Vimala, aka: Vimalā; 27 Definition(s)
Vimala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Vimala (विमल):—One of the sons of Sudyumna (son of Vaivasvata Manu). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa )Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Vimala (विमल).—A King. Vimala who was the King of South India was the son of Sudyumna. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).
2) Vimala (विमल).—A King of the city of Ratnātaṭa. At the time of the horse-sacrifice of Śrī Rāma, this King rendered a good deal of help to Śatrughna. (Padma Purāṇa, Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Chapter 17).
3) Vimalā (विमला).—A female calf born from Rohiṇī, the daughter of Surabhi. Rohiṇī had two daughters called Vimalā and Analā. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 67).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Vimala (विमल).—A son of Sudyumna and a Lord of Dakṣiṇāpatha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 1. 41.
1b) A son of Devayānī and a Yakṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 128.
1c) The son of Jīmūta and father of Bhīmaratha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 44. 41.
2a) Vimalā (विमला).—A Rahasyayoginī Devī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 48.
2b) The goddess enshrined at Puruṣottama*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35.
2c) A R. from Ṛṣyavān.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 26.
Vimalā (विमला) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.39). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vimalā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Vimalā (विमला, “bright, pure, spotless”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.
Her mantra is as follows:
Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
ॐ विमलायै नमः
oṃ vimalāyai namaḥ.
Vimala (विमल) or Vimalatantra refers to one of the twenty Bhūtatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Vimala-tantra belonging to the Bhūta class.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Vimala (विमल, “iron pyrite”) or Bimala:—One of the eight mahārasa (‘superior minerals’), according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Vimala (Iron pyrite) is described to have three varieties:
- Hema Vimala - possess golden colour.
- Rūpya Vimala - looks like silver in colour.
- Kāmsya Vimala - is similar to kāmsya (bell metal or bronz) in colour.
It is snigdha (greasy), vartula (cube like) and possess ṣaṭkoṇas (six angles) and is associated with phalakas (facetes). It is specially indicated for children, may destroy jvara, pāṇḍu, grahaṇī, kāmala, śūla, mandāgni, kṣaya-roga and pittaja-rogas. And by changing anupānas it may destroy all the diseases. Its Bhasma is vṛṣya (apphrodiasic), best Rasāyana and destroys pitta and vata doṣa or their diseases.Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Vimala (विमल) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 60. The temple is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Vimala is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Vimala (विमल) was a disciple of Khagendranātha (his consort being Vijāhutī), an incarnation of Siddhanātha in the first yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
1) Vimala (विमल) or Vimalāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (eg., vimala).
2) Vimala (विमल) or Vimalāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vijayāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Vimala Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Vijaya-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Vimalā (विमला) is the name of a meter belonging to the Gāyatrī class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of six syllables the fourth and the final ones long, is vimalā.”.
Vimalā is also mentioned as a meter belonging to the Uṣṇik class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the third, the fifth and the final one long, is vimalā”.
Vimalā is also the name of a meter belonging to the Triṣṭubh class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the third, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh and the last long, is vimalā”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Vimalā (विमला) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Vimalā) in 20 verses.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Katha (narrative stories)
1) Vimala (विमल) was a soldier in Sunītha and Sūryaprabha’s army whose strength is considered equal to a great warrior (mahāratha), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya explained the arrangement of warriors in Sunītha’s army: “... and [Vimala, and others] are great warriors”.
2) Vimala (विमल) is the name of an ancient king from Vimalapura, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, as Nārāyaṇī narrated to a group of divine mothers (mātṛcakra) in presence of Candrasvāmin, who was listening from a tree: “... when it was time for her [Vidyādharī] to be given in marriage, the king heard that a son of King Vimala, named Prabhākara, was equal to her in beauty. While the king was willing to give her to Prabhākara, Vimala also learned that Surasena’s daughter was worthy of his son. Thereupon Vimala, by the mouth of an envoy, asked Surasena to bestow his daughter Vidyādharī upon his son”.
3) Vimala (विमल) is the father of Dhavala: a washerman (rajaka) from from Brahmasthala, as mentioned in the sixth story of the Vetālapañcaviṃśati in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 80. Accordingly, “... there he [Dhavala] remained fasting and restless without her [Madanasundarī]; but when his mother asked him the cause, he told her the truth about his desire. She went and told her husband Vimala, and when he came and saw his son in that state, he said to him: ‘Why are you so despondent, my son, about an object so easily attained? Śuddhapaṭa will give you his daughter, if I ask him...’”.
