Kunda, Kuṇḍa, Kumda: 46 definitions
Kunda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Kunda (कुन्द) is a Sanskrit word referring to Jasminum multiflorum, a species of Jasmina from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. It is also known as Sadāpuṣpa. In English, the plant is known as “Jasmine”. It is a large scadent tomentose shrub with simple and ovate leaves. The flowers are white and slightly fragrant. The fruits are black globose berries. It grows throughout India (e.g. in the forest of Western Ghats and sub-Himalayan tracts).Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Kunda (कुन्द) refers to “jasmine”, as mentioned in verse 3.30 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] One shall eat rice (that is) white like jasmine [viz., kunda] and the moon, (together) with the meat of game. One shall drink broth (that is) not too thick, rasālā, curds, raga and khāṇḍava syrup, [...]”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Kunda (कुन्द) refers to the lotus and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 495. The lotus is also called by the names Kamala, Jalaja (verse 45), Padma, and Nīlanalina, Nīlotpala (verse 62 and 339), Irā (verse 673-675ff.) and Jātī (verse 429).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—A very erudite Brahmarṣi. He was present at the serpent yajña of Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 8).
2) Kunda (कुन्द).—One of the five attendants given by Dhātā to Skandadeva, the other four being Kusuma, Kumuda, Ḍambara and Āḍambara. (Śalya, Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 38).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—A chief Vānara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 241.
2) Kunda (कुन्द).—A mountain of Śālmalidvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 10.
Kunda (कुन्द) flowers are used in worship in the month Phālguna for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Phālguna, the tooth-brush is that of apāmārga-wood. The food taken is kaṅkola. The deity to be worshipped is Vīra. The flowers used in worship are kunda. The naivedya offerings are sweet meats. The result accrued is gomedha.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड, “pit”) refers to “the receptacle of the sacred fire” to be build by the sthapati, in front of the yāgamaṇḍapa, according to the Mānasāra chapter 70 (“chiselling the eyes of the image”). It should be smeared with cow-dung in front of it.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to the “fire pit” (the receptacle of the sacred fire).—The Mānasāra does not elaborate the shape of this fire-pit. Chapter VII of Kāmikāgama is dedicated entirely to shapes and measurements of the fire-pit. The treatise Mayamata (XVIII, 178a; XXV, 42) also outlines measurements for fire-pits of various shapes: quadrangular, vulva-form, circular, semi-circular, triangular, hexagonal, lotiform, octagonal, heptagonal and pentagonal. It stipulates eight fire-pits in eight directions to be prepared for the Opening of the Eye ceremony—of square, vulva, semicircuiar, triangular, circular, hexagonal, lotus and octaganal shapes. They signify aṣṭamūrti, the eight-fold manifestation of Śiva.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “ritual crucible §§ 2.4; 4.24 ...”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Kunda (कुन्द) refers to a “jasmine flower”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Śāmbhavī, the supreme (goddess) Khañjī is ever active (nityoditā) and without defect. [...] O Lord of the gods, she who is auspicious and supreme is attained by the teacher’s grace (prasāda). The crooked (Kuṇḍalinī), the milch cow of passion, she is the supreme energy who oozes (nectar). She is light, (perfectly white like) cow’s milk, snow and a jasmine flower [i.e., gokṣīra-hima-kunda-ābhā] and, full of the supreme nectar, she fills the triple world along with all that moves and is immobile. O sinless one, (she is) the Transmental who abides having pervaded the universe with the force of the mind (manovega)”.
