Jaya, aka: Jāyā, Jayā; 28 Definition(s)

Introduction

Jaya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

1) Jaya (जय):—Son of Śruta (son of Subhāṣaṇa). He had a son named Vijaya. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.13.25)

2) Jaya (जय):—One of the six sons of Purūravā (son of Budha) by the womb of Urvaśī. He had a son named Amita. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.15.1-2)

3) Jaya (जय):—Son of Viśvāmitra (son of Gādhi). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.16.36)

4) Jaya (जय):—Son of Sañjaya (son of Prati). He had a son named Kṛta. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.16)

5) Jaya (जय):—Son of Saṅkṛti (son of Jayasena). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.17)

6) Jaya (जय):—One of the five sons of Manyu (son of Vitatha, another name for Bharadvāja). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.1)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Jayā (जया) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Jayā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

(Source): Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Jayā (जया) is the name of a beautiful damsel (kanyā), with black curly hair and red lips, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 92. Jayā (and other innumerable ladies) arose out of the agitation of Vaiṣṇavī while she was doing penance at Viśālā. For these young women, Vaiṣṇavī created the city Devīpura, containing numerous mansions with golden balconies, crystal stairs and water fountains, with jewelled windows and gardens.

Vaiṣṇavī is the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1a) Jaya (जय).—An attendant in Vaikuṇṭha cursed by Sanaka and others to be born as an Asura. The curse was confirmed by Hari, who, however, consoled him and Vijaya (s.v.). His fall.1 In the Devāsura war with Bali, he attacked Bali's followers.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 16. 2, 26-37.
  • 2) Ib. VIII. 21. 16.

1b) A son of Vatsara and Svarvīthi.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 12.

1c) A sage of the epoch of the tenth Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 22; 21. 16.

1d) A son of Purūravas and Ūrvaśī, and father of Amita.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 1-2.

1e) A son of Viśvāmitra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 16. 36.

1f) A son of Sañjaya and father of Krta.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 17. 16-17; Vāyu-purāṇa 93. 8. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 9. 26.

1g) A son of Samkṛti and a great warrior. With him came to an end the Kṣatravṛddha line. (Burnouf makes Kṣatradharman his son. The term is only an epithet of Jaya).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 17. 18.

1h) A son of Manyu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 1.

1i) A son of Yuyudhāna and father of Kuṇi.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 14.

1j) A son of Kanka and Karṇikā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 44.

1k) A son of Bhadrā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 17.

1l) A name of Arjuna (Pāṇḍava).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 72. 47.

1m) A nāga of the fifth or Mahātalam.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 37; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 36.

1n) A Vīkuṇṭha God.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 57.

1o) A son of Jāmbavān.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 302.

1p) A son of Kali and grandson of Varuṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 7; Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 7.

1q) A son of Vijaya; father of Haryaśvaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 93. 9.

1r) A son of Sṛñjaya, and father of Vijaya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 8.

1s) A son of Śiṣṭa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 39.

1t) A son of Bhadrāśva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 50. 3.

1u) The Vedavyāsa of the 18th dvāpara.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 15.

1v) Jayadevas in the guise of Hṛadas;1 lakes in the Kuru country;2 in the Svāyambhuva epoch.3 See Jayadevas.

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 32.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 72-73.
  • 3) Ib. III. 3. 65.

2a) Jayā (जया).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 13.

2b) A moat equal to 12 oceans.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 70.

2c) A companion of Pārvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 33.

2d) A Varṇa śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 60.

2e) A goddess enshrined at Varāhaśaila; a mother-goddess;1 Icon of; to be propitiated before building palaces.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 32; 179. 13 and 71.
  • 2) Ib. 260. 19; 268. 10 and 21.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Jayā (जया):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Jayā) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Jayā (जया, “victory”):—Name of one of the goddesses to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva (“The truth concerning Durgā’s ritual”). They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ह्रीं ओं जयायै नमः
hrīṃ oṃ jayāyai namaḥ

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Jayā (जया, “victory”):—One of the names attributed to Devī, as chanted by the Vedas in their hymns, who were at the time incarnated in their personified forms. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa chapter 5.51-68, called “the narrative of Hayagrīva”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Jayā (जया) or Jayātantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Jayā-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Jaya (जय):—One of the eight gatekeepers who are said to embody the eight siddhis (‘yogic powers’).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Katha (narrative stories)