4) Vimala (विमल) or Vimalapura, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 110. Accordingly, “... [Naravāhanadatta] left that plateau of Kailāsa, and by the advice of King Kāñcanadaṃṣṭra, who showed him the way, went to that city of Mandaradeva named Vimala. And he reached that city, which was adorned with lofty ramparts of gold, and looked like Mount Sumeru come to adore Kailāsa, and, entering it [Vimala], found that it resembled the sea in all but the presence of water, being very deep, characterised by unfailing prosperity, and an inexhaustible mine of jewels”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vimala, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Vimala. One of the four friends of Yasa who, following the latters example, joined the Order and attained arahantship. Vin.i.18f.
2. Vimala Thera. He belonged to a rich family of Rajagaha and received his name because he was born free of all dirt. Much impressed by the majesty of the Buddha when the latter visited Rajagaha, Vimala entered the Order, and lived in a mountain cave in Kosala. One day a vast cloud spread over the sky; rain fell, allaying the heat and discomfort, and Vimala, concentrating his mind, attained arahantship.
He belonged to a family of conch blowers in the time of Vipassi Buddha, and one day honoured the Buddha by playing on his conch shell. He bathed the Bodhi tree of Kassapa Buddha with fragrant water and washed the seats and the clothes of holy monks. Twenty four kappas ago he was king six times, under the name of Mahanigghosa. ThagA.i.121f; his Udana verse is included in Thag.vs.50.
3. Vimala Thera. He was born in a brahmin family of Benares and entered the Order under Somamitta Thera, who encouraged him to attain arahantship. In the story of Somamitta, however, Vimala is said to have been his teacher. For details see Somamitta. In the days of Padumuttara Buddha he was a householder, and, when the Buddhas body was being carried to the pyre for cremation, amidst impressive celebrations, he offered sumana flowers in his honour. ThagA.i.377; three verses ascribed to him occur in Thag.vs.264-6.
4. Vimala. A Pacceka Buddha. M.iii.70; ApA.i.107.
5. Vimala. One of the palaces of Piyadassi Buddha before his renunciation. Bu.xiv.16.
6. Vimala. A king of sixty one kappas ago, a former birth of Udakadayaka (Sanu) Thera. Ap.i.205; ThagA.i.115.
7. Vimala. A king of twenty one kappas ago who lived in the palace Suddassana in Renuvati. He was a former birth of Rahula. Ap.i.61.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Vimala (विमल) is the name of a Buddha under whom Śākyamuni (or Gautama, ‘the historical Buddha’) acquired merit along the first through nine bhūmis, according to the Mahāvastu. There are in total ten bhūmis representing the ten stages of the Bodhisattva’s path towards enlightenment.
Vimala is but one among the 500 Buddhas enumerated in the Mahāvastu during a conversation between Mahākātyāyana and Mahākāśyapa, both principle disciples of Gautama Buddha. The Mahāvastu is an important text of the Lokottaravāda school of buddhism, dating from the 2nd century BCE.Source: Wisdom Library: Lokottaravāda
Vimalā (विमला) or Vimalābhūmi refers to the “stainless bhūmi” and represents one of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (bodhisattabhūmi), according to the Daśabhūmikasūtra, or Daśabhūmīśvara, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 52.—Vimalā-bhūmi is also known as “dri ma med pa, li keou”.—The Bodhisattva-mahāsattva on the second ground (vimalā-bhūmi) must think about eight dharmas continually.
What are these eight?
- Purity of morality.
- Acknowledgement and gratitude
- Basing oneself on the power of patience.
- Feeling joy and contentment.
- Do not abandon anyone.
- The entry into great compassion.
- Faith, respect and submissiveness to the teachers.
- The energetic search for the perfections.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Vimalā (विमला, “unstained”) or Vimalābhūmi refers to the second of the “ten stages of the Bodhisattva” (bhūmi) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 64). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., vimalā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D. Vimalā is also included in the “thirteen stages of the Bodhisattva” (trayodaśa-bhūmi).Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Vimala (विमल):—The thirteenth Tīrthaṅkara (Janism recognizes 24 such teachers or Siddhas). He is also known as Vimalanātha. His colour is gold (kāñcana), according to Aparājitapṛcchā (221.5-7). His height is 60 dhanuṣa (a single dhanuṣa (or, ‘bow’) equals 6 ft), thus, roughly corresponding to 110 meters. His emblem, or symbol, is a Boar.
Vimala’s father is Kṛtavarmā and his mother is Śyāmā according to Śvetāmbara or Jayaśyāmā according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).
2) Vimala (विमल) is the wife of Kṣemandhara, who is a kulakara (law-giver) according to Digambara sources. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.
