Yama, Yāma, Yāmā: 60 definitions


Yama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Moral Disciplines; First step of the Ashtanga;

In Yoga philoshopy, there are five or ethical standards called the Fice Yama's. They act as moral guidelines.

The five yama's are:

  1. Non-violence
  2. Non-lying
  3. Non-stealing
  4. Non-sensuality
  5. Non-greed
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Yama (यम, “forbearance”) is a Sanskrit word referring to “respect for others”. It is one of the eight brances of yoga, also known as the eightfold-path (aṣṭānga). Also see the fifth section of the Varāha-upaniṣad.

Yama is of ten kinds:

  1. ahiṃsā (nonviolence)
  2. satya (truthfulness)
  3. asteya (not stealing)
  4. brahmacarya (celibacy when single, not cheating on one's partner)
  5. kṣamā (forgiveness)
  6. dhṛti (fortitude)
  7. dayā (compassion)
  8. ārjava (non-hypocrisy, sincerity)
  9. mitāhāra (measured diet)
  10. śauca (purity, cleanliness)
Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Yāma (याम):—Sanskrit technical term corresponding to 3 hours (or, 1/8th of a day and night), used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Yama (यम) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Yama) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Yama (यम).—Kāla. (For more details see under Kāla).

2) Yāma (याम).—A band of special gods of the Svāyambhuva Manvantara (See under Manvantara).

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Yama (यम) refers to a deity that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Yama is the son of the god Sun, he is lord of the dead. His seven names are: Yama, Dharmarāja, Mṛtyu, Antaka, Vaivasvata, Kāla and Sarvaprāṇahara. Dhūmrorṇā who is the wife of Yama according to the Mahābhārata and the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa is mentioned in the Nīlamata, but her relation to Yama is not pointed out. Four places dedicated to Yama have been mentioned in the Nīlamata.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Yama (यम) refers to “self-restraint”. It is the first of the eight means of attaining mental concentration. The rest are “niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhāraṇā, dhyāna” and “samādhi”. For details see “bodhasāra”, pp. 121-128. Yamas are usually said to be ten.

2) Yama (यम) refers to one of the eight guardians of the quarters, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] the different parts of the mountain Meru seem to be echoing the pleasing sweet sounds of bees etc. which cause the incitement of love of the guardians of the quarters viz. Indra, Kubera, Yama, Varuṇa, Agni, Nirṛti, Marut (Wind) and the Supreme lord (Īśa). Heaven, the abode of the Devas is stationed on the summits of the Meru wherein the cities of the guardians of the quarters are also situated. They are brilliant. Beautiful celestial damsels, Rambhā, Śacī, Menakā and others heighten their glory”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Yama (यम).—(Vaivasvata) the Lord of Pitṛs; punishes men after death according to their actions, sinful or otherwise.1 A son of Vivasvat (Sūrya) and Samjñā; explains the nature of dharma and the glory of Hari to his messengers (Yamadūtas). Appeared in the form of a child before the queen and the subjects of Suyajña weeping over his dead body and showed the truth that no amount of wailing would bring the dead back to life;2 welcomed Rāma and Kṛṣṇa and fulfilled their desire by restoring Sāndipāni's son; presented Pṛṭhu with a rod of justice. Punished Nṛga to be a lizard for having given a cow of a Brahmaṇa as a gift to another, and as the owner refused to accept the apologies and compensation offered by Nṛga;3 fought with Kālanābha in the Devāsura war; rode on buffalo to help Indra against Kṛṣṇa taking away pārijāta, but discomfited, ran away in fear;4 his authority set aside in the case of Ajāmila. Dhruva is said to have set his foot on his head; was a Śudra for a hundred years owing to a curse;5 His penance at Gokarṇa and Śiva made him lokapāla; his city being Samyamana; represents the planet Śanaiścara; served as calf for Pitṛs milking the earth; Dharmarāja; Lord of three deva gaṇas— Amarttas, Aprakāśas, and Jyotiṣmantas;6 narrated to Śaśabindu varieties of śrāddha; protested against the ill-treatment by his stepmother Chāyā and was cursed by her to lose his legs. [Cursed his legs to be sores and worms. His father gave him a cock to eat them. m.p.]. The father assured their restoration after a temporary loss; overlord of Pitṛs.7 in charge of hells;8 buffalo, his riding animal;9 his active part in Tripuram, defeated by Kālanemi;10 burnt with Kāma and attained godhood again by pleasing Śankara by tapas;11 dialogue of, with his servant about those who could not be taken to his region.12 acted as calf when Antaka milked the cow-earth; other names of; world of;13 in the war against Tāraka: war with Grasana and the latter's success.14 saṃvāda with Sāvitrī; the latter's praise of;15 Kāla and Mṛtyu are assistants; god to be worshipped in house building.16 Image of, with Citragupta by the side; gift of buffalo pleasing to;17 (Dharmarāja): a golden image of him standing on a copper plate to be given to guru in Saptamīsvapana;18 weapon of daṇḍa, used by, in the battle of Tripuram;19 seen by Sāvitrī while taking the life of her husband; blessed her with three requests of hers and finally the life of her husband;20 meting out justice impartially;21 father of two daughters Upadānavī and Himā.22

