Samana, aka: Shamana, Śamana, Samāna, Samaṇa, Samanā, Samānā, Śāmana, Sāmana; 20 Definition(s)
Samana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śamana and Śāmana can be transliterated into English as Samana or Shamana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Śamana (शमन).—A son of Vadha.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 130.
2a) Samāna (समान).—A Tuṣita.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 19: Va. 66. 18.
2b) The 17th kalpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 290. 7.
2c) The mind-born son of Brahmā in the 21st kalpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 47.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Śamana (शमन) is a Sanskrit technical term, translating to “pacificatory therapy”. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Samāna (समान).—One of the five upadoṣas (sub-functions) of vāta (one of the three biological humors).—
Location of samāna: Stomach and intestinal tract.
Functions of samāna: Stimulating astric juices to break down food and categorizing them into dhātus and malas, digestion, assimilation, controlling svedavaha-srota, jalavaha-srota and doṣavaha-srota (channels).
Ailments of samāna due to vitiation: Dyspepsia or low digestive fire, indigestion, diarrhea and defective assimilation linked to too slow or too rapid digestion.Source: Google Books: A Practical Approach to the Science of Ayurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Samāna (समान, “homogeneous”) refers to a musical expression corresponding with māndhātṛ (thoughtful), the seventh word of the elā composition (prabandha).—A sound which manifests itself melodic lines whatsoever, occurring in the so-called middle register, and which moves in between the higher and the lower octave, is called homogeneous (samāna).Source: Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Samāna (समान).—Common; the same; cf. समान-स्थानकरणा नासिक्यौष्ठ्याः । एतेषां यदेव स्थानं तदेव करणम् (samāna-sthānakaraṇā nāsikyauṣṭhyāḥ | eteṣāṃ yadeva sthānaṃ tadeva karaṇam); V. Pr. I. 80. समानश्च खेदविगमो गम्यायां च अगम्यायां च (samānaśca khedavigamo gamyāyāṃ ca agamyāyāṃ ca) M. Bh. on Ahnika 1.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Śamana (शमन, “the settler”):—One of the epiteths of Yama, the vedic God of death, who is the embodiment of Dharma. Yama rules over the kingdom of the dead and binds humankind according to the fruits of their karma.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
The second prana is known as Samana. The word sam means ‘equal’ or ‘same’. Samana is located between the diaphragm and the navel. Although it is a small area physically, it is very important. Samana is responsible for the digestive energy and coordinates and motivates the digestive organs such as the stomach, liver, pancreas and large intestine. If anything goes wrong with your samana energy then you will become weak and thin because you will not be able to absorb the nutrients in the food properly. It takes a tremendous amount of energy to digest, burn and separate the nutrients which we take in daily. That is one of the greatest pranic expenditures within our body.Source: Yoga Magazine: Prana
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
1. A class of Devas present at the preaching of the Mahasamaya Sutta. D.ii.260.
2. One of the chief lay supporters of Kakusandha Buddha. Bu.xxiii.22.
3. The eldest of the seven daughters of King Kiki. She was Khema in the present age. J.vi.481; Ap.ii.546; ThigA.18, etc.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Samaṇa is the brother of the Brāhman named Akkosaka, according to the Akkossasutta of the Saṃyutta (also see the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLII).—The Buddha was dwelling at Rājagaha at the Veḷuvana in the Kalandakanivāpa. Akkosaka-Bhāradvāja came to find him and, furious to learn that his brother Samaṇa had just entered the bhikṣu community, he insulted and outraged the Blessed One with coarse and harmful words. The Buddha’s only response was to ask him if sometimes he welcomed friends and relatives at his home and if, in the affirmative, he offered them food. Akkosaka acknowledged that sometimes that happened. And if the guests refuse the food that you offer them, said the Buddha, to whom does this food belong?—It returns to me, answered the Brāhman. In the same way, continued the Buddha, by not responding to your insults by means of insults, we let you take them into account: it is to you that they return, O Brāhman.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Samaṇa; The Pali word for shramana (a wandering monk; a shramana is one who renounces the world and leads an ascetic life for the purpose of spiritual development and liberation)Source: Wisdom Library: BuddhismA Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices austerities; an ascetic.Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary
one who has entered the Holy Life; a religious; originally, a religious recluse or wanderer.Source: Amaravati: Glossary
Languages of India and abroad
1) samaṇa : (m.) a recluse.
2) samaṇī : (f.) a nun.
3) samāna : (adj.) equal; same; similar.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Samana, (nt.) (fr. śam) suppression Mhvs 4, 35. (Page 683)
2) Samāna, 2 (ppr. fr. as to be) 1. being, existing D. I, 18, 60; J. I, 218; PvA. 129 (=santo), 167 (id.).—2. a kind of god D. II, 260.
