Kunda, Kuṇḍa: 28 definitions


Kunda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kunda (कुन्द) is a Sanskrit word referring to Jasminum multiflorum, a species of Jasmina from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. It is also known as Sadāpuṣpa. In English, the plant is known as “Jasmine”. It is a large scadent tomentose shrub with simple and ovate leaves. The flowers are white and slightly fragrant. The fruits are black globose berries. It grows throughout India (eg. in the forest of Western Ghats and sub-Himalayan tracts).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kunda (कुन्द) refers to the lotus and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 495. The lotus is also called by the names Kamala, Jalaja (verse 45), Padma, and Nīlanalina, Nīlotpala (verse 62 and 339), Irā (verse 673-675ff.) and Jātī (verse 429).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—A very erudite Brahmarṣi. He was present at the serpent yajña of Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 8).

2) Kunda (कुन्द).—One of the five attendants given by Dhātā to Skandadeva, the other four being Kusuma, Kumuda, Ḍambara and Āḍambara. (Śalya, Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 38).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—A chief Vānara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 241.

1b) Five in Prayāga, in the midst of which flows the Gaṅgā;1 three fire kuṇḍas outside Prayāga through which the Ganges flows.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 104. 13.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 110. 4.

2) Kunda (कुन्द).—A mountain of Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 10.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड, “pit”) refers to “the receptacle of the sacred fire” to be build by the sthapati, in front of the yāgamaṇḍapa, according to the Mānasāra chapter 70 (“chiselling the eyes of the image”). It should be smeared with cow-dung in front of it.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to the “fire pit” (the receptacle of the sacred fire).—The Mānasāra does not elaborate the shape of this fire-pit. Chapter VII of Kāmikāgama is dedicated entirely to shapes and measurements of the fire-pit. The treatise Mayamata (XVIII, 178a; XXV, 42) also outlines measurements for fire-pits of various shapes: quadrangular, vulva-form, circular, semi-circular, triangular, hexagonal, lotiform, octagonal, heptagonal and pentagonal. It stipulates eight fire-pits in eight directions to be prepared for the Opening of the Eye ceremony—of square, vulva, semicircuiar, triangular, circular, hexagonal, lotus and octaganal shapes. They signify aṣṭamūrti, the eight-fold manifestation of Śiva.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “bowel-shaped basins”, the construction of which is a ceremony in Śaktism described in the Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V.—Kuṇḍas are prepared round the altar in all directions. They are of eight shapes viz. (1) quadrangular (2) womb-shaped (yoni-kuṇḍa) (3) half-moon-shaped (4) triangular (5) circular (6) hexagonal (7) lotus-shaped and (8) octagonal. Of these the construction of the quadrangular kuṇḍa is the simplest. A square piece of ground, measuring one hasta on all sides, is taken and the quadrangular kuṇḍa is prepared. The construction of other seven kuṇḍas is given in Śāradātilaka III 53-65. All these are prepared with great care and dimensional accuracy. We shall confine ourselves to the description of quadrangular kuṇḍa alone.

The dimensions of a kuṇda depend upon the number of oblations which are to be offered. Thus for fifty oblations a kuṇḍa should be prepared of one muṣṭi in length, breadth, and depth; for a hundred oblations it should be a cube of one ‘aratni’ and for a thousand a cube of one hasta. The form of a kuṇḍa is like the body of prakṛti. The head is towards the east, the arms towards the north and south and the yoni and feet towards the west. The kuṇḍa represents the belly of prakṛti.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड, “fire-pit”) is mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.82. The fire-pit (kuṇḍa), used for the homa ritual here is of four kinds:

  1. trikoṇakuṇḍa,
  2. vṛttakuṇḍa,
  3. matsyakuṇḍa,
  4. vajrakuṇḍa.