These law-givers and their wifes (eg., Vimalā) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Vimala (विमल), the commander-in-chief of an army, built, in front of the temple of Śrīmātā, a caitya adorned with the brazen image of Ṛṣabha. In 1088 Vikrama era, he constructed a temple, called Vimalavasati.Source: archive.org: Sum Jaina Canonical Sutras (vividhatirthakalpa)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
vimala : (adj.) clean; spotless; unstained.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Vimala, (adj.) (vi+mala) without stains, spotless, unstained, clean, pure A. IV, 340; Sn. 378, 476, 519, 637, 1131 (cp. Nd2 586); J. I, 18; Miln. 324; DhA. IV, 192. (Page 630)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
vimala (विमल).—a S Clean, pure, free from dirt or foulness. 2 Auspicious--a season. Ex. prahara dōnhī niśā vimala kṣaṇī || pragaṭalā nija uttamalakṣaṇī ||.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vimala (विमल).—a Clean, pure. Auspicious.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Pure, stainless, spotless, clean (fig also).
2) Clear, limpid, pellucid, transparent (as water); विमलं जलम् (vimalaṃ jalam).
3) White, bright.
-laḥ 1 An Arhat.
2) A magical formula recited over weapons.
3) A lunar year.
-lam 1 Silver-gilt.
2) Talc.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vimala (विमल).—(1) n. of one or more former Buddhas: Mv i.140.10 (v.l. Vimala-, cpd. with foll. Marīcijāla); Śikṣ 169.9; Gv 104.15; (2) n. of a disciple of Śākyamuni (= Pali id.; see s.v. Yaśodeva): LV 1.9; Sukh 2.4; (3) n. of a devaputra, (a) one of the 16 guardians of the bodhimaṇḍa: LV 277.13; (b) as representative of a class of gods(?), Mmk 69.6; (4) n. of a nāga king: Māy 246.27; (5) n. of a samādhi: SP 458.2; Dbh 82.10.
--- OR ---
Vimalā (विमला).—(1) n. of a princess: Mv i.348.12; (2) n. of a deity of the park Vimalavyūha: LV 122.10; (3) n. of a rākṣasī: Māy 243.11; (4) n. of a the second Bodhisattva- bhūmi: Dbh 5.8 etc.; Mvy 887; Dharmas 64; Sūtrāl. [Page496-b+ 71] xx.33; Bbh 334.24; (5) n. of one or more lokadhātus: Mmk 292.16; (in the east) LV 290.9; (in the south) SP 265.6, 11; (6) n. of a river, listed between Tapodā and Nairañjanā: Māy 253.8; probably not identifiable with rivers of this name in Kirfel, Kosm., 65, 67, 68.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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1) Vimaleśvara (विमलेश्वर) is a Sanskrit word referring to two of the sixty-eight places hostin...
Vimalābhūmi (विमलाभूमि) or simply vimalā refers to “stage of the unstained” and represents the ...
1) Vimalapura (विमलपुर) is the name of an ancient city, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chap...
Vimalatantra (विमलतन्त्र) or simply Vimala refers to one of the twenty Bhūtatantras, belonging ...
Hemavimala (हेमविमल) is one of the three variations of Vimala (‘iron pyrite’), which is part...
Vimalamaṇi (विमलमणि).—a crystal.Derivable forms: vimalamaṇiḥ (विमलमणिः).Vimalamaṇi is a Sanskri...
Vimalaprabha (विमलप्रभ, “pure light”) refers to one of the “four concentrations” (samādhi) as d...
Vimalākṣa (विमलाक्ष).—a. Having ten hair-curlings (āvarta) (as a horse); तस्य सर्वगुणोपेता विमल...
Rūpyavimala (रूप्यविमल) is one of the three variations of Vimala (‘iron pyrite’), which is p...
Kāmsyavimala (काम्स्यविमल) is one of the three variations of Vimala (‘iron pyrite’), which i...
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Search found 47 books and stories containing Vimala or Vimalā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Buddha Chronicle 13: Piyadassī Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Part 6 - Story of Cūlasubhaddā and her Father-in-Law, Ugga < [Chapter 35 - Story of Māra]
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 5: Vimala’s life before initiation < [Chapter III - Vimalanāthacaritra]
Part 6: Vimala’s initiation < [Chapter III - Vimalanāthacaritra]
Part 10: Future Cakrins < [Chapter XIII - Śrī Mahāvīra’s nirvāṇa]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 207 - The Story of Vimala < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 208 - The Greatness of Dvārakā < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 17 - Arrival of a Brāhmaṇa Ascetic < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)