3) Samāna, 1 (adj.) (Vedic samāna, fr. sama3) similar, equal, even, same Sn. 18, 309; J. II, 108. Cp. sāmañña1. (Page 685)
4) Samaṇa, (BSk. śramaṇa, fr. śram, but mixed in meaning with śam) a wanderer, recluse, religieux A. I, 67; D. III, 16, 95 sq. , 130 sq.; S. I, 45; Dh. 184; of a non-Buddhist (tāpasa) J. III, 390; an edifying etymology of the word DhA. III, 84: “samita-pāpattā s. , ” cp. Dh. 265 “samitattā pāpānaṃ “samaṇo” ti pavuccati”; four grades mentioned D. II, 151; M. I, 63; compare Sn. 84 sq.; the state of a Samaṇa is attended by eight sukhas J. I, 7; the Buddha is often mentioned and addressed by nonBuddhists as Samaṇa: thus D. I, 4, 87; Sn. p. 91, 99; Vin. I, 8 350; Samaṇas often opposed to Brāhmaṇas: thus, D. I, 13; It. 58, 60; Sn, p. 90; Vin. I, 12; II, 110; samaṇabrāhmaṇā, Samaṇas and Brāhmaṇas quite generally: “leaders in religious life” (cp. Dial. II. 165) D. I, 5; II, 150; A. I, 110, —173 sq.; It. 64; Sn. 189; Vin. II, 295; samaṇadhammaṃ the duties of a samaṇa A. III, 371; J. I, 106, 107, 138; pure-samaṇa a junior who walks before a Bhikkhu Vin. II, 32; pacchāsamaṇa one who walks behind Vin. I, 186; II, 32; A. III, 137.—samaṇī a female recluse S. I, 133; ThA. 18; J. V, 424, 427; Vin. IV, 235.—assamaṇa not a true samaṇa Vin. I, 96.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
śamana (शमन).—n S Quieting, stilling, calming, composing. 2 In medicine. Allaying or soothing. See saptōcāra. 3 A composer or settler; a medicine or a measure that assuages or abates pain or excitement; an anodyne. Ex. pittācēṃ śamana suṇṭhasākara. 4 Becoming quiet, still, calm, composed.
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śāmāṇā (शामाणा) [or ना, nā].—m ( P) A cloth stretched in front or rear of a tent: also an awning generally.
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samāna (समान).—a ( A) Eight. Used of the Arabic year.
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samāna (समान).—a (S) Even, level, smooth. 2 Like, similar, equal. In this sense useful compounds occur, and others wait to be evoked by the proficient. Ex. samānagōtra, sa0 jāti -dharma -duḥkha -sukha- duḥkha -bala -sāmarthya -parākrama, -pratāpa -vibhava -vikrama -vyasana, samānōddēśa, samānōdyōga &c. Such, being of obvious sense or power, occur not in order. 3 One, same, identical.
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samāna (समान).—m S That vital air which is considered essential to digestion. See prāṇa & upaprāṇa.
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sāmanā (सामना).—m unc ( H) Oppositeness: also confrontedness.
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sāmāna (सामान).—n ( P) Instruments, implements, tools; apparatus, furniture, necessaries, things; the materials or the means required for a business or work. 2 Goods, chattels, articles of property, baggage, traps, kit.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śamana (शमन).—n Quieting. A settler. Becoming calm. Allaying.
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samāna (समान).—a Even; like.
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sāmanā (सामना).—m Oppositeness; confrontedness. A duel. A match-as of cricket.
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sāmāna (सामान).—n Instruments; apparatus. Goods.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Śamana (शमन).—a. (-nī f.) [शम् णिच् ल्यु ल्युट् वा (śam ṇic lyu lyuṭ vā)] Quelling, allaying, subduing &c.
-nam 1 Appeasing, allaying, soothing, conquering, alleviating, &c.
2) Calmness, tranquillity.
3) End, stop, cessation, destruction.
4) Hurting, injuring; destroying; सपत्नशमनम् (sapatnaśamanam) Mb.3.85.11.
5) Killing animals for sacrifice, immolation.
6) Swallowing, chewing.
-naḥ 1 A kind of deer, an antelope.
2) Name of Yama, the god of death; शतशस्तत्र यवनाः शम- नातिथयोऽभवन् (śataśastatra yavanāḥ śama- nātithayo'bhavan) Śiva B.14.94.
3) A kind of pea.
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Śāmana (शामन).—Name of Yama.
-nam 1 Killing, slaughter.
2) Tranquillity, peace.
-nī The southern direction.
Derivable forms: śāmanaḥ (शामनः).
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1) Same, one, equal, like, similar; नोपगच्छेत् प्रमत्तोऽपि स्त्रियमार्तवदर्शने । समानशयने चैव न शयीत तया सह (nopagacchet pramatto'pi striyamārtavadarśane | samānaśayane caiva na śayīta tayā saha) || Ms.4.4; भुजे भुजंगेन्द्रसमानसारे (bhuje bhujaṃgendrasamānasāre) R.2.74; समानशीलव्यसनेषु सख्यम् (samānaśīlavyasaneṣu sakhyam) Subhāṣ.
2) One, uniform.
3) Good, virtuous, just.
4) Common, general.
6) Middling, moderate.
7) Whole (as a number).
-naḥ 1 A friend, an equal.
2) One of five life-winds or vital airs, which has its seat in the cavity of the navel and is essential to digestion.
3) A letter having the same organ of utterance.
-nam ind. Equally with, like (with instr.); जलधरेण समानमुमापतिः (jaladhareṇa samānamumāpatiḥ) Ki.18.4.
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Sāmana (सामन).—a. Ved. Conciliatory, peaceable.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Killing animals for sacrifice, immolation. 2. Mental tranquillity, calmness, indifference. 3. Abuse, malediction. 4. Hurt, injury. 5. Chewing, swallowing. 6. The act of appeasing, soothing, consoling. 7. Cessation, end, destruction. m.
(-naḥ) 1. Yama, the ruler of Tartarus. 2. An antelope. f. (-nī) Night. E. śam to be tranquil, aff. lyuṭ or yuc .
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(-naṃ) 1. Killing, slaughter. 2. Tranquillity, peace. m.
(-naḥ) An epithet of Yama. E. śam to be pacified, causal form, lyuṭ aff.
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(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Like, similar. 2. Good, virtuous. 3. One, uniform, same. 4. Honoured. m.
(-naḥ) 1. One of the five vital airs, that which is considered essential to digestion and occupies the cavity of the navel. 2. A corresponding letter of the alphabet, as a long vowel to its short one, &c. 3. A friend. E. sama all, an to breathe, aff. aṇ or ghañ; or sam and āṅ before ṇī to get, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Samānagatika identical Tikp 35.