Prajapati, Prajāpati, Prajāpatī, Praja-pati: 31 definitions
Prajapati means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna
One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "Lord Of All Creatures"Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) refers to “a living entity empowered to create living beings (prajā) throughout the universe. The chief Prajāpati is Brahmā”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) refers to:—A progenitor of the universe. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—Creators of the world. With a view to making creation easy Brahmā at first created twentyone Prajāpatis (creators). They are Brahmā, Rudra, Manu, Dakṣa, Bhṛgu, Dharma, Tapa, Yama Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasiṣṭha, Parameṣṭhī, Sūrya, Candra, Kardama, Krodha and Vikrīta. (Chapter 384, Śānti Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—A title of honour earned by Manu and the mind-born and other sons of Brahmā;1 describes the creator;2 anointment of the Dikpālas by;3 Dakṣa a Prajāpati;4 Nine in number, worshipped for the sake of progeny.5
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 1. 33.
- 2) Ib. 4. 8.
- 3) Ib. 8. 9.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 7; IV. 5. 17; VII. 12. 26; V. 23. 5; X. 54. 49.
- 5) Ib. I. 3. 27; II. 3. 2; VII. 8. 38.
1b) The lord of Vairājaka Kalpa; wife Gāyatrī; son Snigdhasvara.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 41-2.
1c) The Veda-Vyāsa of the second Dvāpara.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 11.
1d) The son of Prāṃśu and father of Khanitra.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 23.
1e) Prajeśvaras; they are Kardama, Kaśyapa, Śeṣa, Vikrānta, Suśrāva, Bahuputra, Kumāra, Vivasvān, Śuciśravas, Pracetas, Ariṣṭanemi and Bahula.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 53-54.
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.16) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Prajāpati) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—Another form of Brahmā, identified as Prajāpati, is carved attached to the shaft of the bhadraka pillar. He is four-handed and is in añjalimudra. Two upper hands have akṣamāla and kamaṇḍalu. He is represented as having a long drooping mustache and beard. He wears a conical jeweled kirīṭa. He is carved as one among the retinue of Śiva in this temple. The sculpture is in Vijayanagara style.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) refers to the fifth of the sixty-years cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When Jupiter (bṛhaspati) reappears at the beginning of the constellation of Dhaniṣṭhā in the month of Māgha, the first year of the cycle of 60 years of Jupiter known as Prabhava commences. [...] The next year is known as Vibhava the third as Śukla, the fourth as Pramoda, and the fifth as Prajāpati: in each of these years mankind will be happier than in the next preceding year. In the same four years there will be good growth of the Śālī crop, of sugarcane, of barley and other crops in the land; mankind will be freed from all fears and they will live at peace, in happiness and without the vices of the Kaliyuga”.Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) or Prajothpatti refers to the fifth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native having his birth in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘prajapati’ is proud of being the husband of a wife who is endowed with good qualities, always kind hearted, practises the religion of his family, has excellent nature, does reverence to a god, Brahmin and his teachers, and is courteous.
According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year prajapati (1991-1992 AD) will be virtuous, bounteous, rich in sons and of a tranquil disposition.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is the name of a deity who received the Vīrāgama from Tejas through the mahānsambandha relation, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The vīra-āgama, being part of the eighteen Rudrabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.
Prajāpati obtained the Vīrāgama from Tejas who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha. Prajāpati in turn, transmitted it to through divya-sambandha to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Vīrāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)
Prajāpati also obtained the Kāraṇāgama from Śarva who in turn (through the mahānsambandha relation) obtained it from Kāraṇa who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) refers to the “lord of creatures”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “The sphere of the sun is at the base of the Central Channel, complete with twelve digits, shining with its rays. The lord of creatures (Prajāpati), of intense appearance, travels upwards on the right. Staying in the pathways in the spaces in the channels it pervades the entire body. The sun consumes the lunar secretion, wanders in the sphere of the wind and burns up all the bodily constituents in all bodies”.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is a Sanskrit name for a deity, referring to “the lord of beings”. In the Śatapathabrāhmaṇa he is identified with the sun, also the year. By Uṣas (representing dawn) he begat a son whom he gave the name Rudra.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Prajapatis are the Manasaputras (wish-born-sons) of Brahma, who created them to assist with his task of creation. The following persons are said to be Prajapatis although the term itself is later applied only to Daksha:- Daksha, Kashyapa, Angirasa, Bhrigu.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
In Hinduism, Prajapati (प्रजापति, prajāpati) “lord of creatures” is a group Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protection of life. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta.
Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 8.8.16 cites Vishvakarman as the leader of the prajāpatis, the sons of Lord Brahmā who generate progeny. The eleven lords of created beings first created by Brahmā, which are the Prajapatis:
- Prachetas or Daksha
The Mahabharata mentions, in the words of celestial sage Narada, 14 Prajapatis (lit:caretakers of the Praja) excluding Vishvakarman namely:
- Prahlada and
They are the caretakers of the fourteen worlds - seven lokas and seven talas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Prajāpatī (प्रजापती) refers to one of the female Śrāvakas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Prajāpatī).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is the name of a Yakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Kapilavastu, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Yakṣa Prajāpati in Kapilavastu], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is the father of Tripṛṣṭha: the first Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The stories of king Prajāpati, queen Mṛgāvatī and their son, Tripṛṣṭha are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Prajāpati (प्रजापति) is the father of Tripṛṣṭha: one of the nine black Vāsudevas, according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.
Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine black Vāsudevas, enjoyers of three parts of the earth, with half so much power as the Cakrins. [...] Of these, Tripṛṣṭha Keśava, the son of Prajāpati and Mṛgāvatī in the city Potana, eighty bows tall, living for eighty-four lacs of years while the best of Jinas, Śreyāṃsa, is wandering over the earth, will go to the lowest hell”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
prajāpati (प्रजापति).—m (S) A name of Brahma, and an epithet common to the ten divine personages first created by him. 2 A king. 3 A covert term for membrum virile. Ex. tōṇḍa gāyīcēṃ pra0 gāḍhavācā.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
prajāpati (प्रजापति).—m A name of Brahma'. A king.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) the god presiding over creation; प्रजने च प्रजापतिम् (prajane ca prajāpatim) Manusmṛti 12.121.
2) an epithet of Brahmā; अस्याः सर्गविधौ प्रजापतिरभूच्चन्द्रो नु कान्तिप्रदः (asyāḥ sargavidhau prajāpatirabhūccandro nu kāntipradaḥ) V.1.9.
3) an epithet of the ten lords of created beings first created by Brahmā (see Manusmṛti 1.34).
4) an epithet of Viśvakarman, the architect of gods.
5) the sun.
6) a king.
7) a son-in-law.
8) an epithet of Viṣṇu.
9) a father, progenitor.
1) the penis.
11) a sacrifice; °हृदयम् (hṛdayam) A kind of सामगान (sāmagāna).
12) Name of a संवत्सर (saṃvatsara).
Derivable forms: prajāpatiḥ (प्रजापतिः).
Prajāpati is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms prajā and pati (पति).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—m. (1) name of one of the 16 devaputra who guard the bodhimaṇḍa: Lalitavistara 277.12; (2) name of a brahman, father of the Buddha Viraja: Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 364.13; (3) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 236.26. (For prajāpati, f., see °tī.)
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Prajāpatī (प्रजापती) or Prajāvatī.—f. (= Pali pajāpatī; believed to be hyper-Sanskrit for prajāvatī, which occurs once in Divyāvadāna), consort, wife: (of a king, as Kuśa), °pati, voc., Mahāvastu ii.484.7, 10; iii.17.8 (so with one ms., v.l. °tiḥ, Senart em.; his note is wrong); 19.21; °tiṃ, acc. (Senart em. °tīṃ) iii.9.2; °tyāḥ Divyāvadāna 2.2 (of a gṛhapati); 98.21; Avadāna-śataka i.14.7 etc.; 277.9; °tī, nom., Avadāna-śataka i.138.2; prajāvatīṃ, acc., Divyāvadāna 620.10; °pati-putra-duhitṛ-([compound]) Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 241.9.
Prajāpatī can also be spelled as Prajāpati (प्रजापति).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tiḥ) 1. A name of Brahma. 2. The epithet common to the ten divine personages, who were first created by Brahma; they are also termed Brahmadikas, and their names are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Prachetas, Vasiht'Ha, Bhrigu, and Narada: some authorites make the Prajapatis only seven in number, others reduce them to three, such as Daksha, Narada, and Bhrigu, and others make them twenty-one. 3. A king, a sovereign. 4. A father. 5. A son-in-law, a daughter’s husband. 6. The sun. 7. Fire. 8. A name of Viswa- Karma, the architect of gods. E. prajā people or the world, and pati master.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—m. 1. lord of the creatures, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 9. 2. a name of the supreme deity, Brahman, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 188. 3. a king. 4. a father.
Prajāpati is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms prajā and pati (पति).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Prajāpati (प्रजापति).—[masculine] lord of creatures or of procreation, the Creator, [Epithet] of [several] gods & Ṛṣis, also [Name] of a separate god & [several] men.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Prajāpati (प्रजापति) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Yājñikadeva (Kātyāyanaśrautasūtrabhāṣya).