2) Kunda (कुन्द) refers to “root” (e.g., the vital breath of the ‘root’), according to Śitikaṇṭha’s Mahānayaprakāśa.—Accordingly, “Śākinī who is born from the one sacred seat (that contains the entire flux—Krama—of the energies of consciousness) is endowed by means of (the following) eight forms with the most excellent contemplation and brings about repose in the (well) practiced place above and below. These places are eight. (Coming forth) from the Foundation of Birth by the emergence of the vital breath of the Root (kunda), it brings it to rest in the upward flowing rise (of the vital breath) in the end of the channel of the navel. (Then it assumes) a fixed form (sthitirūpa) at the end of the cavity of the Heart and in the mouth and palate by checking the upward and downward movement (of the breath). [...]”.Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “bowel-shaped basins”, the construction of which is a ceremony in Śaktism described in the Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V.—Kuṇḍas are prepared round the altar in all directions. They are of eight shapes viz. (1) quadrangular (2) womb-shaped (yoni-kuṇḍa) (3) half-moon-shaped (4) triangular (5) circular (6) hexagonal (7) lotus-shaped and (8) octagonal. Of these the construction of the quadrangular kuṇḍa is the simplest. A square piece of ground, measuring one hasta on all sides, is taken and the quadrangular kuṇḍa is prepared. The construction of other seven kuṇḍas is given in Śāradātilaka III 53-65. All these are prepared with great care and dimensional accuracy. We shall confine ourselves to the description of quadrangular kuṇḍa alone.
The dimensions of a kuṇda depend upon the number of oblations which are to be offered. Thus for fifty oblations a kuṇḍa should be prepared of one muṣṭi in length, breadth, and depth; for a hundred oblations it should be a cube of one ‘aratni’ and for a thousand a cube of one hasta. The form of a kuṇḍa is like the body of prakṛti. The head is towards the east, the arms towards the north and south and the yoni and feet towards the west. The kuṇḍa represents the belly of prakṛti.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: archive.org: Sardhatrisatikalottaragama
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to the “fire-pit” for which are prescribed various preliminary operations and ceremonies, according to the Āgamas and related literature.
The Sārdhatriśati (chapter 6) prescribes two preliminary steps: ullekhana and abhyukṣaṇa. The Sārdhatriśati also mentions five fire-rituals involving kuṇḍa: garbhādāna, puṃsavana, sīmantonnayana, jātakarma, nāmadheya. All ceremonies are to be performed using the hṛdaya-mantra.
The Mataṅgapārameśvara (Kriyā-pāda, chap 4) prescribes eight preliminary steps: tāḍana, arcana, śodhana, ullekhana, proddhāra, pūraṇa, kuṭṭana, catuṣpathakalpana. The Mataṅgapārameśvara mentions the same five fire-rituals involving kuṇḍa as the Sārdhatriśati (but with different mantra) and adds the following two: vaktrasampādana, vaktrodghāṭana.
The Mṛgendra-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 6) prescribes thirteen purification ceremonies regarding kuṇḍa: śodhana, utkīraṇa, pūraṇa, samīkaraṇa, dārḍhyāpādana, seka, rajovyudāsa, pralepana, ullekhana, vajrāṅkana, viṣṭara, akṣapāṭa, catuṣpatha. The Mṛgendra-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Mataṅgapārameśvara.
The Acintyaviśvasādākhya (chapter 14) prescribes fourteen operations for kuṇḍa: nirīkṣaṇa, prokṣaṇa, tāḍana, abhyukṣaṇa, khanana, uddhāra, pūraṇa, samīkaraṇa, seka, kuṭṭana, mārjana, lepana, arcana, akṣapāṭa. The Acintyaviśvasādākhya mentions the same fire-rituals as the Mataṅgapārameśvara.
The Suprabheda-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 11) prescribes eight operations for kuṇḍa: śodhana, kṣālana, śoṣaṇa, pācana, ullekhana, abhyukṣaṇa, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana, samarcana. The Suprabheda-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Kiraṇa-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chpater 4) prescribes seventeen operations for kuṇḍa: prokṣaṇa, tāḍana, abhyukṣaṇa, ullekhana, utkīraṇa, pūraṇa, samīkaraṇa, kuṭṭana, saṃmārjana, samālepana, kalārūpaprakalpana, sūtraveṣṭana, kalāmayābhyarcana, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana, vajrīkaraṇa, catuṣpathanyāsa, akṣapāṭa. The Kiraṇa-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Pūrvakāmika-āgama (chapter 8) prescribes eighteen operations for kuṇḍa: vīkṣaṇa (=nirīkṣaṇa), prokṣaṇa, abhyukṣaṇa, tāḍana, ullekhana, avakīraṇa (=ukīraṇa), pūraṇa, secana, kuṭṭana, saṃmārjana, upalepa (=lepana), kuṇḍakḷpti (possibly kalārūpakalpana), kuṇḍaparidhāna (possibly sūtraveṣṭana), arcana, paridhiviṣṭaranyāsa, rekhācatuṣṭaya, vajrakḷpti (=vajrāṅkana), śṛṅgāṭakalpana (=akṣapāṭa). The Kiraṇa-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Mṛgendra, with one additional: lālāpanodana.
