Sara, Śāra, Shara, Sāra, Ṣaṟā: 54 definitions
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Sara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śāra and Ṣaṟā can be transliterated into English as Sara or Shara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Saar.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Sāra (सार) is the Sanskrit word translating to “iron”, a naturally occurring and commonly found metal (symbol Fe). It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi
Sara (सरस्), which means fluid, refers to anything that flows and as such applies to speech and thought as well as water. See Sarasvatī.Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)
Śara (शर) or “arrow” and refers to one of the five different types of Eyes, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The fifth variety of eye should be in the shape of a śara i.e., an arrow and the measurement should be ten yavas. This kind of eyes should be attached with the portrait of a person who is in anger or pain. It is important to note that the difference between the cāpa form and the śara form of eyes can be pointed out on the basis of the measurement. Here the particular measurements specified for the portrayal of eyes reflects the writer’s observational maturity.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Sara (सर, “mobile”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Sara is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘mobility’, while its opposing quality, Sthira, refers to its ‘firmness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.
The quality of Sara, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Water (ap) and Air (vāyu).Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Sara (सर) refers to that which is “purgative” (i.e., cow’s milk), as mentioned in verse 5.21-23 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] among the (different kinds of milk [viz., payas]), cow’s milk [viz., gavya] (is) a vitalizer (and) elixir; (it is) wholesome for pulmonary rupture and pulmonary consumption, intellectualizing, invigorative, productive of breast-milk, (and) purgative [viz., sara] , (and) destroys fatigue, giddiness, intoxication, unbeautifulness, dyspnea, cough, excessive thirst, hunger, old fever, strangury, and hemorrhage [...]”.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Sara (सर) refers to the “cream of curds”, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Curds was widely used in Vedic period. Ṛgveda mentions a preparation in which the curds were mixed with Soma juice and barley meal. [...] According to Om Prakash, the cream of milk (santānikā), the cream of curds (sara), whey (mastu), fresh butter (navanīta), clarified butter (ghṛta) and the butter milk (takra) are all referred to in Ayurvedic preparations. Curds churned without water (ghola) is referred to in Suśrutasaṃhitā.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Sara (सर):—Instableness / mobileness; one among 20 gurvadi guna; caused due activated jala; denotes physiological & pharmacological instability & mobility; causes mobilisation; helps in reduction of body tissues.
2) Sāra (सार):—1. heartwood / pith of a plant
3) 1. Eight states of excellence an indivudual may have (seven of Dhatus and one of Sattva). 2. Essential, very good of its kind, Essence, essential part, Highest best, Most excellent.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Sarā (सरा) is another name for Prasāriṇī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Paederia foetida Linn. or “skunkvine” from the Rubiaceae or “coffee” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.36-38 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Sarā and Prasāriṇī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā
Śara (शर) refers to Saccharum munja Roxb. and is the name of a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī, Singh and Chunekar, 1999).—Saccharum munja Roxb. is a synonym of Saccharum bengalense Retz.—(Cf. The Plant List, A Working List of All Plant Species 391, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Śāra (शार).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Sāra (सार) refers to “essence”, symbolically represented by ashes (bhasma) used in ceremonies and rites, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “[...] for the sake of resplendence, the ashes (bhasma) shall be taken. The word bhasma (Ash) means that which is honoured and adored. Śiva formerly did so. A king takes the essence (sāra) of wealth by way of tax, in his kingdom. Men burn plants and take the essence (sāra) thereof. The gastirc fire burns different kinds of foodstuffs and with their essence (sāra) nourishes the body. Similarly the great lord Śiva, the creator of the universe, burns the universe presided over by Him and takes the essence of the same. After burning the universe He applies the ashes (bhasma) over his body. Under the pretext of annihilation He has taken the essence out of the same. He assigned the essence (sāra) to His own body. The essence Ākāśa (the Ether) constitutes His hair. The essence of the wind principle constitutes His face. The essence of the Fire principle constitutes His heart, that of the principles of waters the hip and that of the principle of the Earth the knees. Thus the other limbs too. The Tripuṇḍraka (the three parallel lines of ash marks over the forehead) is the essence of Trinity: Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra. Similarly Maheśvara has retained the esence of everything in the form of Tilaka (the small circular mark) on the forehead”.
2) Śara (शर) (Cf. Bāṇa) refers to the “arrows” of Kāma, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.17 (“The dialogue between Indra and Kāmadeva”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] Profiting by that opportune moment, Kāma, by means of his arrow Harṣaṇa delighted the moon-crest god Śiva who was nearby. O sage, in assistance to Kāma, Pārvatī reached the place near Śiva with emotions of love and accompanied by Spring. In order to make the trident-bearing lord take interest in her, Kāma drew his bow very carefully and discharged his flowery arrow [i.e., puṣpa-śara] on Him. [...]”.
2) Śara (शर) refers to “five”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.21 (“Nārada instructs Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Nārada said to Pārvatī: “[...] O Śiva [Śivā?], meditate on His form, observing all restraints. Repeat the five-syllabled [i.e., śara-akṣara] mantra. Śiva will be pleased quickly. O chaste lady, perform the penance thus. Lord Śiva can be attained through penance. Every one attains the desired fruits in penance and not otherwise”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Sara (सर).—A Vānara chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 232.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śara (शर) refers to the “arrow”, a weapon which should measure should measure four tālas (unit of measurement), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. In dramatic plays, weapons such as śara should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons engaged in a fight, angry conflict or siege. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Dhanurveda (science of warfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda
Śara (शर) refers to an “arrow”. It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.
Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Sara (सर).—Unadi affix सर (sara) mentioned in the rule तितुत्रतथसिसुसरकसेषु च (titutratathasisusarakaseṣu ca) P. VII. 2.7. e.g. अक्षरम् (akṣaram); cf. अशेः क्सरन् (aśeḥ ksaran) Unadi.III.70.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Śara (शर).—1. Arrow. 2. R versed sine. 3. Celestial latitude. 4. Height of an arc or segment of a circle. Note: Śara is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Kavyashastra (science of poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)
Sāra (सार) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure of speech sāra has been admitted by Mammaṭa (X/190), Viśvanātha (X/102) and Jagannātha (R.G. P. 626). Jayadeva and Appayyadīkṣita have also admitted sāra-alaṃkāra.
Sāra has also been admitted by Cirañjīva in his Kāvyavilāsa. He has defined sāra as follows—“uttarottaramutkarṣe varṇite sāra ucyate”.—“Where the excellence is described successively, the figure of speech sāra occurs”.
Example of the sāra-alaṃkāra:—
sārā lokeṣu vidvāṃsasteṣu sāra vivekinaḥ |
teṣvanuṣṭhānakartārasteṣu kṛṣṇapadānugāḥ ||
“In this world learned persons are the essence, among them conscientious are excellent. Again among them those who perform actually are excellent, among those who follow the feet of Kṛṣṇa are the essence”.
Notes: Here learned persons are the essence and are superior to common man. Among the learned persons those having conscience are superior among the performers who take resort to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa are the essence of this world. Thus this is an example of sārālaṃkāra as the excellence has been described successively.
Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Google Books: Studies on the Moksopaya
Sāra (सार) refers to “essence”, according to the 10th century Mokṣopāya or Mokṣopāyaśāstra 6.182.13-17.—Accordingly, “With regard to each of [the three:] perceiver (draṣṭṛ), perception (darśana) and perceived objects (dṛśya), the state of mere knowledge is the essence [i.e., sāra]; therefore there is not in the least a difference from it (i.e. knowledge), like a flower in space (is not different from space). (13) What is of the same kind becomes one. Therefore mutual perception [of things] determines their unity. (14) If wood, stones and other [material objects] did not have knowledge as their nature, then there would be a permanent non-perception of these, which would even be nonexistent. (15) When the whole beauty of perceptible objects has but one form of mere knowledge, then, whether it is different or identical, it becomes known through knowledge. (16) This whole [group of] perceptible objects in the world has expanded [as] mere knowledge, just as wind [i.e., vāyu] is mere movement [i.e., spanda-mātra] and the ocean mere water. (17)”.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Śara (शर) refers to an “arrow” and represents one of the weapons of Koṅkaṇā, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the visualization of Koṅkaṇā: “She is the most excellent of the supreme, Parā, the goddess of the Kaula of the Command of Knowledge. (She is) the wish-granting gem of sovereign power (śrī). (Her) weapons are a bow and wheel; she has a sword and an axe, and holds a goad and a noose. She is the unfailing Koṅkaṇā, the Kaula Weapon (who holds a) bow, arrow [i.e., dhanu-śara], club, thunderbolt, and javelin. (She has big) fang-like teeth. [...]”.
2) Śara (शर) refers to the “arrow” and as one of the weapons (attributes) of Goddess Kubjikā symbolizes “the destruction of the enemy”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(Now) I will tell (you about) the great weapons of that (goddess) Kubjikā. [...] (One) attains (ultimate) reality by means of the trident and Māyā is destroyed by means of the wheel. All diseases are destroyed by the thunderbolt while the goad is considered to be (the means to attract and) control. The enemy is destroyed by the arrow [i.e., śara]. The dagger is the avoidance of obstacles. Wealth is acquired by means of the severed head and the eight yogic powers by the ascetic’s staff”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)
Sāra (सार) refers to the “essence (of liberation)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.132.—Accordingly, “[The passage] ‘inasmuch as they are [somehow] manifest in the concept [representing them’ means the following]. [...] And ‘liberation,’ [apprehended] as consisting of an absolute fullness the essence of which (ekasāra) is nothing but the plenitude of a bliss that is not brought about [because in fact it is] innate, [...]—[all these] must belong to the realm of phenomena; otherwise such [things] as the fact that [they] can be desired, the search for the realization of this [desire], their determination [as having] this [particular] form and place, the practice in accordance with [this determination], etc., would [all] be impossible”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Śara (शर) refers to “arrows”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] He is in the prime of his youth and has all the auspicious characteristics. He has the great Ajagava bow placed on his left side. On his right, he has five glowing arrows (ujjvalat-pañca-śara). He is shining like a blue lotus. On his chest there is a glittering garland of blue lotuses. He is the Lord. [...]”.Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Śara (शर) refers to “grass”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] The Devīs are white, red, yellow, and black, four-faced, four armed, three eyed, and in [their] hands bear golden hatchets, sticks and rosaries. [...] Mounted on a corpse, Jayā Devī shines forth [in white]; four-armed, four-faced, three-eyed, red Vijayā holds grass, a bow (śara-kārmuka-dhāriṇī), a shield and a sword, [while] standing upon an owl, O Devī. [...] [When one] worships and meditates on [the Devīs, as they] stand in the cardinal directions, [the Devīs grant the practitioner] the fruits of siddhi. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Śara (शर) refers to “arrows”, according to the Piṅgalāmata (verse 10.93-128).— Accordingly, [while describing the pura on a 9-by-9-plan and the 32 padas]—“At Gṛhakṣata one should set up [a storeroom for] bows, arrows (śara), swords, and other weapons. At Yama there should be a place for ascetics to achieve contemplation of the self. Singers are stationed at Gandharva. At Bhṛṅga is a hall for the exposition [of the śāstras]. Or one may construct a large maṭha on the four [positions] which are Gṛhakṣata and [Yama, Gandharva and Bhṛṅga]”.Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)