Jayā (जया) is the wife of Puṣpadanta, a subordinate of Śiva, who overheard him narrating the adventures of the seven Vidyādharas to Pārvatī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara. Initially, he was denied entrance by Nandin, but through his magic power, became invisible, sneaked inside and overheard the story. Puṣpadanta narrated the story to his wife Jayā, who in turn, recited it in the presence of Pārvatī. She caused Puṣpadanta to be summoned and cursed him, together with Mālyavān (a gaṇa, who intervened and recommended for mercy) to become mortals.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Jayā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Jayā (जया) refers to “the victorious one” and is the presiding deity of suśobhī (‘very brilliant’), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 67-84. Suśobhī represents one of the sixteen words that together make up the elā musical composition (prabandha). Elā is an important subgenre of song and was regarded as an auspicious and important prabandha (composition) in ancient Indian music (gāndharva). According to nirukta analysis, the etymological meaning of elā can be explained as follows: a represents Viṣṇu, i represents Kāmadeva, la represents Lakṣmī.

Jayā is one of the sixteen deities presiding over the corresponding sixteen words of the elā-prabandha, all of which are defined in the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”): a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Jayā (जया) is the name of a meter belonging to the Pratiṣṭhā or Supratiṣṭhā class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of four syllables two pairs of short and long syllables (i.e. short followed by a long one) is jayā”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Jaya (जय) refers to the twenty-eighth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native who is born in the ‘samvastsara’ of ‘jaya’ is the doer of ‘shastrartha’ (doctrinal debate and discussion) on the subject of ‘Shastras’ with the learned persons (learned in religion), is honoured in the world, is bountiful and generous, destroyer of the enemies, has a longing or desire of getting victory, is engrossed in worldly or sensual enjoyment and is very resplendent or shining.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year jaya (2014-2015 AD) will be either a king or like a king.

(Source): The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Jayā (जया) or Jayatithi is the name of the thirteenth of fifteen tithis (cycle of time) according to both the Gārgīyajyotiṣa and the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna. The associated deity for Jayā according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā is Kāma. A tithi was defined as one thirtieth of a synodic month (c. 29.5 days), resulting in an average tithi being slightly less than a day.

Accordingly, “(35) The thirteenth tithi is called Jayā. One should make houses, buildings, clothes, garlands, decoration and colorful ornaments. (36) One should please women and even choose a bride. One should make a maṇḍala and perform fasting (upavasana). One should know Kāma as the deity on this tithi”.

(Source): academia.edu: Tithikarmaguṇa in Gārgīyajyotiṣa
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Jaya (जय) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Jaya (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a peacock. A viṇā is in his tight hand and a fruit in his raised left band.

The illustrations (of, for example Jaya) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Jayā (जया) refers to the sixth of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (eg., Jayā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.

(Source): Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā
Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Jayā (जया) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) defined by Bharata, to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Vilāsinī in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Jayā is also the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Nandinī.

(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Jāyā (जाया) regularly denotes ‘wife’, and, as opposed to Patni, wife as an object of marital affection, the source of the continuance of the race. So it is used of the wife of the gambler, and of the wife of the Brāhmaṇa in the Rigveda; it is also frequently combined with Pati, ‘husband’, both there and in the later literature. Patnī, on the other hand, is used to denote the wife as partner in the sacrifice; when no share in it is assigned to her, she is called Jāyā. The distinction is, of course, merely relative; hence one text calls Manu’s wife Jāyā, another Patnī. Later on Jāyā is superseded by Dāra.

(Source): archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Jaya (जय): A son of King Dhritarashtra, who was killed by Bhima in the war

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Jayā (जया) is the mother of Vāsupūjya according to Śvetāmbara (but she is named Vijayā according to Digambara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Vāsupūjya is the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Jayā is Vasupūjya. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Jaya (जय).—Jaya and Vijaya:—Both of them were residents of Śrāvastī and were brothers. Both loved each other. Once they dreamt that they have a very short life. Feeling disenchanted with life, they came to the Lord to accept mendicancy and taking initiation, became Gaṇadharas.

(Source): HereNow4U: Lord Śrī Pārśvanātha
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

jaya : (m.) victory; conquest. || jāyā (f.) wife.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Jāyā, (f.) (from jan) wife Vin. II, 259=264; J. IV, 285.