The Pūrvakāraṇa-āgama (chapter 22) prescribes five operations for kuṇḍa: śodhana, kṣālana, śoṣaṇa, pāvana, prokṣaṇa. The Pūrvakāraṇa-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Ajita-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 21) prescribes sixteen operations for kuṇḍa (similar to Kiraṇa-āgama): nirīkṣaṇa, prokṣaṇa, tāḍana, ullekhana, utkīraṇa, pūraṇa, samīkaraṇa, kuṭṭana, saṃmārjana, samālepana, kalārūpaprakalpana, kuṇḍārcana, kalāmayābhyarcana, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana, vajrīkaraṇa, catuṣpathanyāsa. The Ajita-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Mṛgendra.
The Raurava-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 15) prescribes five operations for kuṇḍa: gomayalepana, śoṣaṇa, pācana, prokṣaṇa, āsana (making a seat of darbha). The Raurava-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Vīra-āgama (chapter 41) prescribes three operations for kuṇḍa: ullekhana, abhyukṣaṇa, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana. The Vīra-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati, and the following seven: niṣkrāmaṇa, prāśana, caula, upanayana, vrata, samāvartana, vivāha.
The Dīpta-āgama (chapter 33) prescribes six operations for kuṇḍa: śodhana, kṣālana, śoṣaṇa, pācana, ullekhana, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana. The Dīpta-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Cintya-āgama (chapter 10) prescribes six operations for kuṇḍa: śodhana, kṣālana, śoṣaṇa, dāhana, prokṣaṇa, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana. The Cintya-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.
The Makuṭa-āgama (chapter 6) does not mention any operation for kuṇḍa, but instead mentions the same five fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati, as well as: annaprāśana, caula, vrata, samāvartana, vivāha.
The Svāyambhuva-āgama (chapter 17) prescribes five operations for kuṇḍa: ullekhana, kuṭṭana, rekhācatuṣṭayakalpana, prokṣaṇa, catuṣpathanyāsa. The Svāyambhuva-āgama mentions the same fire-rituals as the Sārdhatriśati.Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड, “fire-pit”) is mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.82. The fire-pit (kuṇḍa), used for the homa ritual here is of four kinds:
Aside from the Kakṣaptatantra, various tantras mention kinds of kuṇḍa. For example, the Tattvacintāmaṇi (7.1-13) explains six kinds of kuṇḍa:
Kunda (कुन्द) are prohibited in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Kunda][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) (Cf. Vyavasthā) refers to a “son of a woman by another man than her husband”.—[...] According to Appaya, there is no conflict if one understands that a limited reference (vyavasthā) is implicit: the Pāñcarātra is authoritative for certain groups of people only and it is for their sake that praising statements are made in smṛti. In fact, says Appaya, the ‘valid’ teachings of the Pāñcarātra concern only non-Vedic adhikārins such as kuṇḍas (son of a woman by another man than her husband), golakas (widow’s bastard), women, śūdras, and so on; other teachings for which Vedic eligibility is required have no authority whatsoever. The important point here is that the Pāñcarātra is authoritative only to a certain extent and outside the Vedic realm.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “fire-pit”, as dealt with in the twenty-fifth chapter of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits. Accordingly, “O wise man! just as the ground was divided formerly for drawing (accomplishing) the maṇḍala, similarly, regions, enumerated as before, are to be created from the site in the square or rectangle, which is already divided. Listen (to it)”.Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “one who is born of adultery”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not despise Tantra or be devoted to plotting against others. He should not be born of adultery (kuṇḍa) nor have the voice of a crow, be impotent, timid or irascible. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., kuṇḍa), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., kuṇḍa) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Kunda (कुन्द) refers to a “turner’s lathe”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 19.54. See also Tarku.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)
Kunda (कुन्द) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Avataṃsaka has 22 mātrās in each of their four lines, made up with 1 caturmātra, 2 pañcamātras followed by a caturmātra of the Jagaṇa type and 2 long letters at the end.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Kunda (कुन्द) refers to:—A variety of jasmine. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to a “basin” (positioned on a sacred ground), according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript entitled citing Nārada as the authority for the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, The ritual consists of (i) setting up the basin (kuṇḍa) on a sacred ground; (ii) placing the bowl therein at sunrise or sunset; (iii) the mantra in praise of the water clock; (iv) prognostication (phala) according to the cardinal direction to which the bowl moves when placed on the surface of the water in the basin; (v) and prognostication according to the direction in which the bowl finally sinks; and (vi) the recitation of the so-called palavṛttas.