Sāra (सार) refers to one of the hundred types of Temples (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is quite difficult to say about a definite number of varieties of Hindu temples but in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa hundred varieties of temples have been enumerated. For example, Sāra. These temples are classified according to the particular shape, amount of storeys and other common elements, such as the number of pavilions, doors and roofs. [...] The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa relates that the temple named Sāra should be constructed in liṅga shape.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics
Śara (शर) represents the number 5 (five) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 5—śara] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Sāra (सार) is a Sanskrit word referring to a whitish reed.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Śara (शर) refers to the “arrows” (for the bow), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “[Question: Why is the Buddha called Arhat?]—[Answer]: Ara means enemy (ari) and hat means to kill (han). The expression therefore means ‘killer of enemies’. Some stanzas say: ‘The Buddha has patience (kṣānti) as his armor (varman), Energy (vīrya) as his helmet (śīrṣaka), Discipline (śīla) as his great steed (mahāśva), Dhyāna as his bow (dhanus), Wisdom (prajñā) as his arrows (śara). Outwardly, he destroys the army of Māra (mārasena). Inwardly, he destroys the passions (kleśa), his enemies. He is called Arhat. [...]’.Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Sara (सर) [?] (in Chinese: Sa-lo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Rohiṇī or Rohiṇīnakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Rohiṇī] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Sara] for the sake of protection and prosperity.Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture
1) Śara (शर) refers to a “reed”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “He who desires a mighty rain must perform this rite ‘the great-cloud-circle’ in an open space, overspread by a blue canopy, shaded by a blue banner, on a clear spot of earth; [...] then the prophet of the Law, after having painted towards the four quarters with liquid cow-dung on a reed (śara), in the eastern quarter three hastas high must depict the snake-king called Triśīrṣaka, with cow-dung: in the southern quarter him called Pañcaśīrṣaka five hastas high; in the western, seven hastas high, Saptaśīrṣaka; in the northern, Navaśīrṣaka, nine hastas high. [...]”.
2) Sara (सर) refers to a “lake” (suitable for performing offering ceremonies), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “At the time of drought one should prepare a maṇḍala with clay and cow dung measuring three hastas on a mountain, in a forest, at a monastery, a spring, a pool, a tank, a well, a lake (sara), or the residence of the Nāgas. One should dig a hole measuring a hasta in the middle of the maṇḍalaka. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Śara (शर) refers to an “arrow” and is used to describe Locanī, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Locanī, having a golden color, arrow and shining appearance (śara—śara-candrākāraṃ dharā), Māmakī, having a dark-blue color, water, grain and a bouquet, Pāṇḍarā, having a red color, and drawing a bow and arrow, Holy goddess Ārya Tārā, having a green color and blue lotus”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
1) Sāra (सार) refers to “substance”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fool, you must understand, in reality, substance (sāra) is not acknowledged in a mass of foam, the trunk of a plantain tree or in the body of human beings. The planets, moon, sun, stars and seasons go and come [but] certainly for embodied souls bodies do not [go and come] even in a dream”.
2) Sāra (सार) refers to the “best part (of the city)” (of the chief of the snakes), according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “The doctrine is able to produce the happiness which is the best part of the city (purī-sāra) of the chief of the snakes. The doctrine is the great joy conveyed to the world of mortals for those possessing a desire for that. The doctrine is the place of the arising of the taste for the constant happiness in the city of heaven. Does not the doctrine make a man fit for pleasure with a woman [in the form] of liberation?”.
Synonyms: Pradhāna.Source: academia.edu: Rare Sanskrit Words from the Commentary on the Bṛhat-kalpa-bhāṣya
Sara (सर) refers to “water”.—In his publication for the Journal of Jaina Studies, Yutaka Kawasaki collected in a non-definite list several rare Sanskrit words (e.g., sammilana) from Malayagiri’s and Kṣemakīrti’s commentaries on the Bṛhatkalpabhāṣya: a 6th century commentary on monastic discipline authored by Svetambara Jain exegete Saṅghadāsa.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Sara (“string”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Sara) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śara.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: śara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Sārā.—(EI 9; LP), care; cf. etair = aṣṭabhir = goṣṭhikaiḥ…sārā karaṇīyā, ‘[this place of worship] has to be taken care of by the following eight trustees’. Cf. also Gujarātī sāravār. (EI 8, 11), supervision. Note: sārā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Shodhganga: Vernacular architecture of Assam with special reference to Brahmaputra Valley
Sara is a Garo term referring to “open space around which houses are constructed in hills”.—It appears in the study dealing with the vernacular architecture (local building construction) of Assam whose rich tradition is backed by the numerous communities and traditional cultures.Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)
Sara (सर) refers to one of the various shops or “market places” (Sanskrit: Haṭṭa, Prakrit: Cauhaṭṭa) for a medieval town in ancient India, which were vividly depicted in Kathās (narrative poems), for example, by Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā.—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] In the Kuvalayamālā, some names of shops according to articles displayed in them is given, [i.e., sara] [...] Thus Uddyotana has in his view a complete form of a medieval market place with the number of lines full of different commodities.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs
Sara [ସାରା] in the Odia language is the name of a plant identified with Origanum vulgare L. from the Lamiaceae (Mint) family having the following synonyms: Origanum creticum, Origanum officinale, Origanum orientale. For the possible medicinal usage of sara, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
1) Shara in India is the name of a plant defined with Saccharum arundinaceum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet (among others).