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 26. 6; Matsya-purāṇa 8. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 186; 65. 52; 70. 8; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 22. 5.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 40; VIII. 13. 9; VI. 3. 12-34; VII. 2. 36-58;
  • 3) Ib. X. 45. 42-6; IV. 15. 15; III. 30. 23; X. 64. 16-24.
  • 4) Ib. VIII. 10. 29; X. [65 (v) 41]; [66 (v) 33-5]; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 30. 60; VI. 5. 44.
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 3. 2; IV. 12. 30; I. 13. 15.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 31; 24. 49; 29. 65; 36. 208; III. 1. 52; 7. 253 and 330; 13. 72; Matsya-purāṇa 93. 14; 266. 21 and 63; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 88; 69. 215; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 9; III. 7. 19, 35.
  • 7) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 18. 1; 24. 4; 59. 23, 52-80; Matsya-purāṇa 11. 4-20.
  • 8) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 151; 7. 54.
  • 9) Matsya-purāṇa 67. 11.
  • 10) Ib. 133. 63; 137. 32; 138. 25; 177. 50.
  • 11) Ib. 191. 112-4.
  • 12) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 6; III. 7. 5, 13-20.
  • 13) Matsya-purāṇa 10. 19; 31. 12; 93. 14; 102. 22-3; 124. 22; 146. 77.
  • 14) Ib. 148. 79-81; 150. 1-49; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 2.
  • 15) Matsya-purāṇa 211. 14-28 and ch. 213 (whole).
  • 16) Ib. 250. 46; 253. 25.
  • 17) Ib. 261. 12; 268. 13.
  • 18) Ib. 68. 20.
  • 19) Ib. 135. 77.
  • 20) Ib. 210. 5, chh. 211-14.
  • 21) Ib. 213. 3.
  • 22) Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 23; 69. 61; 75. 56; 82. 1; 101. 150, 286; 106, 46; 108. 4 and 31; 110 10 and 38.

1b) A Yājñiya god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 33.

1c) A muhūrta of the night.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 42.

1d) A Sukha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 18.

1e) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 45.

1f) An Āditya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 4.

1g) The father of Ilinā, (s.v.).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 9.

1h) A Vasu; a son of Dharma and Sudevī.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 47.

1i) The agent of a class of devas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 72.

1j) The son of Sureṇu and Vivasvan; ill-treated by stepmother Chāyā, was about to kick her when she cursed him that he would lose his leg; he became Dharmarāja, lord of Pitṛs and Protector of the world.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 22, 56-61.

1k) A mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.

1l) Prescriptions.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 14.

2) Yāma (याम).—The twelve devas born of Yajña and Dakṣiṇā and waited on Hariyajña;1 they are Yadu, Yayāti, Vivadha, Srāsata, Mati, Vibhāsa, Kratu, Prayāti, Viśruta, Dyuti, Vāyavya and Samyama,2 born in the epoch of Svāyambhuva Manu.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 12; VIII. 1. 18.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 45; 13. 89-90; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 20; 31. 3, 6-7.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 9. 3; 51. 40; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 21; 12. 12.
Source: Institute of Buddhist Studies: Buddhist Forum, Volume 4 (itihasa)

Yama (यम).—In the Mahābhārata (XII.92: 38), Yama is subordinate to Śiva by whose appointment he becomes Lord of the Ancestors (Pitṛpati)—in other words Yama loses his automatic right to this position which he had initially earned through blazing a trail to the underworld as the first mortal. He does however gain compensation in other areas.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Yama (यम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.15, IX.44.27) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Yama) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Yama (यम) refers to one of the various limbs of Yoga, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the eleventh chapter contains the dialogue of Śiva and Skanda; the glories of the devotees of Śiva and the devotion to Śiva. The systems of Yoga along with its limbs Yama, Niyama, Ahiṃsā, Brahmacarya, Aparigraha, Svādhāya, Saṃtoṣa, Śauca, Prāṇāyāma and Samādhi are described while various kinds of impediments to the practice of Yoga and the means of overcoming them are explained in the thirteenth chapter.

2) Yama (यम) is the son of Rājñī and Bhāskara (sun-god): the son of Aditi and Kaśyapa according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa 30.27-73 and chapter 31 descibes the vaṃśānucarita in an abridged form. It is stated that Aditi got from Kaśyapa, Bhāskara, the Sun-god. The Sun-god had four wives—Saṃjñā, Rājñī, Prabhā and Chāyā. Saṃjñā gave birth to Manu from the Sun-god in whose race were born the kings. Rājñī gave birth to Yama, Yamunā and Revanta.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Yama (यम).—Yama also called Daṇḍa and Antaka bas been mentioned fifty times in Ṛgveda and three whole hymns are dedicated to him in the 1st and the 10th maṇḍalas. He gives bliss to the good and woe to the bad in Ṛgveda. He is the god of death who destroys the world.

Yama in his epithet Antaka or Kṛtānta has been referred to by Soḍḍhala as devouring the worlds, Bhuvanabhojin and also bearing the deadly daṇḍa.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: WikiPedia: Upanishads

In the Katha Upanishad, Yama is portrayed as a teacher. He is the father of Yudhisthira (also known as Dharmaraja), the oldest brother of the 5 Pandavas (Karna was born prior to Kunti's wedlock, so technically Karna is Yudhishthira's older brother) and is said to have incarnated as Vidura by some accounts in the Mahabharata period.

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Yama (यम) or Yamagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Yama-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Yama (यम) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the southern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Yama).

Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga

Yama (यम) is explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—While the Yogasūtras list five yamas and five niyamas (2.30, 2.32), the Śaradātilaka lists ten each (7–9ab). The ten yamas are specified as abstaining from harming others, truthfulness, refraining from theft, celibacy, forbearance, sincerity, patience/forgiveness, steadfastness, moderation in eating, and purity. Lakṣmaṇadeśika’s lists are similar to the ones found in later texts, such as the Yogakāṇḍa of the Vasiṣṭha-saṃhitā, and in Yoga-upaniṣads (e.g. Darśana-upaniṣad 1.6 and 2.1, Śāṇḍilya-upaniṣad 1.4 and 2.1, Varāha-upaniṣad 5.12cd–14ab and Triśikhibrāhmaṇa-upaniṣad 2.32cd–34ab).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Yama (यम).—One of pair, a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal; cf. वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे परे मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः (vargeṣvādyānāṃ ceturṇo pañcame pare madhye yamo nāma pūrvasadṛśo varṇaḥ prātiśākhye prasiddhaḥ) S.K. on P.VIII. l.1;

2) Yama.—Name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; cf. मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः (mandramadhyamatrākhyeṣu triṣu vācaḥ sthāneṣu pratyekaṃ sata stharabhedā bhavanti kuṣṭaprathamadvitīyatṛtīyacaturthamandrātitvāryaḥ yamāḥ) ' T. Pr. XXIII. 13,14.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices

Yama (यम, “self-restraint”) forms part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person. Students living with the teacher (Guru or Ācārya) led a life of self-control, abstinence, obedience and devotion and regulated their lives by adhering to yama (self-restraint) and niyama (five observances), that is, śauca — purity of body, mind, thought; santoṣa — positive contentment; tapas — austerity; svādhyāya — self-study, introspection; and īśvarapraṇidhāna — faith in and surrender to the gods.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Yama (यम) is one of the Aṣṭadikpālaka (“eight guardians of the directions”), as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The hand poses for the eight dikpālas (guardians of directions) are described in the Abhinayadarpaṇa and they are followed in the dance performance. Yama is found holding a club in his left hand near the left shoulder and in the right hand holding the rope of the buffalo on which he rides. In Abhinayadarpaṇa, the hastas described for Yama are as follows: When the left and the right hands hold pāśa and sūcī-hastas respectively, then it is yama-hasta. If the left hand assumes sūcī-hasta and is placed above the shoulder while the right hand holding alapadma-hasta indicates offering of piṇḍas (balls of rice) to Pitṛs (manes), then it is called yama-hasta. When the left hand assumes sūcī-hasta and is placed on the left shoulder while the right hand holds alapallava-hasta on the chest, then also it is called yama-hasta.

Yama can also be depicted with muṣṭi-mudrā in the left hand as if holding the gadā and kapittha-mudrā in the right hand as if holding the pāśa. This position of the hands for Yama is not mentioned in Abhinayadarpaṇa.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Yama (यम) iconography is described in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the colour of the image of Yama should be very dark like water loaded cloud. The image of Yama should have four hands. The image of Yama should hold a ḍaṇḍa and a khaḍga in his right hands and a carma with one of his left hands. It is suggested that the garment of Yama should be in the colour of heated gold. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the image of Yama should be made along with his two companions viz., Citragupta and Kāla. The image of Yama should be made along with his wife Dhūmorṇā.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Yāma (याम) refers to a basic unit of time and equals 3 hours, while 8 yāmas corresponds to 24 hours (= one day). The Arcanāṅgavidhi of Pūrvakāmikāgama first details the time measurement used before explaining the pūjā schedule. The Āgama divides a day into eight major time periods, further divided into smaller units. The smallest and most basic unit of time is one svāsa. Sixty svāsa constitute one prāṇa. Sixty prāṇa constitute one ghaṭikā. Calculation is made from sunrise. Seven and a half ghaṭikā is equal to one yāma. A day consists of eight yāma, or sixty ghaṭikā. The intersection of two yāma periods is called sandhi, thus there are eight sandhi in a day.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Yāma (याम) refers to:—(same as prahara) one of the eight periods of the day. Each yāma consists of approximately three hours. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Yāma (याम) refers to:—(or Prahāra) One of the eight periods of the day. Each yāma consists of approximately three hours. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Yama (यम) refers to ⅛ (one-eighth) of a solar day, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must have a correct, knowledge of a yuga (43,20,000 Solar years), varṣa (a solar year), āyana (6 solar months), ṛtu (2 solar months), māsa (a solar month), pakṣa (15 solar days), ahorātra (a solar day), yama (one-eighth of a solar day), muhūrta (one-thirtieth of a solar day), nāḍī (one-sixtieth of a solar day or 24 minutes), vināḍi (one sixtieth of a nāḍī or 24 seconds), prāṇa (4 seconds) truṭi (33, 75th of a second) and parts of a truṭi and other divisions of time and also of divisions of space”.

2) Yama (यम) refers to the planet Mercury, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “If, during the waxing moon, Mars [i.e., kuja] should be eclipsed by a horn, the border (mleccha) princes as well as wicked rulers will suffer; if Saturn [i.e., yama] should be so eclipsed there will be fear from weapons and from hunger; if Mercury should be so eclipsed there will be drought and famine in the land; if Jupiter should be so eclipsed eminent princes will suffer; and if Venus, the minor princes will suffer. As regards the waning moon the subject has been elsewhere treated”.

3) Yama (यम) is the lord over the new and full moon periods of the seventh six months, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5).—Accordingly, “[...] Commencing from the time of creation, ... Varuṇa is the lord over the new and full moon periods of the fifth six months; Agni over those of the sixth six months and Yama over those of the seventh six months; [...] If Varuṇa should be the lord, princes will suffer; the rest will be happy and crops will flourish. If Agni should be the lord, there will be good crops, and there will also be health, freedom from fear and abundance of water. If Yama should be the lord, there will be drought, famine, and total blight of crops; in the next parva mankind will be afflicted with misery, hunger, death and drought”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Yama (यम) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Yama] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Yama as a doorway deity is associated with the Nakṣatra called Bharaṇī and the consequence is kṣaya. [...] The Mayasaṃgraha (verse 5.156-187) describes a design for a 9-by-9-part pura, a residential complex for a community and its lead figure. [...] This record lists a place for ascetics to achieve contemplation of the self (saṃyāmināṃ sthānam ātmālokanasiddhaye) at Yama.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Yama (यम) represents the number 2 (two) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 2—yama] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Yama (यम, “binder, restraint”):—He is the vedic deity of death and judges them before his throne. He represents the embodiment of righteousness (Dharma). He is the son of Vivasvat, the Sun God, his brother is Manu and his twin sister is Yamī. He is married to ten daughters of Dakṣa (‘ritual skill’) and lives in Samyamini with his scribe Citragupta.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Yama (यम) denotes ‘twins’, the birth of which is frequently alluded to in Vedic literature. Twins of different sex seem to be indicated by the expression yamau mithunau. There are traces of the belief—widely spread among negro and other races—that twins are uncanny and of evil omen, but there are also vestiges of the opposite opinion, that twins are lucky.