For this ritual, Cf. the extant version of the Nāradasaṃhitā (before 1365), Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (AD 1600) and Govinda Daivajña’s Pīyūṣadhārā commentary (AD 1603).
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
1) Kunda (कुन्द)—Sanskrit for “jasmine flowers”.
2) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) is a Sanskrit word translating to “water pot ”.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) is a Sanskrit word referring to a small lake or pond.Source: Sanskrit Literature: Kunda - Downy Jasmine
The Kunda is one of the many forms of jasmine found in India, identified as Jasminum Multiflorum or Jasminum Pubescens. It is a creeper with small white flowers, proverbially white along with other favourites of poets like the moon and snow. And like foam, and any white object, flowering kundas represent laughter. Blooming in śiśira, the Kunda withers at the onset of spring and is indeed one of the signs of the imminent change of season according to the Kāvyamimāṃsa. Bees, traditional lovers of the lotus, flock to the kunda and mourn for the departure of its blooms.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A yakkha who once inhabited a forest, called Kundadhana (UdA.122) after him.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Kunda (कुन्द) refers to “jasmine”: a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.
The flowers (e.g., Kunda) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Kunda (कुन्द) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kunda] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (history)
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to a “vessel” or “basin”.—From about the fourth century A.D. up to recent times the water clock of the sinking bowl type (Ghaṭikā or Ghaṭīyantra) has been the chief device in India for measuring time. The instrument consists of a hemispherical bowl (ghaṭikā or ghaṭī) with a minute perforation at the bottom. When this bowl is placed on the surface of water in a larger vessel or basin (kuṇḍa, kuṇḍikā, kuṇḍī), water slowly percolates into the bowl through the perforation. When the bowl is full, it sinks to the bottom of the vessel with a clearly audible thud. The weight of the vessel and the size of the perforation are so regulated that the bowl sinks sixty times in a nychthemeron (ahorātra). Thus the time taken for filling the bowl once is one-sixtieth part of a nychthemeron, or twenty-four minutes. This was the standard unit of time measurement in India and is called ghaṭikā or ghaṭī after the name of the bowl. The ghaṭikā is subdivided into sixty vighaṭikās, which are also called palas.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kuṇḍa.—(EI 23), a spring. (EI 31), a pond. Note: kuṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kunda : (nt.) a kind of jasmine.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kunda, (nt.) the jasmine Dāvs. V, 28. (Page 221)
— or —
Kuṇḍa, (a) bent, crooked DA. I, 296 (°daṇḍaka); PvA. 181. (Page 220)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kuṇḍa (कुंड).—n (S) A pool, a well, a spring or basin of water, esp. as consecrated to some holy purpose or person. 2 A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space on the surface, or a metal square-mouthed vessel (for receiving and preserving consecrated fire). 3 m See kuṇḍagōlaka under gōlaka. 4 A pitcher.
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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m (Enhancing form of kuṇḍī) A large openmouthed jar; as a flowerpot, a leather-worker's steeping pot, a dyer's vat, a māndaṇa or receiver of the expressed juice of sugarcanes, a vessel for levigating or comminuting snuff, bhang &c. 2 The gourd-receiver of the exudation of Palm trees.