2) Shara is also identified with Saccharum bengalense It has the synonym Erianthus sara (Roxb.) Rumke (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1990)
· Flora Indica; or descriptions … (1820)
· Hortus Bengalensis, or a catalogue … (1814)
· Indian Forester (1954)
· Mantissa (1824)
· Grasses of Ceylon (1956)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Shara, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
sara : (m.) 1. an arrow; 2. a sound; 3. a vowel; 4. a lake; 5. a kind of reed. || sāra (m.), essence; the pith of a tree; the choicest part. (adj.) essential; excellent; strong.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Sāra, (Vedic sāra nt. ) 1. essential, most excellent, strong A. II, 110; Vin. IV, 214; J. III, 368; Pug. 53.—2. (m.) the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree (see also pheggu) M. I, 111; J. I, 331; Miln. 413; most excellent kind of wood Vin. II, 110; D. II, 182, 187; sattasārā the elect, the salt of the earth M. III, 69. ‹-› 3. substance, essence, choicest part (generally at the end of comp.) Vin. I, 184; A. II, 141; S. III, 83, 140; Sn. 5, 330, 364; Dh. 11 sq.; PvA. 132, 211 (candana°). sāre patiṭṭhito established, based, on what is essential M. I, 31; A. II, 183.—4. value Miln. 10; appasāra of small value D. II, 346.—asāra worthless Sn. 937; nissāra the same J. II, 163 (pithless); mahāsāra of high value J. I, 384, 463.
— or —
1) Sara, 5 (Vedic svara, svar, cp. Lat. su-surrus, Ger. surren) sound, voice, intonation, accent Vin. II, 108; D. II, 24 sq.; A. I, 227; Pv. II, 124 (of birds’singing=abhiruda C.); J. II, 109; Sn. 610 (+vaṇṇa, which is doubtful here, whether “complexion” or “speech, ” preferably the former); DhsA. 17; eight qualities D. II, 211, 227; gītāssara song Vin. II, 108; bindussara a sweet voice Sn. 350; adj. J. II, 439; sīhassara with a voice like a lion’s J. V, 296, 311 (said of a prince). Cp. vissara.—In combination with vaṇṇa (vowel) at A. IV, 307; Miln. 340.
2) Sara, 4 (adj.) (fr. sarati2) remembering M. I, 453; A. II, 21; DA. I, 106. °saṅkappa mindfulness and aspiration M. I, 453; III, 132; S. IV, 76, 137, 190; Nett 16. (Page 697)
3) Sara, 3 (m. -nt.) (Vedic saras) a lake J. I, 221; II, 10; VI, 518 (Mucalinda); there are seven great lakes (mahā-sarā, viz. Anotatta, Sīhapapāta, Rathakāra, Kaṇṇamuṇḍa, Kuṇāla, Chaddanta, Mandākini) A. IV, 101; D. I, 54; J. II, 92; DA. I, 164, 283; aṇṇava° the ocean D. II, 89; cp. A. II, 55; Loc. sare J. II, 80; sarasmiṃ Sn. 1092; & sarasi Mhvs 10, 7; jātassara a natural lake J. I, 472 sq. (Page 697)
4) Sara, 2 (adj. -n.) (fr. sarati1 1. going, moving, following Sn. 3, 901 — 2. fluid, flow J. I, 359 (pūti°). (Page 697)
5) Sara, 1 (cp. Vedic śara) 1. the reed Saccharum sara Miln. 342.—2. an arrow (orig. made of that reed) D. I, 9; Dh. 304; Miln. 396; DhA 216 (visa-pīta).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śara (शर).—m (S) An arrow. 2 The arrow of Shiva, i. e. the three stars composing the belt of Orion. See under lubdhaka. 3 Distance from the Ecliptic, celestial latitude. 4 The versed sine.
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śara (शर).—a S In jyōtiṣa śāstra. Five.
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śarā (शरा).—m ( A) Law. Used in courts as signifying Muhammadan law.
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sara (सर).—m A string (as of gems, beads, flowers); a wreath, garland &c. 2 A long and squared piece of timber; or a long bamboo or other pole (as suitable for a joist, cross-beam, rafter &c.) Applied by many to a thick chop of wood or a stout stick (prepared for or viewed as fit for a pestle). 3 The horn-rope of bullocks. It is fixed on or renewed on the great bullock-festival called bēndūra or pōḷā.
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sara (सर).—m ( P Head.) Head figuratively, i. e. the chief, principal, president, superintendent &c.; as hyā sarvāṃvara harīpanta sara āhē. This use is rare; the general use is as a prefix to words designating the public officers of a state; as saradēśamukha, saradēśapāṇḍyā, sarasubhēdāra, saranāyaka, sarakamāvīsadāra; and their offices; as saradēśamukhī, sarasubhēdārī &c. Head-deshmukh &c. 2 The chief, leading, or preeminent person (of any corporation or company). 3 Following the words gāya, mhaisa, baila, ṭōṇagā, vāsarūṃ &c. it denotes unity, and thus corresponds with Head; as gāya sara ēka, mhaisa sara dōna One head of cows, two head of buffaloes. sara karaṇēṃ To overcome and take (a fort, a territory): also to accomplish or achieve (a great work generally).
