.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Yama (यम).—a. [yam-ghañ]
1) Twin, twinborn.
-maḥ 1 Restraining, controlling, curbing; यमो राजा धार्मिकाणां मान्धातः परमेश्वरः (yamo rājā dhārmikāṇāṃ māndhātaḥ parameśvaraḥ) Mb.12.91.42.
2) Control, restraint.
3) Self control.
4) Any great moral or religious duty or observance (opp. niyama); तप्तं यमेन नियमेन तपोऽमुनैव (taptaṃ yamena niyamena tapo'munaiva) N.13.16; यमनियमकृशीकृतस्थिराङ्गः (yamaniyamakṛśīkṛtasthirāṅgaḥ) Ki.1. 1. (yama and niyama are thus distinguished:-śarīrasādhanāpekṣaṃ nityaṃ yat karma tad yamaḥ | niyamastu sa yat karma nityamāgantusādhanam || Ak.2.49; See Malli. on Śi.13.23 and Ki.1.1 also. The yamas are usually said to be ten, but, their names are given differently by different writers; e. g. brahmacaryaṃ dayā kṣāntirdānaṃ satyamakalkatā | ahiṃsā'steyamādhurye damaśceti yamāḥ smṛtāḥ || Y.3.312; or ānṛśaṃsyaṃ dayā satyamahiṃsā kṣāntirārjavam | prītiḥ prasādo mādhuryaṃ mārdavaṃ ca yamā daśa || sometimes only five yamas are mentioned:-ahiṃsā satyavacanaṃ brahmacaryamakalkatā | asteyamiti pañcaite yamākhyāni vratāni ca ||).
5) The first of the eight aṅgas. or means of attaining Yoga; the eight aṅgas are:-यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽ- ष्टाङ्गानि (yamaniyamāsanaprāṇāyāmapratyāhāradhāraṇādhyānasamādhayo'- ṣṭāṅgāni); Śāndilya Up.1.1.2.
6) The god of death, death personified, regarded as a son of the sun; he presides over the पितृ (pitṛ)s and rules the spirits of the dead; दत्ताभये त्वयि यमादपि दण्डधारे (dattābhaye tvayi yamādapi daṇḍadhāre) U.2.11.
7) A twin; धर्मात्मजं प्रति यमौ च (dharmātmajaṃ prati yamau ca) (i. e. nakulasahadevau) कथैव नास्ति (kathaiva nāsti) Ve.2.25; यमयो- श्चैव गर्भेषु जन्मतो ज्येष्ठता मता (yamayo- ścaiva garbheṣu janmato jyeṣṭhatā matā) Ms.9.126.
8) One of a pair or couple, a fellow.
9) Name of Saturn.
1) A crow.
11) A symbolical expression for the number 'two'.
12) Ved. A rein, bridle; पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः (pṛṣṭhe sado nasoryamaḥ) Ṛv.5. 61.2.
13) Ved. A driver, charioteer; अग्निं रथानां यमम् (agniṃ rathānāṃ yamam) Ṛv.8.13.1.
14) Name of a deity who chastises beings for their misdeeds; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः (yamaṃ kālaṃ ca mṛtyuṃ ca svargaṃ saṃpūjya cārhataḥ) Mb.12.2.3.
-mam 1 A pair or couple.
2) (In gram.) The twin letter of any consonant.
3) Pitch of the voice.
-mī Name of the river Yamunā.
-mau (m. du.)
1) Twins; कथं त्वमेतौ धृतिसंयमौ यमौ (kathaṃ tvametau dhṛtisaṃyamau yamau) Ki.1. 36.
2) Name of the Aśvins; यमौ यमोपमौ चैव ददौ दानान्यनेकशः (yamau yamopamau caiva dadau dānānyanekaśaḥ) Mb.14.61.38.
3) Nakula and Sahadeva; भीमार्जुनयमा- श्चापि तद्युक्तं प्रतिपेदिरे (bhīmārjunayamā- ścāpi tadyuktaṃ pratipedire) Mb.3.6.14. °मैथुनौ (maithunau) twins of different sex.
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Yāma (याम).—a. (-mī f.) Relating to Yama; तेनानुभूयता यामीः शरीरेणेह यातनाः (tenānubhūyatā yāmīḥ śarīreṇeha yātanāḥ) Ms.12.17; मा भैर्मन्द मनो विचिन्त्य बहुधा यामीश्चिरं यातनाः (mā bhairmanda mano vicintya bahudhā yāmīściraṃ yātanāḥ) Mukundamālā 1.
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1) Restraint, forbearance, control; लेखाः सुयामास्तुषिता ब्रह्मकायाः (lekhāḥ suyāmāstuṣitā brahmakāyāḥ) Mb.13.18.74.
2) A watch, one eighth part of a day, a period of three hours; अविदितगतयामा रात्रिरेव व्यरंसीत् (aviditagatayāmā rātrireva vyaraṃsīt) U.1.27; पश्चिमाद् यामिनीयामात् प्रसादमिव चेतना (paścimād yāminīyāmāt prasādamiva cetanā) R.17.1; so यामवती, त्रियामा (yāmavatī, triyāmā) &c.
3) Going, proceeding.
4) Motion, course.
5) Ved. A road.
7) A car, carriage.