Source: Red Zambala: Iconography of the Vedic Deities

Yama (the Binder) is the god of death, the sovereign of the infernal regions. The wrathful one, who judges the dead, whom his messengers drag before his throne. He is the embodiment of righteousness (Dharma) and the king- of-justice (dharma-rāja). He is, however, compassionate. In the Vedas, Yama is the First Ancestor and the king-of- Ancestors (pitṛ-rāja). He rules over the kingdom of the dead where the Ancestors dwell. He is also the king-of- ghosts (preta-rāja).

Yama is the son of the resplendent Sun god —Vivasvat (Rig Veda 10.14.5), the embodiment of social morality represented as one of the aspects of the Sun and envisaged as the progenitor of humankind. Yama's brother is the Lawgiver, Manu, who shares with him the title of progenitor of humankind.

Source: Institute of Buddhist Studies: Buddhist Forum, Volume 4 (hinduism)

Yama (यम) is called Death (mṛtyu) and Ender (antaka); he is now the god of Death itself, not merely god of the dead. He grows in significance and menace along with the doctrine of transmigration which, in the Brāhmaṇas, is invariably seen as an unpleasant succession of deaths:

“Verily there are deaths connected with all the worlds and were he not to offer oblations to them, Death would get hold of him in every world; when he offers oblations to the Deaths he wards off death in every world.” (Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa XIII, 5.1.2)

As Death Yama has knowledge of death and knowledge of the means of escaping its clutches. Occasionally, he can be made to reveal aspects of this knowledge, which he does in ways which belie his dread nature.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (h)

Yama (यम) controls our lives and gives the result of our lives. In Hindu mythology, Yama is recognized as the god of death. In the Ṛgveda, god Yama is prayed for leading the devotees to the path through which their ancestors departed. [...] In the Ṛgveda, two dogs of Yama are referred to as yamadūta i.e., the messenger of Yama. So, there may be a connection between the relation of Citragupta, Kāla and Yama with the Vedic portrayal of the two dogs with Yama.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The god of death. (See, e.g., DhA.iii.337; Yamassa santikam = Maranasantikam).

When beings die they are led before him to be judged according to their deeds. Birth, old age, illness, punishment for crime and death, are regarded as his messengers, sent among men as a warning to abstain from ill and do good. Yama questions beings brought before him as to whether they have seen these messengers and profited by them. If the answer is in the negative, the nirayapalas take them away to the different hells (M.iii.179ff).

In the Mahasamaya Sutta (D.ii.259) mention is made of two Yamas (duve Yama), which the Commentary explains (DA.ii.690) by dve Yamakadevata (the twins, whom Rhys Davids calls the Castor and Pollux of Indian Mythology, in Dial.ii.290, n.1). Elsewhere (AA.i.374; MA.ii.953) Buddhaghosa speaks of four Yamas (im c esa eko va hoti, catusu pana dvaresu cattaro jana honti) at the four gates (of the Nirayas?). He says that Yama is a Vemanikapetaraja, who sometimes enjoys all the pleasures of heaven, in a celestial mansion, surrounded by kapparukkhas, and at other times experiences the fruits of his kamma. He is a good king.

In the Jatakas* the Nirayas are particularly mentioned as Yamas abode (Yamakkhaya, Yamanivesana, Yamasadana, etc.); but, more generally, all Samsara is considered as subject to Yamas rule, and escape from samsara means escape from Yamas influence, Yama being the god of Death. It is evidently in this sense that Yama is called Vesayi (q.v.) (J.ii.317, 318). Yama is sometimes mentioned** with Indra, Varuna, Soma, Pajapati, etc., as a god to whom sacrifices are offered. There is a tradition (A.i.142) that once Yama longed to be born as a human being and to sit at the feet of a Tathagata.

Yamas Nayanayudha is mentioned (SNA.i.225) among the most destructive of weapons.

* E.g., J.ii.318; iv.273; v.268, 274, 304. The Vetarani is mentioned as forming the boundary of Yamas kingdom (i.21; J.ii.317; iii.472; but see ii.318). At J.iv.405, Yamas abode is called Ussadaniraya. DhA.i.334 explains Yamaloka by Catubbidham apayalokam. Cp. PvA.33 (Yamaloko ti petaloko); ibid., 107 (Yamavisayam = Petalokam).

** E.g., J.vi.201; D.i.244; at Mil.37 the list includes Kuvera, Suyama and Santusita; cp. Mtu i.265; iii.68, 77; 77, 307.

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1. Yama. A class of Devas, mentioned in lists of devas between those of Tavatimsa and those of Tusita (E.g., Vin.i.12, A.i.228; iii.287; M.ii.194; iii.100, etc.). Two hundred years of human life are but one day to the Yama deva, and two thousand Years, composed of such days, form their life period (A.i.213; iv.253). Sirima, sister of Jivaka, was born after death in the Yama world and became the wife of Suyama, king of

Yamabhavana. From there she visited the Buddha with five hundred others. SNA i.244f.; see also VvA.246 for an upasaka born in the Yama world.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Yama (यम) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Yama).

2) Yama (यम) also refers to a deity summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

3) Yama (यम) is also the name of a Rākṣasa mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

4) Yama (यम) also refers to a group of deities (from the similarly-named heaven) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini

Yama (यम).—Protector deity of the southern cremation ground.—Yama is associated with the south and with the sun (vivasvat, descended from Sūrya), hence he is also Vaivasvata (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 34) or “Yamavaivasvata”. He is also god of death, Kāla, whose agents brings departed souls to Yamapurī. Iconographically, the Śmaśānavidhi describes Yama as mounted on a buffalo (mahiṣārūḍha), black, red-eyed, fat, fearsome, holding a stick/cudgel (daṇḍa) and a skull bowl.

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Yama (यम) (direction: south) refers to one of the eight Dikpālas, commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is blue; his Vehicle is the buffalo; he has two arms

Yama is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“In the south, there is Yama riding on a Buffalo. He is blue in colour and holds in his two hands the staff of death and the śūla”.