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sara (सर).—f Equaling, rivaling, competing or coming up with. Usually neg. con. v yē. Ex. mātēcī sara na yēī upamātēlā agādha baḷa vāhō || kāya ghṛtācī pāvē upamā tēlālā agādha baḷa vāhō ||. 2 A term at cards,--a synonyme of talapha. 3 (For sarī) A line dug (as a trench or channel); or a line or row (as of plants).
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sara (सर).—f (sara or sarā S A cascade or waterfall.) A sudden and forceful gush, rush, outpouring, or proceeding; e. g. (with or without pāvasācī) a shower of rain; (with or without rāgācī) an outburst of passion; (raḍaṇyācī) a fit of crying; (tāpācī or hiṃvācī) a paroxysm or an accession of fever or of ague; piśācācī a sudden visitation of a pishach; (mamatēcī) a gush or forthflowing of affection or tenderness; (ānandācī or hāsaṇyācī) a rushing emotion or a sally of joy or laughter; paṭakīcī or jarīmarīcī -khōkalyācī &c. -sara. 2 m f A fit of delirium or of minor mental disturbance.
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sara (सर).—ind A particle from saraṇēṃ (To run into, tend towards &c.) expressing slightness, feeble existence, or incipient state of any quality. With this qualifying import it is added to adjectives, correspondingly with the English particle ish; as kāḷasara, kaḍasara, gōḍasara Blackish, bitterish, sweetish. 2 ad (saraṇēṃ) So as to run or flow over; in an overflowing manner;--as a river or a vessel. Ex. nadī varasara or kāṇṭhasara bharūna cālalī; bhāṇḍēṃ varasara or tōṇḍasara bharalēṃ.
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sarā (सरा).—m (Or sara) A long and straight bamboo or other pole (to be used as a rafter, cross-beam &c.) 2 A side-piece of a cart-box answering to the ghōḍēṃ running underneath. 3 A line of loose texture on a web from the turning aside of the threads.
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sarā (सरा).—m C (surā S) Liquor distilled from the juice of trees of the Palm-tribe: also spirituous liquor more generally.
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sāra (सार).—m n (S) Essence, substance, the essential or vital part (of a thing generally); sap, pith, marrow, cream, spirit, lit. fig.
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sāra (सार).—n A dilute mixture of tamarinds, mango-steins, and similar fruits squeezed in any pulse-decoction or in water, with salt, assafœtida &c. 2 The ring or band or rope by which the yard (of boats and small sailing vessels) is secured to the mast. 3 A term for sōṅkaṭyā in enumerating the objects upon which money is lavished; viz. ṭāra, gāra, nāra, sāra. See ṭāra &c.
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sāra (सार).—f Commonly sāīra.
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sārā (सारा).—a (sarva S) All or the whole; the whole number, mass, or quantity.
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sārā (सारा).—m A white film over the eyes; a thin layer or pellicle as over corrupted curds &c. 2 Assessment or tax.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śara (शर).—m An arrow.
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sara (सर).—m A string A wreath. The chief. f A row A shower of rain. Equal- ling. ind A particle expressing slight- ness. sara karaṇēṃ Overcome and take (a fort, &c.). Accomplish.
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sarā (सरा).—m Spirituous liquor.
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sāra (सार).—m n Essence; sap. n A dilute mix- ture of tamarinds, &c.
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sārā (सारा).—a All, the whole. m A white film over the eyes. Tax, assessment.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) An arrow, a shaft; क्व च निशितनिपाता वज्रसाराः शरास्ते (kva ca niśitanipātā vajrasārāḥ śarāste) Ś.1.1; शरश्च त्रिविधो ज्ञेयः स्त्री पुमाँश्च नपुंसकः । अग्रस्थूलो भवेन्नारी पश्चात्स्थूलो भवेत् पुमान् । समो नपुंसको ज्ञेयः (śaraśca trividho jñeyaḥ strī pumāṃśca napuṃsakaḥ | agrasthūlo bhavennārī paścātsthūlo bhavet pumān | samo napuṃsako jñeyaḥ) Dhanur. 62-63.
2) A kind of white reed or grass (Mar. devanaḷa, borū); कुशकाशशरैः पर्णैः सुपरिच्छादितां तथा (kuśakāśaśaraiḥ parṇaiḥ suparicchāditāṃ tathā) Rām.3.15.22; शरकाण्डपाण्डुगण्डस्थला (śarakāṇḍapāṇḍugaṇḍasthalā) M.3.8; मुखेन सीता शरपाण्डुरेण (mukhena sītā śarapāṇḍureṇa) R.14.26; Śiśupālavadha 11.3.
3) The cream of slightly curdled milk, cream; आपो वा अर्कस्तद्यदपां शर आसीत् सम- हन्यत सा पृथिवी (āpo vā arkastadyadapāṃ śara āsīt sama- hanyata sā pṛthivī) Bṛ. Up.1.2.2.
4) Hurt, injury, wound.
5) The number 'five'; cf. शराग्नि (śarāgni) q. v.
6) (In astr.) The versed sine of an arc.
7) Kuśa grass; तथा शरेष्वपि (tathā śareṣvapi) MS.8.3.33 (śaraśabdasyāpi kuśeṣu prayogo dṛśyate ŚB. on ibid.); भृशरसं शरसंहितकान्तिके (bhṛśarasaṃ śarasaṃhitakāntike) Rām. ch.4.7.
Derivable forms: śaraḥ (शरः).