Aside from the Kakṣaptatantra, various tantras mention kinds of kuṇḍa. For example, the Tattvacintāmaṇi (7.1-13) explains six kinds of kuṇḍa:

  1. caturasrakuṇḍa,
  2. yonikuṇḍa,
  3. tryasrakuṇḍa,
  4. vṛttakuṇḍa,
  5. arddhacandrakuṇḍa,
  6. padmakuṇḍa.
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “fire-pit”, as dealt with in the twenty-fifth chapter of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits. Accordingly, “O wise man! just as the ground was divided formerly for drawing (accomplishing) the maṇḍala, similarly, regions, enumerated as before, are to be created from the site in the square or rectangle, which is already divided. Listen (to it)”.

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) refers to “one who is born of adultery”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not despise Tantra or be devoted to plotting against others. He should not be born of adultery (kuṇḍa) nor have the voice of a crow, be impotent, timid or irascible. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., kuṇḍa), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., kuṇḍa) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Kunda (कुन्द) refers to a “turner’s lathe”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 19.54. See also Tarku.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

1) Kunda (कुन्द)—Sanskrit for “jasmine flowers”.

2) Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) is a Sanskrit word translating to “water pot ”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड) is a Sanskrit word referring to a small lake or pond.

Source: Sanskrit Literature: Kunda - Downy Jasmine

The Kunda is one of the many forms of jasmine found in India, identified as Jasminum Multiflorum or Jasminum Pubescens. It is a creeper with small white flowers, proverbially white along with other favourites of poets like the moon and snow. And like foam, and any white object, flowering kundas represent laughter. Blooming in śiśira, the Kunda withers at the onset of spring and is indeed one of the signs of the imminent change of season according to the Kāvyamimāṃsa. Bees, traditional lovers of the lotus, flock to the kunda and mourn for the departure of its blooms.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A yakkha who once inhabited a forest, called Kundadhana (UdA.122) after him.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kunda (कुन्द) refers to “jasmine”: a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers (eg., Kunda) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kunda (कुन्द) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kunda] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kuṇḍa.—(EI 23), a spring. (EI 31), a pond. Note: kuṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kunda : (nt.) a kind of jasmine.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kunda, (nt.) the jasmine Dāvs. V, 28. (Page 221)

— or —

Kuṇḍa, (a) bent, crooked DA. I, 296 (°daṇḍaka); PvA. 181. (Page 220)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṇḍa (कुंड).—n (S) A pool, a well, a spring or basin of water, esp. as consecrated to some holy purpose or person. 2 A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space on the surface, or a metal square-mouthed vessel (for receiving and preserving consecrated fire). 3 m See kuṇḍagōlaka under gōlaka. 4 A pitcher.

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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m (Enhancing form of kuṇḍī) A large openmouthed jar; as a flowerpot, a leather-worker's steeping pot, a dyer's vat, a māndaṇa or receiver of the expressed juice of sugarcanes, a vessel for levigating or comminuting snuff, bhang &c. 2 The gourd-receiver of the exudation of Palm trees.

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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m (Commonly kōṇḍā) Bran.

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kunda (कुंद).—a (kōndaṇēṃ) Stuffed or blocked up;--esp. a pipe or tube, as the tube of guḍaguḍī &c.: also obstructed in passage--wind or air: hence sounding as if stuffed or choked, thick-sounding--air, a musical pipe or chord, the throat or voice.

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kunda (कुंद).—m (S) A kind of Jasmin, Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens. 2 A consumptive disease attacking cattle. 3 The angle of junction formed by two portions of the roof: also the turn of a road. 4 The tree or figure worked in the corner of a rūmāla, śālajōḍī &c. 5 One of the nine treasures of kubēra. 6 Olibanum. 7 A small tree with large white flowers, Jasminum arborescens.

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kundā (कुंदा).—m A kind of grass. 2 A flowering shrub. 3 (Properly kuṇḍā) A vessel of stone or earth to grind bhang &c. 4 ( P) The stock of a musket.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṇḍa (कुंड).—n A pool, well, spring of water. A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space on the surface, or a metal squaremouthed vessel (for receiving and preserving consecrated fire).

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kuṇḍā (कुंडा).—m A large open-mouthed jar.