[Yama, the God of Death is fairly popular in Tibet where his images are found]

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Yama (यम) is the name of the protector (dikpati) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These protectors (e.g., Yama) are variously known as dikpati, dikpāla and lokāpala and can be traced to purāṇic legends where eight protectors are assigned to each direction by Brahmā. According to the Śmaśānavidhi verse 20, these protectors are in union with their wives and have four arms, two of which make the añjali gesture of obeisance, while the second pair usually holds a skull bowl and a tantric weapon. They are variously depicted upon their respective mounts, or sitting at the base of the tree.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Yama (यम) refers to one of the eight direction-guardians (dikpāla) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Yama is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Vibhīṣaṇa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Cūta; with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Padma and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Āvarta.

2) Yama (यम) also refers to one of the female world-guardians (lokapālinī) of the Medinīcakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Yamā is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Saṃtrāsana; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Akṣiṭaka; with a female serpent (nāginī) and with a female cloud (meghinī).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Yāma (याम) is part of the six groups of Gods inhabiting the Kāmadhātu (the first of the three worlds), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The six classes of gods of the desire realm (kāmadhātu), attached to the five desirable objects, will fall into the hells (niraya) and be subjected to all the sufferings.

The Yāma gods represents one of the seven destination of rebirths in kāmadhātu, according to chapter XLIX, “[...] another, of pure generosity and morality, who loves to learn and whose mind is gentle, is reborn among the Yāma gods”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Yama (यम) or Yamaloka refers to the “world of death”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[Characteristics of behavior of all beings] [...] The behaviour’s essence, essential character (lakṣaṇa), [...] the essential character of the lord of the world of death (yamaloka-lakṣaṇa), the essential character of gods, the essential character of human being, the essential character of the entrance into the fixed course of disciples, the essential character of the entrance into the fixed course of isolated Buddhas, [...]—he knows all the essential characters of behavior truly as they are, and there is no fault at all in his understanding”.

2) Yāma (याम) is the name of a Heaven, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, as Vimalaprabhānantaraśmirāja said to king Puṇyālaṃkāra: “[...] In this way, son of good family, when the rain of all kinds of jewels poured down from open space, the gods of the earth (bhauma), filled with admiration, said that this Bodhisattva is supposed to become the Gaganagañja. When such rain of all kinds of jewels poured down, just as the gods of the earth said, so the gods of the Cāturmahārājika heaven, the Trāyastriṃśa heaven, the Yāma heaven, the Tuṣita heaven, and the Nirmāṇarati heaven, filled with admiration, also said that this Bodhisattva is supposed to become the Gaganagañja. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Yama (यम) refers to the second of the “eight world protectors” (aṣṭalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 8). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., aṣṭalokapāla and Yama). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Yama is, besides one of the “eight world protectors” (aṣṭalokapāla), one of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) and one of the “fourteen world protectors” (caturdaśalokapāla).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Yama (यम) refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism commonly depicted in Jaina art and iconography.—Yama, the god of death, who governs the south regions, is to be sculptured both according to the Śvetāmbaras and Digambaras, as riding on a buffalo and holding a staff. He is known to be the son of the sun and accompanied by his wife called Chāyā. His chief function is not only to guard the south but also to pronounce judgment on merits and demerits of departed souls.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Yama (यम) refers to “restraint”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Further, for the complete attainment of the desire for liberation, non-attachment, restraint (yama)and tranquillity, those [twelve reflections] are tied to the post of the mind by mendicants desiring liberation”.

Synonyms: Mṛtyu, Vrata.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Yama.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: yama is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Yāma.—(EI 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: yāma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

yama : (m.) the ruler of the kingdom of the dead. || yāma (m.), a watch of the night; 1/3 of a night.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Yama, 3 (m. nt.) (Vedic yama=yama2; fr. yam in meaning “to combine, ” cp. Av. y&schwamacr; ma twin, Mir. emuin id. ) (nt.) a pair, (m.) a twin Abhp 628. See der. yamaka. (Page 551)

2) Yama, 2 (Vedic Yama) the ruler of the kingdom of the dead. See details in Dicty. of Names. In cpds. often in general sense of “death” or “manes, ” or “petā”; e.g. —dūta Death’s messenger Sdhp. 287; cp. Yamassa dūtā Vv 522 (see VvA. 224), or deva-dūta A. I, 138 (see under dūta), alias niraya-pāla A. I, 138 and passim. —purisa (a)=°dūta Dh. 235 (cp. DhA. III, 335); VvA. 223; (b) °purisā Yama-people, i.e. Petas Pv IV. 33 (cp. PvA. 251). —loka the yama-world or world of the Petas Dh. 44, 45; PvA. 107 & frequent —visaya=°loka Pv. II, 82 & passim. —sādana Y’s kingdom, or the realm of the dead J. VI, 267, 304; VI, 457, 505. (Page 550)

3) Yama, 1 (fr. yam) restraint PvA. 98 (+niyama). (Page 550)

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Yāma, (fr. yam in both meanings of yamati & yama3) 1. restraint, only as cpd. cātu-yāma 4—fold restraint D. I, 57; III, 48; S. I, 66; M. I, 377; Vism. 416. Cp. Dial. I. 751.—2. a watch of the night. There are 3 watches, given as paṭhama, majjhima & pacchima (first, middle & last) Nd1 377 sq.; or purima, m. & pacchima Nd2 631 (under sadā).—A. I, 114; IV, 168; Dh. 157 (one of the 3; interpreted as the 3 vayas at DhA. III, 138); J. I, 243 (tīsu yāmesu ekasmiṃ yāme); Mhvs 21, 33; PvA. 217, 280.—3. (usually pl. Yāmā devā) one who belongs to Yama or the ruler of the Underworld; a subject of Yama; the realm of Yama;— pl. inhabitants of Yamaloka A. I, 210 (yāmā devā); SnA 244 (°bhavana the abode of the Y.); KhA 166 (Yāmato yāva Akaniṭṭhaṃ from the Underworld to the Highest Heaven); Vism. 225 (Yāmā); VbhA. 519 (Yāmā); VvA. 246 (id.); ThA. 169 (Y. devā).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yama (यम).—m (S) Yama, the deity that judges the dead, and sends them, according to their deeds, to Swarg or Narak, Elysium or Tartarus. He corresponds with Pluto or Minos. In common use Yama is understood simply as the Punisher of the wicked. 2 Hence applied to a fierce, savage, pitiless man. yamācēṃ bulāviṇēṃ The summons of Yama; the call of Death. 2 fig. A summons from a very rigorous or severe person; any irresistible, imperative, and strongly disagreeable call or occasion.