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Śāra (शार).—a. [śār-ac śṝ-ghañ vā]
1) Variegated, speckled, mottled, spotted; पक्ष्मोत्क्षेपादुपरिविलसत् कृष्णशारप्रभाणाम् (pakṣmotkṣepāduparivilasat kṛṣṇaśāraprabhāṇām) Me. 49.
-raḥ 1 A variegated colour.
2) Green colour.
3) Air, wind.
4) A piece used at chess, a chessman; कालः काल्या भुवनफलके क्रीडति प्राणिशारैः (kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ) Bhartṛhari 3.39.
5) Injuring, hurting.
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Sara (सर).—a. [sarati-sṛ-ac]
1) Going or moving.
2) Cathartic, purgative.
-raḥ 1 Going, motion.
2) An arrow.
3) The coagulum of curds or milk, cream.
5) A string, necklace; अयं कण्ठे बाहुः शिशिरमसृणो मौक्तिकसरः (ayaṃ kaṇṭhe bāhuḥ śiśiramasṛṇo mauktikasaraḥ) U. 1.39.29.
6) A water-fall.
7) A short vowel (in prosody).
-ram 1 water.
2) A lake, pool.
-rā 1 Motion, movement.
2) A cascade.
-rī A water-fall.
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Sāra (सार).—a. [sṛ-gham, sār-ac vā]
2) Best, highest, most excellent; एतद्वः सारफल्गुत्वं बीजयोन्योः प्रकीर्तितम् (etadvaḥ sāraphalgutvaṃ bījayonyoḥ prakīrtitam) Manusmṛti 9.56; द्वयोः सारं तुल्यं द्वितयमभियुक्तेन मनसा (dvayoḥ sāraṃ tulyaṃ dvitayamabhiyuktena manasā) Mu.1.13.
3) Real, true, genuine.
4) Strong, vigorous; सारबलम् (sārabalam) Kau. A.1; सुयुद्धकामुकं सारमसारं विपरीतकम् (suyuddhakāmukaṃ sāramasāraṃ viparītakam) Śukra.4.872.
5) Sound, thoroughly proved.
6) Highest or best (at the end of comp.); त्रिवर्गसारः (trivargasāraḥ) Kumārasambhava 5.38.
7) Just, right; पृथोस्तत् सूक्तमाकर्ण्य सारं सुष्ठु मितं मधु (pṛthostat sūktamākarṇya sāraṃ suṣṭhu mitaṃ madhu) Bhāgavata 4.22.17.
8) Speckled, motley.
9) Driving away; योऽयं दिधक्षोर्दावपावकस्य गरिम- सारः सीकरासारः (yo'yaṃ didhakṣordāvapāvakasya garima- sāraḥ sīkarāsāraḥ) B. R.2.6/61.
-raḥ, -ram (but usually m. only except in the first 4 senses)
1) Essence, essential part, quintessence; स्नेहस्य तत् फलमसौ प्रणयस्य सारः (snehasya tat phalamasau praṇayasya sāraḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1. 9; Uttararāmacarita 6.22; असारे खलु संसारे सारमेच्चतुष्टयम् । काश्यां वासः सतां संगो गङ्गांम्भः शंभुसेवनम् (asāre khalu saṃsāre sārameccatuṣṭayam | kāśyāṃ vāsaḥ satāṃ saṃgo gaṅgāṃmbhaḥ śaṃbhusevanam) || Dharm.14.
2) Substance, pith.
3) Marrow; निःशेषं शकलितवल्कलाङ्गसारैः (niḥśeṣaṃ śakalitavalkalāṅgasāraiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 17.62.
4) Real truth, main point.
5) The sap or essence of trees; as in खदिरसार, सर्जसार (khadirasāra, sarjasāra).
6) Summary, epitome, compendium.
7) Strength, vigour, power, energy; सारं धरित्रीधरणक्षमं च (sāraṃ dharitrīdharaṇakṣamaṃ ca) Kumārasambhava 1.17; R.2.74.
8) Prowess, heroism, courage; राज्ञा हिमवतः सारो राज्ञः सारो हिमाद्रिणा (rājñā himavataḥ sāro rājñaḥ sāro himādriṇā) R.4.79.
9) Firmness, hardness.
1) Wealth, riches; गामात्तसाराम् (gāmāttasārām) R.5.26.
12) Fresh butter.
13) Air, wind.
14) Cream, coagulum of curds.
16) Matter, pus.
17) Worth, excellence, highest perception.
18) A man at chess.
19) Impure carbonate of soda.
2) A figure of speech corresponding to English 'climax'; उत्तरोत्तरमुत्कर्षो भवेत् सारः परावधिः (uttarottaramutkarṣo bhavet sāraḥ parāvadhiḥ) K. P.1.
21) The heart.
22) Course, motion.
24) Any or chief ingredient.
25) (In Rhet.) A kind of climax.
-rā 1 Dūrvā grass.
2) Kuśa grass.
-ram 1 Water
2) Fitness, propriety.
3) Wood, thicket.
4) Steel.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śara (शर).—name of a yakṣa: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.17.7.
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Śāra (शार).—m. or nt. (= AMg. sāla; perhaps read śāla ?), either ‘the 77th planet, named śāla’, or (more probably) ‘a celestial abode named śāla of the 8th Devaloka’ (Ratna- chandra, s.v. sāla, 7 and 8). In Mahāvastu i.231.4 (verse) read: ādityo (? next word uncertain; mss. vatavallo, which is metrical(ly) correct, or vadbalo) śāraṃ (or śālaṃ; mss. śāram) abhyud- gato (mss. atyudgataṃ; em. Senart) yathākāśe, like the sun when it has arisen in the sky up to the śāra (śāla). (On *śāra, a kind of bird, see sāra.)