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kunda (कुंद).—m A kind of jasmine. a Stuffed ro blocked up- esp. a pipe or tube; also obstructed in passage-wind or air.

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kundā (कुंदा).—m A kind of grass. The stock of a musket.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—[cf. Uṇ.1.112]

1) A bowl-shaped vessel, a basin, bowl.

2) A round hole in the ground for receiving and preserving water. बलं नागसहस्रस्य यस्मि- न्कुण्डे प्रतिष्ठितम् (balaṃ nāgasahasrasya yasmi- nkuṇḍe pratiṣṭhitam) Mb.1.128.68.

3) A hole in general; अग्निकुण्डम् (agnikuṇḍam).

4) A pool, well; especially one consecrated to some deity or holy purpose.

5) The bowl of a mendicant.

6) A water-jar (kamaṇḍalu).

-ḍaḥ (-ḍā f.) A son born in adultery, the son of a woman by a man other than her husband while the husband is alive; पत्यौ जीवति कुण्डः स्यात् (patyau jīvati kuṇḍaḥ syāt) Ms.3.174; Y.1.22.

-ṇḍā An epithet of Durgā.

Derivable forms: kuṇḍaḥ (कुण्डः), kuṇḍam (कुण्डम्).

See also (synonyms): kuṇḍī.

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Kunda (कुन्द).—[Uṇ.4.98] A kind of jasmine (white and delicate); कुन्दावदाताः कलहंसमालाः (kundāvadātāḥ kalahaṃsamālāḥ) Bk.2.18; प्रातः कुन्दप्रसवशिथिलं जीवितं धारयेथाः (prātaḥ kundaprasavaśithilaṃ jīvitaṃ dhārayethāḥ) Me.115; Ś.5.19.

-ndam The flower of this plant; अलके बालकुन्दानुविद्धम् (alake bālakundānuviddham) Me.67,49.

-ndaḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu.

2) A fragrant oleander.

3) One of the nine treasures of Kubera.

4) The number 'nine'.

5) A lotus.

6) A turner's lathe.

Derivable forms: kundaḥ (कुन्दः), kundam (कुन्दम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—adj., (1) in the sense of Sanskrit (and Pali) kuṇṭha, dull, blunt: LV 252.2 (prose) kuṇḍayā śaktyā śiraḥka- pālam upahanyād; Tibetan rtul pos, dull, blunt; despite this, and on no apparent ground, Foucaux translates both the Sanskrit and even the Tibetan (!) by aiguë!; no v.l. reported by Lefm.; (2) in Mvy 7363 and 8875 acc. to Tibetan lag rdum, maimed in the hand; so also Chin. and Japanese; same meaning perh. in Pali, Pv. comm. 181.9 catūhi aṅgehi kuṇḍo (bent, PTSD); pw 7.332 krüppelicht, lahm; compare Dhātup. kuṇḍ-, vaikalye, and the use of kuṇṭha (Sanskrit blunt, a meaning which BHS kuṇḍa has) in BHS and Pali in the ad- ditional sense of mutilated, maimed. See also next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇḍa (कुण्ड).—m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) A son born in adultery, the son of a woman by another man than her husband, while the husband is alive. n.

(-ṇḍaṃ) 1. A hole in the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire. 2. A pool, a well, a spring of basin of water, especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person. 3. A measure. mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pitcher. f. (-ṇḍī) A student’s water-pot, made of a hollow cocoanut, &c. E. kuḍi to preserve, ḍa aff.

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Kunda (कुन्द).—mn.

(-ndaḥ-ndaṃ) A kind of jasmin, (J. multiflorum or pubescens.) m.

(-ndaḥ) 1. A turner’s lathe. 2. Olibanum, the resin of the Boswellia thurifera: see kundaru 3. One of Kuvera'S nine treasures. 4. The Nerium plant. E. ku to sound, dana Unadi affix, and num inserted, or ku the earth, und to hurt, and aṇ affix; also with kan added kundaka.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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