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yama (यम).—m S Restraining, confining, controlling. (As distinguished from niyama Any religious and voluntary observance.) Restraint or government of the senses, affections, and passions. 2 The eight great observances or courses incumbent upon one who would work out his salvation (i. e. emancipation from personality and absorption into Brahma) are yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhyāna, dhāraṇā, samādhi. 3 A common term for five great acts or excellencies; viz. Refraining from violence, patience, sincerity, obedience to a Guru, observance of all purificatory ceremonies.

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yama (यम).—a S Twin, fellow, one of a pair or brace.

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yāma (याम).—m S The eighth part of a day; a watch of three hours. 2 Forbearance. 3 Cessation or desisting.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

yama (यम).—m The god of hell. A pitiless man. Confining, restraining. yamācēṃ bōlāvaṇēṃ The call of death. yamācyā dāḍhēnta paḍaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ Be under or fall under some great tormentor or trouble.

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yama (यम).—a Twin, fellow.

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yāma (याम).—m The eighth part of a day Forbearance.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yama (यम).—a. [yam-ghañ]

1) Twin, twinborn.

2) Coupled.

-maḥ 1 Restraining, controlling, curbing; यमो राजा धार्मिकाणां मान्धातः परमेश्वरः (yamo rājā dhārmikāṇāṃ māndhātaḥ parameśvaraḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.91.42.

2) Control, restraint.

3) Self control.

4) Any great moral or religious duty or observance (opp. niyama); तप्तं यमेन नियमेन तपोऽमुनैव (taptaṃ yamena niyamena tapo'munaiva) N.13.16; यमनियमकृशीकृतस्थिराङ्गः (yamaniyamakṛśīkṛtasthirāṅgaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 1. 1. (yama and niyama are thus distinguished:-śarīrasādhanāpekṣaṃ nityaṃ yat karma tad yamaḥ | niyamastu sa yat karma nityamāgantusādhanam || Ak.2.49; See Malli. on Śiśupālavadha 13.23 and Kirātārjunīya 1.1 also. The yamas are usually said to be ten, but, their names are given differently by different writers; e. g. brahmacaryaṃ dayā kṣāntirdānaṃ satyamakalkatā | ahiṃsā'steyamādhurye damaśceti yamāḥ smṛtāḥ || Y.3.312; or ānṛśaṃsyaṃ dayā satyamahiṃsā kṣāntirārjavam | prītiḥ prasādo mādhuryaṃ mārdavaṃ ca yamā daśa || sometimes only five yamas are mentioned:-ahiṃsā satyavacanaṃ brahmacaryamakalkatā | asteyamiti pañcaite yamākhyāni vratāni ca ||).

5) The first of the eight aṅgas. or means of attaining Yoga; the eight aṅgas are:-यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽ- ष्टाङ्गानि (yamaniyamāsanaprāṇāyāmapratyāhāradhāraṇādhyānasamādhayo'- ṣṭāṅgāni); Śāndilya Up.1.1.2.

6) The god of death, death personified, regarded as a son of the sun; he presides over the पितृ (pitṛ)s and rules the spirits of the dead; दत्ताभये त्वयि यमादपि दण्डधारे (dattābhaye tvayi yamādapi daṇḍadhāre) Uttararāmacarita 2.11.

7) A twin; धर्मात्मजं प्रति यमौ च (dharmātmajaṃ prati yamau ca) (i. e. nakulasahadevau) कथैव नास्ति (kathaiva nāsti) Ve.2.25; यमयो- श्चैव गर्भेषु जन्मतो ज्येष्ठता मता (yamayo- ścaiva garbheṣu janmato jyeṣṭhatā matā) Manusmṛti 9.126.

8) One of a pair or couple, a fellow.

9) Name of Saturn.

1) A crow.

11) A symbolical expression for the number 'two'.

12) Ved. A rein, bridle; पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः (pṛṣṭhe sado nasoryamaḥ) Ṛv.5. 61.2.

13) Ved. A driver, charioteer; अग्निं रथानां यमम् (agniṃ rathānāṃ yamam) Ṛv.8.13.1.

14) Name of a deity who chastises beings for their misdeeds; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः (yamaṃ kālaṃ ca mṛtyuṃ ca svargaṃ saṃpūjya cārhataḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.2.3.

-mam 1 A pair or couple.

2) (In gram.) The twin letter of any consonant.

3) Pitch of the voice.

-mī Name of the river Yamunā.

-mau (m. du.)

1) Twins; कथं त्वमेतौ धृतिसंयमौ यमौ (kathaṃ tvametau dhṛtisaṃyamau yamau) Kirātārjunīya 1. 36.

2) Name of the Aśvins; यमौ यमोपमौ चैव ददौ दानान्यनेकशः (yamau yamopamau caiva dadau dānānyanekaśaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.61.38.

3) Nakula and Sahadeva; भीमार्जुनयमा- श्चापि तद्युक्तं प्रतिपेदिरे (bhīmārjunayamā- ścāpi tadyuktaṃ pratipedire) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.6.14. °मैथुनौ (maithunau) twins of different sex.

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Yāma (याम).—a. (- f.) Relating to Yama; तेनानुभूयता यामीः शरीरेणेह यातनाः (tenānubhūyatā yāmīḥ śarīreṇeha yātanāḥ) Manusmṛti 12.17; मा भैर्मन्द मनो विचिन्त्य बहुधा यामीश्चिरं यातनाः (mā bhairmanda mano vicintya bahudhā yāmīściraṃ yātanāḥ) Mukundamālā 1.

