Krura, Krūra, Krūrā: 27 definitions


Krura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Krur.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Krūra (क्रूर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “the man who harbours within him much anger” (i.e., ill-tempered). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 4.212)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Krūra (क्रूर).—One of the eight principal ministers of Mahiṣāsura, an asura chieftain from the city Mahiṣa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 93. All of these ministers were learned, valiant and just.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Krūrā (क्रूरा).—(KRODHĀ). A daughter of Prajāpati Dakṣa. She became the wife of Kaśyapa. A large number of Asuras were born to her. They all were very cruel and were called Krodhavaśas. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 32).

2) Krūra (क्रूर).—A country in Ancient India. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 65).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Krūra (क्रूर) refers to “ruthless (activities)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.16 (“Brahmā consoles the gods”).—Accordingly, as the Gods said to Brahmā: “[...] You are our final resort. You are our ruler, creator, and protector. But we are scorched in the fire of the name Tāraka. We are extremely agitated. Our ruthless [i.e., krūra] activities against him have turned out to be weak and ineffective, even as medicinal herbs of great potency are rendered ineffective in an ailment brought about by the combination of all deranged humours. We had some hope of victory in Sudarśana the discus of Viṣṇu. But even that discus has become ineffective in his neck where it has fallen as though it were a floral offering to a deity”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Krūra (क्रूर).—A son of Pauruṣeya Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 93.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Krūrā (क्रूरा) is another name for Raktapunarnavā, a medicinal plant identified with Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. or “red spiderling” from the Nyctaginaceae or “four o'clock” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.117-120 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Krūrā and Raktapunarnavā, there are a total of twenty-two Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Krūra (क्रूर, “cruel”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., krūra—cruel], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Krūra (क्रूर) refers to “cruel people”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said to Bhairava: “[...] O god, the (liberated) skyfaring state arises by worshipping (that one reality whose) body is without stain. You are all things and, ever free, you are not bound by Karma. The murderer of Brahmins, women and cows, the thief, one who sleeps in the teacher’s bed (with his wife) and those other extremely cruel people [i.e., krūra-tara] who commit very terrible sins, as many as a heap as great as Meru in this ocean of fettered existence, are free from all sins by just remembering you”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Krūra (क्रूर) refers to “malefic planets” [?], according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Nakṣatras—Rohiṇī and Kṛttikā, form the body of the Vatsara Puruṣa, the two Āṣāḍhas form his navel, Āśleṣā forms the heart and Maghā, the heart-bladder; when benefíc planets pass through these, there will be happiness in the land; if malefic planets [i.e., krūra] should pass through the body, there will be suffering from fire and winds; if they should pass through the navel, there will be suffering from starvation; if they should pass through the heart-bladder, roots and fruits will suffer, and if they should pass through the heart, crops will perish”.

2) Krūra (क्रूर) refers to “wicked persons”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9).—Accordingly, “The four constellations from Ārdrā form the second maṇḍala or circle; if Venus should reappear in it, the rainfall will be moderate and the growth of food crops will also be moderate; the Brāhmins will suffer, especially those who are wicked [i.e., krūra-ceṣṭa]. If Venus who so reappears in the said circle, should be crossed by a planet, the Mlecchas, forestmen, persons that live by dogs, the hill men of Gomanta and Gonarda, the Cāṇḍālas, the Śūdras and the people of Videha will become wicked and lawless”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Krūra (क्रूर, “cruel”) refers to an aspect of Rāhu, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: Do not, O pretty one, at the end of the bright fortnight, sleep at a place open to the sky. Should it turn night, the cruel [i.e., krūra] Rāhu, starving with hunger and roaming hither and thither, may eat you up, taking your pretty round face for the full moon. Therefore, after darkness, make your bed at a secluded place inside the house”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Krūra (क्रूर) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘śūdra’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., krūra) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Krūra (क्रूर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Krūra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Karma (कर्म) or Krūrakarma refers to “cruel”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This most powerful [and] cruel death (krūrakarmakālo'yaṃ krūrakarmā) devours against their will the life of those who possess a body that has settled in the middle world, in hell, in the world of Brahmā, in Indra’s abode, in the middle of the ocean, inside the forest, at all quarters of the globe, on a mountain-peak, in a place difficult of access on account of fire, forest, cold, darkness, thunderbolts [and] swords, or in [a place] crowded with a troop of ruttish elephants”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Krura in India is the name of a plant defined with Boerhavia diffusa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Boerhavia diffusa var. leiocarpa (Heimerl) C.D. Adams (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Anales de Ciencias Naturales (1801)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1768)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1820)
· Observationum Botanicarum (Jacquin) (1771)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1832)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Krura, for example chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

krūra (क्रूर).—a (S) Cruel, pitiless, savage. 2 Formidable, ferocious, terrible. 3 Fierce, ardent, raging--fire &c. 4 Harsh, violent, barbarous, extravagant, extreme--ways or deeds gen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

krūra (क्रूर).—a Cruel, pitiless, savage. Formid- able, ferocious, terrible. Harsh, vio- lent, barbarous, extravagant-ways or deeds.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—a. [kṛta-rak dhātoḥ krūḥ; Uṇādi-sūtra 2.21]