8) A class of gods; यामैः परिवृतो देवैर्हत्वाऽशासत् त्रिविष्टपम् (yāmaiḥ parivṛto devairhatvā'śāsat triviṣṭapam) Bhāg.8.1.18.
Derivable forms: yāmaḥ (यामः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Yama (यम).—(1) n. of a nāga: Mvy 3328; (2) m. pl., n. of a class of gods, = Yāma: Bbh 62.1 (unless misprint for yāmāṃs; in standard list of god-classes, see deva); (3) n. of a rākṣasa king: Mmk 17.28 and 18.1 (twice in the same list!); but probably both cpd. with the next following name, which in 17.28 is printed Ghibhīṣaṇa (! read Yama- vibhī°), in 18.1 Ghaṇṭa.
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Yāma (याम).—(1) m., regularly pl. (= Pali id.), n. of a class of kāmāvacara gods, see s.v. deva: Mv i.33.3; 40.15; 212.15; 229.15; 240.4; 333.6; ii.16.4; 163.11; 359.21; iii.319.13; LV 45.9; 46.20; 150.3; 219.8; 327.18; 364.15 (see s.v. Suyāma); 396.14; 401.9 f.; Mvy 3080; Dharmas 127; Divy 68.13; 140.12; 367.10; Av i.5.1; Suv 86.9; Mmk 19.12, etc.; as sg., one of this class, presumably = [Page447-a+ 71] Suyāma, q.v., yāmeṣu…yāmasya devasya putro Divy 140.12; (2) nt., a high number: Gv 133.2 f. (cited Mvy as poma, q.v.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Twin, fellow, one of the pair or brace. m.
(-maḥ) 1. Restraining, controlling. 2. Forbearance, refraining. 3. Cessation, stop, conclusion, finish. 4. Religious restraint or obligation, considered the first of the eight steps of Yoga. 5. Penance, purification, the performance of those acts which remove impurity of any kind. 6. Any of the five acts or virtues, which constitute pure characters, as refraining from violence or injury, patience, sincerity, obedience to a spiritual teacher, and the observance of all purificatory ceremonies. 7. A festival. 8. A crow. 9. A name of the planet Saturn. 10. Yama, the deity of Naraka or hell, where his capital is placed, in which he sits in judgment on the dead, and distributes rewards and punishments, sending the good to Swarga, and the wicked to the division of Naraka or Tartarus appropriated to their crimes: he corresponds with the Grecian god Pluto, and the judge of hell Minos, and in Hindu mythology often identified with Death and Time: he is the son of Surya, or the sun, and brother of the personified Ya- Muna or Jamuna river. n. (-ma) A brace, a couple, a pair. f. (-mī) The Yamuna river. E. yam to restrain, &c., aff. ac, ghañ or ap .
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(-maḥ-mī-maṃ) Relating to Yama, done by him, ordered by him, &c. m.
(-maḥ) 1. The eighth part of a day, a watch of three hours. 2. Forbearance. 3. Cessation, term. E. yā to go, (through the day,) man Unadi aff.; or yam to restrain, aff. ghañ; or yam, and aṇ aff.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+159): Yama Deva, Yama-muhurta, Yamabadha, Yamabali, Yamabhadra, Yamabhagini, Yamabhata, Yamaca Pahuna, Yamaca-pahuna, Yamacakravartin, Yamaceti, Yamachakravartin, Yamacheti, Yamadadhi, Yamadagni, Yamadagri, Yamadamshtra, Yamadamshtraka, Yamadamshtrini, Yamadanda.
Ends with (+128): Abhyantarayama, Adhamamadhyama, Agnishomayama, Agradhanyama, Agrayaniyama, Alpamadhyama, Amadhyama, Amrishodyama, Anavyama, Anilayama, Aniyama, Antaryama, Anudyama, Apabyama, Apavyama, Aptoryama, Arddhayama, Ardhashyama, Ardhayama, Arthaniyama.
Full-text (+683): Citragupta, Antaka, Ashtangayoga, Yamayama, Mrityu, Lokapala, Pitriraja, Yamantaka, Dandayama, Kritanta, Yamas, Yamasabha, Ardhayama, Yamaraj, Pashin, Kaladanda, Jivitesha, Kala, Yamayatana, Yamasadana.
Search found 136 books and stories containing Yama, Yāma, Yāmā; (plurals include: Yamas, Yāmas, Yāmās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 4.204 < [Section XIV - Other Duties]
Verse 3.211 < [Section XIV - Method of Feeding]
Verse 8.173 < [Section XXX - The Royal dues and the King’s duty regarding them]
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Abhidhamma in Daily Life (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa) (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa)
Part 1 - The nature of hells (niraya) < [Chapter 11 - Planes Of Existence]
Part 2 - How The World Came To An End < [Chapter 11 - Planes Of Existence]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Act 1.6: Definition of trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadhātu < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]
Act 7.3: Description of Paranirmitavaśavartin < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]
Act 10.10: Śākyamuni gazes upon the immense assembly gathered before him < [Chapter XV - The Arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Directions]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.2.166 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 1.2.123 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 2.4.157 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 9 - The progeny of Rudra: birth of Bhṛgu and others < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 4 - Pronunciation of a curse on Jayas < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 12 - The race of Agni < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]