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Yāma (याम).—[yam-ghañ]

1) Restraint, forbearance, control; लेखाः सुयामास्तुषिता ब्रह्मकायाः (lekhāḥ suyāmāstuṣitā brahmakāyāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.18.74.

2) A watch, one eighth part of a day, a period of three hours; अविदितगतयामा रात्रिरेव व्यरंसीत् (aviditagatayāmā rātrireva vyaraṃsīt) Uttararāmacarita 1.27; पश्चिमाद् यामिनीयामात् प्रसादमिव चेतना (paścimād yāminīyāmāt prasādamiva cetanā) R.17.1; so यामवती, त्रियामा (yāmavatī, triyāmā) &c.

3) Going, proceeding.

4) Motion, course.

5) Ved. A road.

6) Progress.

7) A car, carriage.

8) A class of gods; यामैः परिवृतो देवैर्हत्वाऽशासत् त्रिविष्टपम् (yāmaiḥ parivṛto devairhatvā'śāsat triviṣṭapam) Bhāgavata 8.1.18.

Derivable forms: yāmaḥ (यामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Yama (यम).—(1) name of a nāga: Mahāvyutpatti 3328; (2) m. pl., name of a class of gods, = Yāma: Bodhisattvabhūmi 62.1 (unless misprint for yāmāṃs; in standard list of god-classes, see deva); (3) name of a rākṣasa king: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 17.28 and 18.1 (twice in the same list!); but probably both [compound] with the next following name, which in 17.28 is printed Ghibhīṣaṇa (! read Yama- vibhī°), in 18.1 Ghaṇṭa.

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Yāma (याम).—(1) m., regularly pl. (= Pali id.), name of a class of kāmāvacara gods, see s.v. deva: Mahāvastu i.33.3; 40.15; 212.15; 229.15; 240.4; 333.6; ii.16.4; 163.11; 359.21; iii.319.13; Lalitavistara 45.9; 46.20; 150.3; 219.8; 327.18; 364.15 (see s.v. Suyāma); 396.14; 401.9 f.; Mahāvyutpatti 3080; Dharmasaṃgraha 127; Divyāvadāna 68.13; 140.12; 367.10; Avadāna-śataka i.5.1; Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 86.9; (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 19.12, etc.; as sg., one of this class, presumably = [Page447-a+ 71] Suyāma, q.v., yāmeṣu…yāmasya devasya putro Divyāvadāna 140.12; (2) nt., a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 133.2 f. (cited Mahāvyutpatti as poma, q.v.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yama (यम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Twin, fellow, one of the pair or brace. m.

(-maḥ) 1. Restraining, controlling. 2. Forbearance, refraining. 3. Cessation, stop, conclusion, finish. 4. Religious restraint or obligation, considered the first of the eight steps of Yoga. 5. Penance, purification, the performance of those acts which remove impurity of any kind. 6. Any of the five acts or virtues, which constitute pure characters, as refraining from violence or injury, patience, sincerity, obedience to a spiritual teacher, and the observance of all purificatory ceremonies. 7. A festival. 8. A crow. 9. A name of the planet Saturn. 10. Yama, the deity of Naraka or hell, where his capital is placed, in which he sits in judgment on the dead, and distributes rewards and punishments, sending the good to Swarga, and the wicked to the division of Naraka or Tartarus appropriated to their crimes: he corresponds with the Grecian god Pluto, and the judge of hell Minos, and in Hindu mythology often identified with Death and Time: he is the son of Surya, or the sun, and brother of the personified Ya- Muna or Jamuna river. n. (-ma) A brace, a couple, a pair. f. (-mī) The Yamuna river. E. yam to restrain, &c., aff. ac, ghañ or ap .

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Yāma (याम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mī-maṃ) Relating to Yama, done by him, ordered by him, &c. m.

(-maḥ) 1. The eighth part of a day, a watch of three hours. 2. Forbearance. 3. Cessation, term. E. to go, (through the day,) man Unadi aff.; or yam to restrain, aff. ghañ; or yam, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yama (यम).—[yam + a], I. adj. sbst. Twin, one of a pair. du. The twins, [Draupadīpramātha] 6, 29. Ii. m. 1. Restraining. 2. Taming of passion, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 14. 3. Moral duty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 204. 4. Penance. 5. A festival. 6. Yama, the judge of the deceased ones, ruler of the infernal regions, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 54, 28; god of death, [Pañcatantra] 247, 8. 7. A crow. 8. A name of the planet Saturn. Iii. f. , The Yamunā. Iv. n. A pair.

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Yāma (याम).—I. i. e. yā + ma, m. Going, march, Chr. 293, 3 = [Rigveda.] i. 87, 3; Chr. 287, 4 = [Rigveda.] i. 48, 4 (approaching, rising). Ii. i. e. yama + a, adj., f. . 1. Relating to Yama. 2. Inflicted by Yama, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 17. Iii. i. e. yam + a, m. 1. Forbearance. 2. Cessation. 3. A watch of three hours, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 145.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yama (यम).—1. [masculine] holder, i.e. bridle or driver; restraint, self-control, any paramount moral duty or observance (ph.).

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Yama (यम).—2. ([feminine] ā & ī) paired, twin; [masculine] a twin ([dual] twins), [Name] of a god, either the Twin (with his sister yamī [feminine]) or the Restrainer, the god of death. [neuter] pair, twin letter ([grammar])

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Yāma (याम).—1. [masculine] close, end.

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Yāma (याम).—2. [feminine] ī belonging to or coming from Yama.