1) Cruel, wicked, hard-hearted, pitiless; तस्याभिषेकसंभारं कल्पितं क्रूरनिश्चया (tasyābhiṣekasaṃbhāraṃ kalpitaṃ krūraniścayā) R.12.4; Meghadūta 17; Manusmṛti 1.9; तानहं द्विषतः क्रूरान् (tānahaṃ dviṣataḥ krūrān) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16. 19.

2) Hard, rough.

3) Formidable, terrible, fierce, ferocious, savage.

4) Destructive, mischievous.

5) Wounded, hurt.

6) Bloody.

7) Raw.

8) Strong.

9) Inauspicious (as opposed to saumya and akrūra; said of 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th signs of the zodiac which are supposed to have a malignant influence.)

1) Hard, solid, hardened; Ś.2.4.

11) Hot; disagreeable, sharp; Manusmṛti 2.33.

12) Harsh, jarring; क्रूरक्वणत्कङ्कणानि (krūrakvaṇatkaṅkaṇāni) Mv.1.35.

-raḥ, -ram Boiled rice.

-raḥ 1 A hawk.

2) heron.

3) An uneven sign of the zodiac.

4) Name of a planet (Rāhu or Saturn).

5) A kind of horse; तद्वद्वामाश्रयाः क्रूरः प्रकरोति धनक्षयम् (tadvadvāmāśrayāḥ krūraḥ prakaroti dhanakṣayam) Śālihotra 15.

-ram 1 A wound.

2) Slaughter, cruelty.

3) Any horrible deed.

4) Any frightful appearance. -ind. In a formidable manner; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Cruel, pitiless. 2. Hard, harsh. 3. Hard, solid. 4. Mischievous, destructive. 5. Formidable, terrible. 6. Hot, sharp. 7. Disagreeable. m.

(-raḥ) 1. An odd sign of the zodiac, as the first, third, fifth, &c. which are, of malignant influences. 2. A hawk. 3. A heron. 4. Red oleander. E. kṛt to cut, rak Unadi affix, and krū substituted for kṛta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—adj. 1. Sore (ved.). 2. Cruel, [Hiḍimbavadha] 4, 31. 3. Harsh, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 64, 2. 4. Formidable, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 75. 5. Hard, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 37.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—[adjective] bloody, raw, sore; cruel, harsh, dreadful. [neuter] a wound or sore; bloodshedding, slaughter; cruelty, harshness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Krūra (क्रूर):—mf(ā)n. ([from] kravi-s cf. sthūra and sthavira), wounded, hurt, sore, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

2) ‘bloody, raw’, cruel, fierce, ferocious, pitiless, harsh, formidable, [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā vi; Manu-smṛti] etc.

3) inauspicious (as opposed to saumya and a-krūra, said of the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh signs of the zodiac, which are supposed to have a malignant influence, [Jyotiṣa]; said of planets, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā])

4) hard, solid, [Suśruta; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra]

5) strong (as a bow, opposed to manda), [Nārada-smṛti, nāradīya-dharma-śāstra]

6) hot, sharp, disagreeable, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) mn. boiled rice (cf. kūra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) m. a hawk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) a heron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) red oleander (= rakta-karavīra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Krūrā (क्रूरा):—[from krūra] f. a variety of Punarnavā with red blossoms, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Krūra (क्रूर):—n. a wound, sore, [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

13) m. blood-shedding, slaughter, cruelty, any horrible deed, harshness, [Atharva-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa i, 26; Manu-smṛti i, 29 etc.]

14) any frightful apparition, [Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa]

15) a kind of house, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Cruel, hard. m. Inauspicious sign of the Zodiac; a hawk; a heron; red oleander.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Krūra (क्रूर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kūra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Krura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर) [Also spelled krur]:—(a) cruel, unkind, merciless, ruthless; ~[karmā] cruel, ruthless.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Krūra (ಕ್ರೂರ):—[adjective] disposed to inflict suffering; having or showing indifference to or pleasure in another’s pain; merciless; pitiless; hard-hearted; cruel.

--- OR ---

Krūra (ಕ್ರೂರ):—

1) [noun] a man who deliberately seeks to inflict pain and suffering; he who enjoys others' suffering; a merciless, cruel man.

2) [noun] a man who steals or is guilty of theft; a thief.

3) [noun] the diurnal bird of prey Falco jugger of the family Falconidae, having long pointed wings; a falcon.

4) [noun] boiled rice.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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