—patī (pl.) husband & wife PvA. 159; Dāvs. V, 2. (Page 283)

— or —

Jayā, f. (Vedic jāyā) wife only in cpd. jayampatikā, the lady of the house and her husband, the two heads of the household. That the wife should be put first might seem suggestive of the matriarchate, but the expression means just simply “the pair of them, ” and the context has never anything to do with the matriarchate. ‹-› husband & wife, a married couple S. II, 98; J. I, 347; IV, 70, of birds. See also jāyampatikā. (Page 279)

— or —

Jaya, (see jayati) vanquishing, overcoming, victory D. I, 10; Sn. 681; J. II, 406; opp. parājaya Vism. 401.

—ggaha the lucky die J. IV, 322 (=kaṭaggaha, q. v.); —parājaya victory & defeat Dh. 201; —pāna the drink of victory, carousing, wassail; °ṃ pivati DhA. I, 193; —sumana “victory’s joy, ” N. of a plant (cp. jātisumana) Vism. 174; DhA. I, 17, 383. (Page 279)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

jaya (जय).—m (S) Conquest, victory, triumph. 2 It is prefixed, with or without reduplication, to the names of the gods in invocations. Ex. jayaviṭhōbā, jayarāmacandra, jayadēvā. jaya karaṇēṃ g. of o. To defeat or conquer. jayāṃ or jayāsa jāṇēṃ To prosper or be successful--efforts, measures, conduct.

--- OR ---

jayā (जया).—f S A common term for the third, eighth, and thirteenth lunar days of either half month.

--- OR ---

jāyā (जाया).—f (S) A wife, the wife of.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jaya (जय).—m Conquest, victory, triumph; success.

--- OR ---

jāyā (जाया).—f A wife, the wife of.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jayā (जया).—f. The name of a magical lore (often mentioned with vijayā) taught by Viśvāmitra to Rāma, विद्यामथैनं विजयां जयां च (vidyāmathainaṃ vijayāṃ jayāṃ ca) Bk.2.21.

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Jāyā (जाया).—A wife. (The word is thus derived-patirbhāryāṃ saṃpraviśya garbho bhūtveha jāyate | jāyāyāstaddhi jāyātvaṃ yadasyāṃ jāyate punaḥ || Ms.9.8; see also Malli. on R.2.1.) As last member of Bah. comp. जाया (jāyā) is changed to जानि (jāni); सीताजानिः (sītājāniḥ) 'one who has Sītā for his wife'; so युवजानिः, मामार्धजानिः (yuvajāniḥ, māmārdhajāniḥ)

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Jaya (जय).—[ji bhāve ac]

1) Conquest, triumph, victory, success, winning (in battle, game or a law-suit); सप्त वित्तागमा धर्म्या दायो लाभः क्रयो जयः (sapta vittāgamā dharmyā dāyo lābhaḥ krayo jayaḥ) Mb.1.115.

2) Restraint, curbing, conquest as in इन्द्रियजय (indriyajaya).

3) Name of the sun.

4) Name of Jayanta, son of Indra; जगृहे च धनुधीता मुसलं तु जयस्तथा (jagṛhe ca dhanudhītā musalaṃ tu jayastathā) Mb.1.227.34.

5) Name of Yudhiṣṭhira, the first Pāndava prince.

6) Name of an attendant of Visnu.

7) An epithet of Arjuna; संस्मरन् भ्रातरं जयम् (saṃsmaran bhrātaraṃ jayam) Mb.3.158.2.

8) Name of the Mahābhārata; देवीं सरस्वतीं चैव ततो जयमुदीरयेत् (devīṃ sarasvatīṃ caiva tato jayamudīrayet) Mb.1.1.1; Bhāg.1.2.4;

9) The heroic sentiment; सहजेतरौ जयशमौ दधती (sahajetarau jayaśamau dadhatī) Ki.6.22.

1) Words of victory; जयेन वर्धयित्वा च मारीचप्रमुखास्ततः (jayena vardhayitvā ca mārīcapramukhāstataḥ) Rām.7.23.3.

-yā 1 Name of Durgā.

2) Name of an attendant of the goddess Durgā.

3) A kind of banner.

4) The third, eighth or thirteenth lunar days of any of the two lunar fortnights.

Derivable forms: jayaḥ (जयः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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