Krura, Krūra, Krūrā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Krura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Krūra (क्रूर) is another name for Punarnavā, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Boerhavia diffusa (spreading hogweed) from the Nyctaginaceae family. It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 4.117-119), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Krūra (क्रूर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “the man who harbours within him much anger” (i.e., ill-tempered). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 4.212)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Krūra (क्रूर).—One of the eight principal ministers of Mahiṣāsura, an asura chieftain from the city Mahiṣa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 93. All of these ministers were learned, valiant and just.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Krūrā (क्रूरा).—(KRODHĀ). A daughter of Prajāpati Dakṣa. She became the wife of Kaśyapa. A large number of Asuras were born to her. They all were very cruel and were called Krodhavaśas. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 32).

2) Krūra (क्रूर).—A country in Ancient India. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 65).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Krūra (क्रूर).—A son of Pauruṣeya Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 93.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Krūra (क्रूर) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘śūdra’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., krūra) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Krūra (क्रूर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Krūra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

krūra (क्रूर).—a (S) Cruel, pitiless, savage. 2 Formidable, ferocious, terrible. 3 Fierce, ardent, raging--fire &c. 4 Harsh, violent, barbarous, extravagant, extreme--ways or deeds gen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

krūra (क्रूर).—a Cruel, pitiless, savage. Formid- able, ferocious, terrible. Harsh, vio- lent, barbarous, extravagant-ways or deeds.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—a. [kṛta-rak dhātoḥ krūḥ; Uṇ.2.21]

1) Cruel, wicked, hard-hearted, pitiless; तस्याभिषेकसंभारं कल्पितं क्रूरनिश्चया (tasyābhiṣekasaṃbhāraṃ kalpitaṃ krūraniścayā) R.12.4; Me.17; Ms.1.9; तानहं द्विषतः क्रूरान् (tānahaṃ dviṣataḥ krūrān) Bg.16. 19.

2) Hard, rough.

3) Formidable, terrible, fierce, ferocious, savage.

4) Destructive, mischievous.

5) Wounded, hurt.

6) Bloody.

7) Raw.

8) Strong.

9) Inauspicious (as opposed to saumya and akrūra; said of 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th signs of the zodiac which are supposed to have a malignant influence.)

1) Hard, solid, hardened; Ś.2.4.

11) Hot; disagreeable, sharp; Ms.2.33.

12) Harsh, jarring; क्रूरक्वणत्कङ्कणानि (krūrakvaṇatkaṅkaṇāni) Mv.1.35.

-raḥ, -ram Boiled rice.

-raḥ 1 A hawk.

2) heron.

3) An uneven sign of the zodiac.

4) Name of a planet (Rāhu or Saturn).

5) A kind of horse; तद्वद्वामाश्रयाः क्रूरः प्रकरोति धनक्षयम् (tadvadvāmāśrayāḥ krūraḥ prakaroti dhanakṣayam) Śālihotra 15.

-ram 1 A wound.

2) Slaughter, cruelty.

3) Any horrible deed.

4) Any frightful appearance. -ind. In a formidable manner; Mb.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Cruel, pitiless. 2. Hard, harsh. 3. Hard, solid. 4. Mischievous, destructive. 5. Formidable, terrible. 6. Hot, sharp. 7. Disagreeable. m.

(-raḥ) 1. An odd sign of the zodiac, as the first, third, fifth, &c. which are, of malignant influences. 2. A hawk. 3. A heron. 4. Red oleander. E. kṛt to cut, rak Unadi affix, and krū substituted for kṛta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Krūra (क्रूर).—adj. 1. Sore (ved.). 2. Cruel, [Hiḍimbavadha] 4, 31. 3. Harsh, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 64, 2. 4. Formidable, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 75. 5. Hard, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 37.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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