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Sara (सर).—nt. (Sanskrit Lex., m.; Pali id. in [compound] sīghasara, uddhaṃsara, Sn 3, 901), going, course: (te satpuruṣā ye…) tathāgatacaṅkramaṇāni dharma-sarāṇi ca paśyanti Kāraṇḍavvūha 13.15 (prose). In Lalitavistara 329.5 (verse) kāmasarāhatāḥ, struck with the arrows of love (so Tibetan, ḥdod paḥi mdaḥ yis phog pa), sara (no v.l.) = Sanskrit śara.
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Sāra (सार).—m. (= Sanskrit śārī, śārikā, also written sā°), a [Page593-a+ 71] kind of bird, maina: sāra (all mss.; n. pl.), ivā ravanto Lalitavistara 296.11 (verse).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. A sort of reed or grass, (Saccharum sara.) 2. An arrow. 3. The upper part or cream of slightly curdled milk. 4. Mischief, injury, hurt. 5. The number “five.” n.
(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Versed sine of an arc. E. śṝ to hurt, aff. ap or ac; also sara .
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(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Variegated, (in colour.) 2. Yellow. m.
(-raḥ) 1. Air, wind. 2. A piece or man at chess, backgammon, &c. 3. Hurting, injuring. 4. A mixture of blue and yellow, a green. 5. Spotting, variegating. f. (-rī) Kuśa grass. E. śṝ to injure, ghañ aff.
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(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Who or what goes, occurring chiefly in composition, as anusara, avasara, &c. 2. Cathartic, purgative. m.
(-raḥ) 1. The thick part or coagulum of curds or milk, cream, &c. 2. Going, motion. 3. An arrow. 4. Saltness, salt. 5. A string. n.
(-raṃ) 1. A lake, a pool. 2. Water. mf. (-raḥ-rā or -rī) A cascade, a water-fall; also śara. E. sṛ to go, aff. ac .
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(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Best, excellent. 2. Irrefragable, (as an argument.) mn.
(-raḥ-raṃ) 1. The pith or sap of trees, &c. 2. Strength, vigour. 3. The essence of anything, the essential or vital part of it. 4. The substance or material part, (of a speech, book, message, &c.) 5. Marrow. 6. Air, wind. 7. Sickness, disease. 8. Firmness, hardness. 9. The coagulum of curds, &c., cream. 10. Fresh butter. 11. Prowess, valour, heroism. 12. Nectar. 13. Wealth, riches. m.
(-raḥ) 1. A man at chess, backgammon, &c. 2. Worth, excellence. 3. Compedium, summary. 4. Impure carbonate of soda. 5. Climax, (in rhetoric.) n.
(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Wealth. 3. Propriety, fitness. 4. Steel. 5. Wood, thicket. f.
(-rā) 1. Essential. 2. Best. 3. Strong, vigorous. 4. Genuine, true. 5. Thoroughly proved 6. Durbagrass. f. (-rī) The Shalika or Sarika, (Turdus salica, Buch.) E. sṛ to go, aff. ghañ; or sār-ac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śara (शर).—I. m. 1. A sort of reed, Saccharum sara, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 247; a reed, [Pañcatantra] 140, 25. 2. An arrow (i. e. śṛ10 + a), [Pañcatantra] 224, 11. 3. The cream of slightly curldled milk, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 43 (cream, cf. sara). Ii. n. Water.
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Śāra (शार).—I. adj. 1. Variegated (in colour), [Daśakumāracarita] in
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Sara (सर).—i. e. sṛ + a, I. adj. Who or what goes. Ii. m. 1. Going. 2. An arrow (? see śara). 3. The coagulum of curds or milk. 4. Salt, saltness. Iii. m., and f. rā or rī, A waterfall. Iv. n. 1. Water. 2. A pond, a lake, [Pañcatantra] 131, 15.
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Sāra (सार).—perhaps sṛ + a, with ‘cream,’ Ii. 9. as first signification, I. adj. 1. Easential, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 71. 2. Excellent, best, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Śara (शर).—1. [masculine] reed, arrow.
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Śara (शर).—2. [masculine] sour cream.
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Śara (शर).—3. (°—) water.
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Śāra (शार).—[feminine] ā mottled, spotted; [masculine] a stone or piece used at [several] games (also [feminine] ī).
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Sara (सर).—[adjective] fluid, liquid; ([feminine] ī) running, moving, going (—°). [feminine] sarā brook, sarī waterfall.
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Sāra (सार).—1. [adjective] driving away, removing; [masculine] course, way (only —°).
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Sāra (सार).—2. [masculine] [neuter] the interior firm parts of a body; firmness, solidity, strength; property, wealth; substance or essence of anything; nectar; water.
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Sarā (सरा).—= [Simple]
Sarā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and rā (रा).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śara (शर):—m. ([from] √śṝ ‘to rend’ or ‘destroy’) a sort of reed or grass, Saccharum Sara (used for arrows), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) an arrow, shaft, [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) Name of the number ‘five’ (from the 5 arrows of the god of love), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
4) (in [astronomy]) the versed sine of an arc ([according to] to [Āryabhaṭa] also ‘the whole diameter with subtraction of the versed sine’)
5) a [particular] configuration of stars (when all the planets are in the 4tb, 5th, 6th, and 7th houses), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
6) the upper part of cream or slightly curdled milk ([varia lectio] sara), [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra; Caraka]
7) mischief, injury, hurt, a wound, [Horace H. Wilson]
8) Name of a son of Ṛcatka, [Ṛg-veda]
9) of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] śuka)
10) n. water (See śara-varṣa and ṣin)
11) Śāra (शार):—1. śāra mf(ā)n. (in most meanings also written sāra; of doubtful derivation) variegated in colour, of different colours (as dark hair mixed with grey), motley, spotted, speckled, [Pāṇini 3-3, 21], [vArttika] 2
12) yellow, [Horace H. Wilson]
13) m. variegating or a variegated colour, ([especially]) a mixture of blue and yellow, green, [ib.]