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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m (Commonly kōṇḍā) Bran.
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kunda (कुंद).—a (kōndaṇēṃ) Stuffed or blocked up;--esp. a pipe or tube, as the tube of guḍaguḍī &c.: also obstructed in passage--wind or air: hence sounding as if stuffed or choked, thick-sounding--air, a musical pipe or chord, the throat or voice.
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kunda (कुंद).—m (S) A kind of Jasmin, Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens. 2 A consumptive disease attacking cattle. 3 The angle of junction formed by two portions of the roof: also the turn of a road. 4 The tree or figure worked in the corner of a rūmāla, śālajōḍī &c. 5 One of the nine treasures of kubēra. 6 Olibanum. 7 A small tree with large white flowers, Jasminum arborescens.
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kundā (कुंदा).—m A kind of grass. 2 A flowering shrub. 3 (Properly kuṇḍā) A vessel of stone or earth to grind bhang &c. 4 ( P) The stock of a musket.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kuṇḍa (कुंड).—n A pool, well, spring of water. A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space on the surface, or a metal squaremouthed vessel (for receiving and preserving consecrated fire).
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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m A large open-mouthed jar.
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kunda (कुंद).—m A kind of jasmine. a Stuffed ro blocked up- esp. a pipe or tube; also obstructed in passage-wind or air.
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kundā (कुंदा).—m A kind of grass. The stock of a musket.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—[cf. Uṇ.1.112]
1) A bowl-shaped vessel, a basin, bowl.
2) A round hole in the ground for receiving and preserving water. बलं नागसहस्रस्य यस्मि- न्कुण्डे प्रतिष्ठितम् (balaṃ nāgasahasrasya yasmi- nkuṇḍe pratiṣṭhitam) Mb.1.128.68.
3) A hole in general; अग्निकुण्डम् (agnikuṇḍam).
4) A pool, well; especially one consecrated to some deity or holy purpose.
5) The bowl of a mendicant.
6) A water-jar (kamaṇḍalu).
-ḍaḥ (-ḍā f.) A son born in adultery, the son of a woman by a man other than her husband while the husband is alive; पत्यौ जीवति कुण्डः स्यात् (patyau jīvati kuṇḍaḥ syāt) Ms.3.174; Y.1.22.
-ṇḍā An epithet of Durgā.
Derivable forms: kuṇḍaḥ (कुण्डः), kuṇḍam (कुण्डम्).
See also (synonyms): kuṇḍī.
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Kunda (कुन्द).—[Uṇ.4.98] A kind of jasmine (white and delicate); कुन्दावदाताः कलहंसमालाः (kundāvadātāḥ kalahaṃsamālāḥ) Bk.2.18; प्रातः कुन्दप्रसवशिथिलं जीवितं धारयेथाः (prātaḥ kundaprasavaśithilaṃ jīvitaṃ dhārayethāḥ) Me.115; Ś.5.19.
-ndam The flower of this plant; अलके बालकुन्दानुविद्धम् (alake bālakundānuviddham) Me.67,49.
-ndaḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
2) A fragrant oleander.
3) One of the nine treasures of Kubera.
4) The number 'nine'.
5) A lotus.
6) A turner's lathe.
Derivable forms: kundaḥ (कुन्दः), kundam (कुन्दम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—adj., (1) in the sense of Sanskrit (and Pali) kuṇṭha, dull, blunt: Lalitavistara 252.2 (prose) kuṇḍayā śaktyā śiraḥka- pālam upahanyād; Tibetan rtul pos, dull, blunt; despite this, and on no apparent ground, Foucaux translates both the Sanskrit and even the Tibetan (!) by aiguë!; no v.l. reported by Lefm.; (2) in Mahāvyutpatti 7363 and 8875 according to Tibetan lag rdum, maimed in the hand; so also Chin. and Japanese; same meaning perhaps in Pali, Pv. commentary 181.9 catūhi aṅgehi kuṇḍo (bent, [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]); [Boehtlingk] 7.332 krüppelicht, lahm; compare Dhātup. kuṇḍ-, vaikalye, and the use of kuṇṭha (Sanskrit blunt, a meaning which [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] kuṇḍa has) in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] and Pali in the ad- ditional sense of mutilated, maimed. See also next.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇḍaḥ) A son born in adultery, the son of a woman by another man than her husband, while the husband is alive. n.