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Yāma (याम).—3. [masculine] course, going, way, progress; carriage, chariot; watch of the night (3 hours).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Yama (यम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Mentioned in Vasiṣṭhadharmasūtra 11, 20. 18, 13. 19, 48.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yama (यम):—[from yam] m. a rein, curb, bridle, [Ṛg-veda v, 61, 2]

2) [v.s. ...] a driver, charioteer, [ib. viii, 103, 10]

3) [v.s. ...] the act of checking or curbing, suppression, restraint (with vācām, restraint of words, silence), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] self-control forbearance, any great moral rule or duty (as opp. to niyama, a minor observance; in [Yājñavalkya iii, 313] ten Yamas are mentioned, sometimes only five), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (in Yoga) self-restraint (as the first of the eight Aṅgas or means of attaining mental concentration), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 93]

6) [v.s. ...] any rule or observance, [Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra]

7) [v.s. ...] mf(ā or ī)n. twin-born, twin, forming a pair, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

8) [v.s. ...] m. a twin, one of a pair or couple, a fellow ([dual number] ‘the twins’ Name of the Aśvins and of their twin children by Mādrī, called Nakula and Saha-deva; yamau mithunau, twins of different sex), [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] a symbolical Name for the number ‘two’ [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of the god who presides over the Pitṛs (q.v.) and rules the spirits of the dead, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc., [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 18; 197, 198 etc.; Religious Thought and Life in India 10; 16; 289 etc.] (he is regarded as the first of men and born from Vivasvat, ‘the Sun’, and his wife Saraṇyū; while his brother, the seventh Manu, another form of the first man, is the son of Vivasvat and Saṃjñā, the image of Saraṇyū; his twin-sister is Yamī, with whom he resists sexual alliance, but by whom he is mourned after his death, so that the gods, to make her forget her sorrow, create night; in the Veda he is called a king or saṃgamano janānām, ‘the gatherer of men’, and rules over the departed fathers in heaven, the road to which is guarded by two broad-nosed, four-eyed, spotted dogs, the children of Śaramā q.v.; in Post-vedic mythology he is the appointed Judge and ‘Restrainer’ or ‘Punisher’ of the dead, in which capacity he is also called dharmarāja or dharma and corresponds to the Greek Pluto and to Minos; his abode is in some region of the lower world called Yama-pura; thither a soul when it leaves the body, is said to repair, and there, after the recorder, Citra-gupta, has read an account of its actions kept in a book called Agra-saṃdhānā, it receives a just sentence; in [Mahābhārata] Yama is described as dressed in blood-red garments, with a glittering form, a crown on his head, glowing eyes and like Varuṇa, holding a noose, with which he binds the spirit after drawing it from the body, in size about the measure of a man’s thumb; he is otherwise represented as grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hand and noose in the other; in the later mythology he is always represented as a terrible deity inflicting tortures, called yātanā, on departed spirits ; he is also one of the 8 guardians of the world as regent of the South quarter; he is the regent of the Nakṣatra Apa-bharaṇī or Bharaṇī, the supposed author of [Ṛg-veda x, 10; 14], of a hymn to Viṣṇu and of a law-book; yamasyārkaḥ Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa])

11) [v.s. ...] Name of the planet Saturn (regarded as the son of Vivasvat and Chāyā), [Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of one of Skanda’s attendants (mentioned together with Ati-yama), [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. -dūtaka)

14) [v.s. ...] a bad horse (whose limbs are either too small or too large), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [from yam] n. a pair, brace, couple, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a twin-letter (the consonant interposed and generally understood, but not written in practice, between a nasal immediately preceded by one of the four other consonants in each class), [Prātiśākhya; Patañjali on Pāṇini 1-1, 8]

17) [v.s. ...] pitch of the voice, tone of utterance, key, [Prātiśākhya]

18) Yāma (याम):—[from ] 1. yāma m. (for 2. See below, for 3. See p. 851, col. 3) motion, course, going, progress, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] a road, way, path, [ib.]

20) [v.s. ...] a carriage, chariot, [Ṛg-veda]

21) Yāmā (यामा):—[from yāma > yā] f. a night-watch, period or watch of 3 hours, the 8th part of a day, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

22) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a [particular] class of gods, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa] (yama-syārkaḥ [wrong reading] for yam q.v.)

23) Yāma (याम):—[from ] 2. yāma in [compound] for 2. yāman.

24) 3. yāma m. (√yam; for 1. 2. yāma See p. 850, col. 1) cessation, end, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

25) restraint, forbearance (= yama, saṃyama), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) mf(ī)n. ([from] yama, of which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) relating to or derived from or destined for Yama, [Brāhmaṇa; Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti]

27) n. Name of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yama (यम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Twin; one of a pair. m. Yama, Pluto, the god of hell; penance; restraint, stop. f. () The Jumnā. n. A pair.

2) Yāma (याम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Relating to Yama. m. The eighth part of a day; forbearance; cessation.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Yama (यम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Jama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Yama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Yama (यम) [Also spelled yam]:—(nm) the god of death; restraint of passions; two; ~[ja/jāta] twins; ~[jit] one who conquers death, immortal; ~[daṃḍa] the punishment inflicted by [yama]—the god of death (for evil deeds); ~[dutiyā/dvitīyā] the second day of the bright half of the month of [kārtika] (same as [bhaiyādūja); ~dūta] a messenger of the god of death; ~[pura/purī/loka] afterworld; the world of the god of death; the infernal world, the world where sinners are supposed to be lodged after death; •[pahuṃcānā] to put to death; -[yātanā] the pangs of death; ~[la] twin; ~[vāhana] a he-buffalo.

2) Yāma (याम) [Also spelled yam]:—(nm) three hours' time.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Yama (ಯಮ):—

1) [noun] the act of checking, curbing; suppression; restraint.

2) [noun] (used as a gen. term or a term of yoga) self-control; subjugation of one’s passions.

3) [noun] the Regent of South, God of Death and righteousness.

4) [noun] Śani, son of Sun-god, identified as one of the nine astrological planets, the Saturn.

5) [noun] a set of two things regarded as one unit; a pair.

6) [noun] two children or animals brought forth at a birth; twins.

7) [noun] any of the religious rituals to be observed daily.

8) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number two.

9) [noun] (fig.) that which cannot be born, tolerated or endured.

10) [noun] (fig.) a terrible, ferrocious fellow.

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Yāma (ಯಾಮ):—

1) [noun] the act of restraining; restraint; a bringing (someone or something) under control.

2) [noun] a period of three hours; one eigth part of a day.

3) [noun] a moving or travelling; a journey.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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