2) Prajāpati (प्रजापति):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Prajāpati (प्रजापति):—[=prajā-pati] [from prajā > pra-jan] (jā-) m. ‘lord of creatures’, Name of Savitṛ, Soma, Agni, Indra etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]
2) [v.s. ...] (jā-) a divinity presiding over procreation, protector of life, [ib.; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Manu-smṛti; Suśruta; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] (jā-) lord of creatures, creator, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (Name of a supreme god above or among the Vedic deities [Ṛg-veda (only x, 21, 10); Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa] but in later times also applied to Viṣṇu, Śiva, Time personified, the sun, fire, etc., and to various progenitors, [especially] to the 10 lords of created beings first created by Brahmā, viz. Marīci, Atri, Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaka, Kratu, Vasiṣṭha, Pracetas or Dakṣa, Bhṛgu, Nārada [Manu-smṛti i, 34]; cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 206 n. 1], of whom some authorities count only the first 7, others the last 3)
4) [v.s. ...] (jā-) a father, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] (jā-) a king, prince, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] (jā-) a son-in-law, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] (jā-) the planet Mars, a [particular] star, δ Aurigae, [Sūryasiddhānta]
8) [v.s. ...] (jā-) (in [astrology]) = 2. kāla-nara q.v.
9) [v.s. ...] (jā-) a species of insect, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] (jā-) Name of sub voce men and authors, [Catalogue(s)]
11) Prajāpatī (प्रजापती):—[=prajā-patī] [from prajā-pati > prajā > pra-jan] (jā-) f. a matron, lady, [Divyāvadāna]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of Gautama Buddha ’s aunt and nurse (with the [patronymic] Gautamī, the first woman who assented to his doctrines), [Lalita-vistara]
13) Prājāpatī (प्राजापती):—[from prājāpata] f. Name of [Atharva-veda v, 2, 7; Kauśika-sūtra]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Prajāpati (प्रजापति):—[prajā-pati] (tiḥ) 2. m. A name of Brahmā and of the sages he first created; a king; a father; a son-in-law; the sun; fire.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the Supreme Being, as the Creator of the Universe (referred to as Viṣṇu, Brahma, and several other deities or the ten sages whom Brahma begot first and who are supposed to have been the first generators of the human race).
2) [noun] a father; a male parent.
3) [noun] one’s daughter’s husband.
4) [noun] name of a religious sacrifice.
5) [noun] the fifth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.
6) [noun] the sexual organ of male human being.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+6): Prajapati kalikaguru, Prajapatibhakshita, Prajapaticarita, Prajapaticita, Prajapaticiti, Prajapatidasa, Prajapatidatta, Prajapatigiri, Prajapatigrihita, Prajapatihridaya, Prajapatijataka, Prajapatika, Prajapatikshetra, Prajapatiloka, Prajapatimata, Prajapatimatra, Prajapatimukha, Prajapatinivasini, Prajapatipati, Prajapatisharman.
Full-text (+605): Prajapatya, Kya, Kaya, Prajapatibhakshita, Marici, Prajapatiyajna, Kardama, Prajapatigrihita, Parameshthin, Prajapatisrishta, Prajapatiloka, Prajapaticita, Prajapatimatra, Akhyas, Pulaha, Prajapatihridaya, Daksha, Mahaprajapati, Daityasena, Mahaprajavati.
Search found 173 books and stories containing Prajapati, Prajāpati, Prajāpatī, Praja-pati, Prajā-pati, Prajā-patī, Prājāpatī; (plurals include: Prajapatis, Prajāpatis, Prajāpatīs, patis, patīs, Prājāpatīs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 1.11.39 < [Chapter 11 - Description of Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra’s Birth]
Verse 2.13.17 < [Chapter 13 - The Story of Śeṣa]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 2.77 < [Section XVII - Rules of Study]
Verse 12.123 < [Section XIII - Summing up of the Esoteric Teaching]
Verse 12.121 < [Section XIII - Summing up of the Esoteric Teaching]
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CCVIII < [Mokshadharma Parva]
Section XLIV < [Anugita Parva]
Section CCXX < [Markandeya-Samasya Parva]
Chandogya Upanishad (english Translation) (by Swami Lokeswarananda)
Verse 8.8.2 < [Section 8.8]
Verse 8.12.6 < [Section 8.12]
Verse 8.10.3 < [Section 8.10]
The Markandeya Purana (Study) (by Chandamita Bhattacharya)
2. Worship and Mythology of Brahmā < [Chapter 3]
3. Description of God Sūrya < [Chapter 3]
Divisions of Āśrama (b): Gārhasthya < [Chapter 2]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)