(-ṇḍaṃ) 1. A hole in the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire. 2. A pool, a well, a spring of basin of water, especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person. 3. A measure. mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pitcher. f. (-ṇḍī) A student’s water-pot, made of a hollow cocoanut, &c. E. kuḍi to preserve, ḍa aff.
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(-ndaḥ-ndaṃ) A kind of jasmin, (J. multiflorum or pubescens.) m.
(-ndaḥ) 1. A turner’s lathe. 2. Olibanum, the resin of the Boswellia thurifera: see kundaru 3. One of Kuvera'S nine treasures. 4. The Nerium plant. E. ku to sound, dana Unadi affix, and num inserted, or ku the earth, und to hurt, and aṇ affix; also with kan added kundaka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—I. m., f. ḍī, and n. A pitcher, a jar, a water pot, Mahābhārata 3, 14311. Ii. m. and n. A basin of water, Mahābhārata 13, 4816; [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 26, 4. Iii. n. 1. A hole in the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire, Mahābhārata 3, 8216. 2. A vessel for holding coals, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 10, 16. Iv. m. 1. A son of anadulteress born before the death of the husband, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 156; 174. 2. The name of a Nāga or serpent, Mahābhārata 1, 4828. 3. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 12, 10358.
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Kunda (कुन्द).—I. m. and n. A kind of jasmine, Jasminum multiflorum, or pubescens, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 48. Ii. m. 1. A name of Viṣṇu, Mahābhārata 13, 7036. 2. The name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 20, 10.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—[neuter] jar, pitcher (also ī [feminine]); hole in the ground, fire-pit. [masculine] the son of a wife by a paramour.
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Kunda (कुन्द).—[masculine] a kind of jasmine; [neuter] its flower.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड):—n. [as m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]], a bowl-shaped vessel, basin, bowl, pitcher, pot, water-pot, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) a vessel for coals, [Rāmāyaṇa v, 10, 16 etc.]
3) a round hole in the ground (for receiving and preserving water or fire cf. agni-kuṇḍa), pit, well, spring or basin of water (especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
4) crippled, lame, [Mahā-vyutpatti]
5) m. an adulterine, son of a woman by another man than her husband while the husband is alive, [Manu-smṛti iii, 174]
6) (See gola and -golaka below)
7) Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata xii, 10358]
8) of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata i, 4828]
9) of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata i, 4550]
10) Kuṇḍā (कुण्डा):—[from kuṇḍa] f. (√kuṇḍ) mutilation, [Pāṇini 3-3, 103; Kāśikā-vṛtti]
11) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड):—n. ifc. a clump (e.g. darbha-k, a clump of Darbha grass), [Pāṇini 6-2, 136]
13) a particular measure, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) Name of certain mystical figures
15) a particular appearance of the moon (surrounded by a circle), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iv, 15.]
16) Kunda (कुन्द):—m. ([Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 101]) a kind of jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens), [Mahābhārata] etc.
17) fragrant oleander (Nerium odorum, karavīra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) Olibanum (the resin of the plant Boswellia thurifera), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) a turner’s lathe, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) one of Kubera’s nine treasures (Name of a guhyaka, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) the number ‘nine’ [Horace H. Wilson]
22) Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata xiii. 7036]
23) of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 10]
24) n. the jasmine flower.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड):—[(ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā)] 1. m. f. A son or daughter born in adultery. m. f. A pitcher. f. Student’s waterpot. n. Hole for consecrated fire.
2) Kunda (कुन्द):—[(ndaḥ-ndaṃ)] 1. m. n. A kind of jasmin. m. A turner’s lathe; olibanum; one of Kuvera's treasures; a whet-stone; a Nerium.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Kunda in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) the butt (end of a gun); log; block of wood; handle (of an instrument)..—kunda (कुंदा) is alternatively transliterated as Kuṃdā.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Kuṃḍa (कुंड) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kuṇḍa.
2) Kuṃda (कुंद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kunda.
3) Kuṃdā (कुंदा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kundā.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a hollow in the ground for the sacrificial fire.
2) [noun] an earthen pot.
3) [noun] a metal vessel; a basin.
4) [noun] a container made of porous clay, in which to grow plants; a (flower) pot.
5) [noun] a pit or hallow in the ground with still water; a small pond.
6) [noun] the part of the human body below the chest, containing the stomach and bowels; the belly.
7) [noun] a man born of parents not married to each other; an illegitimate son.
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Kuṃḍa (ಕುಂಡ):—[noun] any of various shorebirds of Scolopacidae family with a long, slender, flexible bill used in probing for food, living chiefly in marshy places; a snipe.
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Kuṃda (ಕುಂದ):—[noun] = ಕುಂದು [kumdu]3.
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1) [noun] a small hill or mound; a hillock.
2) [noun] a mound or ridge of sand.
3) [noun] (dial.) a pillar built with mud, brick, stones, cement, etc.
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1) [noun] the jasmine plant, Jasminum multiflorum (= J. pubescens) of Oleaceae family.
2) [noun] its flower.
3) [noun] one of the nine treasures of Kubēra, the regent of wealth.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+194): Kumdacchaye, Kumdagamdhi, Kumdakutmala, Kumdaladikshita, Kumdalia, Kumdaliga, Kumdalinicalana, Kumdalishakti, Kumdalishashayana, Kumdalu, Kumdamgi, Kumdami, Kumdamoa, Kumdanagarike, Kumdanavale, Kumdanavidu, Kumdanike, Kumdarakaddihullu, Kumdaramavu, Kumdarisu.
Ends with (+99): Agastyakunda, Agnikunda, Ajyakunda, Amarakunda, Amritakunda, Arddhacandrakunda, Arddhachandrakunda, Ardhacandrakunda, Ashtashrakunda, Asikunda, Asthikunda, Ayahkunda, Bahyakunda, Balakunda, Bambhakumda, Bhramarakunda, Birakunda, Brahmakunda, Brahmanakunda, Brahmikunda.
Full-text (+413): Kundashin, Kundagolaka, Homakunda, Kundini, Kaunda, Kundakila, Kundika, Amritakunda, Kundavrisha, Devakunda, Padmakunda, Vorata, Kumda, Shvakunda, Kundacaturthi, Kundaja, Kundaka, Campakunda, Kaundayana, Kundi.
Search found 64 books and stories containing Kunda, Kuṇḍa, Kuṇḍā, Kundā, Kumda, Kuṃḍa, Kuṃda, Kuṃdā; (plurals include: Kundas, Kuṇḍas, Kuṇḍās, Kundās, Kumdas, Kuṃḍas, Kuṃdas, Kuṃdās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 332 - Greatness of Rukmiṇī < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 298 - Greatness of Guptaprayāga (Gupta Prayāga) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 23 - Installation of Someśvara (Soma-īśvara) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Biography (22): Kuṇḍa Dhāna Mahāthera < [Chapter 43 - Forty-one Arahat-Mahatheras and their Respective Etadagga titles]
Jnaneshwari (Bhavartha Dipika) (by Ramchandra Keshav Bhagwat)
Verse 16.17 < [Chapter 16 - Daivasura-sampad-vibhaga-yoga]
Verse 17.11 < [Chapter 17 - Shraddha-traya-vibhaga-yoga]
Verse 9.15 < [Chapter 9 - Raja-vidya and Raja-guhya Yoga]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 35 - Paraśurāma visits Agastya’s hermitage (āśrama) < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 32 - Paraśurāma’s penance (d): Paraśurāma receives missiles from Śiva < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 20 - Description of the netherworlds (pātāla) < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter XXXII - The spiritual and formal worship of vishnu < [Book V - Upasama khanda (upashama khanda)]
Chapter XIII - Anecdote of indra, and an account of the atomic world < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter CLXXX - Brahma gita: the story on austere devotee < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]