14) (also śāraka) a kind of die or a piece used at chess or at backgammon, [Bhartṛhari; Daśakumāra-carita]
15) air, wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) hurting, injuring ([from] √śṝ), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) n. a variegated colour, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
18) 2. śāra Vṛddhi form of śara, in [compound]
19) Sara (सर):—a mf(ā)n. ([from] √sṛ) fluid, liquid, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
20) cathartic, purgative, laxative, [Suśruta; Vāgbhaṭālaṃkāra]
21) (ifc. f(ī). , [Pāṇini 3-2, 18]) going, moving etc. (cf. anu-, abhi-, puraḥ-s)
22) m. going, motion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
23) a cord, string (cf. prati-, maṇi-, muktā-maṇi-, and mauktika-s)
24) a short vowel (in prosody), [Colebrooke]
25) salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
26) Name of Vāyu or the wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
27) a waterfall, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
28) often [varia lectio] or [wrong reading] for śara (also in [compound] sara-ja etc. for śara-ja etc.)
29) Sarā (सरा):—[from sara] f. moving or wandering about, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
30) [v.s. ...] a brook, [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā]
31) [v.s. ...] a cascade, waterfall, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
32) [v.s. ...] Paederia Foetida, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
33) Sara (सर):—n. a lake, pool (also irregularly in [compound] for saras), [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 188 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
34) milk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
35) Sāra (सार):—1. sāra m. ([from] √sṛ) course, motion (See pūrva-s)
36) stretching out, extension, [Kālacakra]
37) mfn. driving away, destroying, [Bālarāmāyaṇa ii, 60/61]
38) 2. sāra mn. (ifc. f(ā). ; perhaps to be connected with 1. sāra above; [probably] [from] a lost root meaning ‘to be strong’) the core or pith or solid interior of anything, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
39) firmness, strength power, energy, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
40) the substance or essence or marrow or cream or heart or essential part of anything, best part, quintessence (ifc. = ‘chiefly consisting of or depending on etc.’ cf. para e.g. dharma-sāraṃ jagat, ‘the world chiefly depends on justice’; tūṣṇīṃ-sāra mfn. ‘chiefly silent’; sārat sāram, ‘the very best’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
41) the real meaning, main point, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
42) a compendium, summary, epitome (often ifc. in titles of books)
43) a chief-ingredient or constituent part of the body (causing the peculiarities of temperament; reckoned to be 7, viz. sattva, śukra, majjan, asthi, medas, māṃsa, rakta), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
44) any ingredient, [Suśruta]
45) nectar, [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
46) cream, curds, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
47) worth, value (eṇa, ‘in consideration of.’, ‘according to’), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.
48) wealth, property, goods, riches, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
49) (in [rhetoric]) a kind of climax (uttarottaram utkarṣaḥ), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Kāvyaprakāśa]
50) resin used as a perfume, [Suśruta; Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]
51) water, [Vāsavadattā]
52) dung, [Kṛṣisaṃgraha]
53) the matter formed in a boil or ulcer, pus, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
54) impure carbonate of soda, [ib.]
55) a confederate prince, ally, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
56) (= 1. śāra) a piece at chess or backgammon etc.
57) Sārā (सारा):—[from sāra] f. a kind of plant (= kriṣṇa-trivṛtā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
58) [v.s. ...] Kuśa grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
59) Sāra (सार):—mf(ā)n. hard, firm solid strong, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
60) precious, valuable, [Daśakumāra-carita]
61) good, sound, best, excellent, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Pañcarātra]
62) sound (as an argument, thoroughly proved), [Horace H. Wilson]
63) full of ([instrumental case]), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
64) motley, speckled (= śāra), [Suśruta; Kādambarī]
65) 3. sāra mfn. having spokes, [Śulba-sūtra]
66) Sara (सर):—[from sṛ] b etc. See p. 1182, col. 1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śara (शर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A sort of reed or grass; an arrow; cream; mischief. n. Water.
2) Śāra (शार):—[(raḥ-rī-raṃ) m.] Air, wind; man at chess; hurting; variegating. f.
2) (-ī) Kusa grass. a. Variegated.
3) Sara (सर):—(raḥ) 1. m. Thick part of curds, cream, &c.; going; an arrow; salt; water. 1. m. f. A cascade. n. A lake or pool.
4) Sāra (सार):—(raḥ) 1. m. The pith or sap of a tree; cream, strength, essence, marrow. m. (raḥ-rī) Man at chess. 1. f. Durba grass. f. (ī) Turdus salica. n. Water; wealth; fitness; steel. a. Best, excellent.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Śara (शर) [Also spelled shar]:—(nm) an arrow; -[vṛṣṭī] a shower of arrows; ~[vega] swift as an arrow; -[śaiyā] bep (made) of arrows; -[saṃdhāna] taking aim with an arrow.
2) Shara in Hindi refers in English to:—(nf) custom, convention..—shara (शरअ) is alternatively transliterated as Śaraa.
3) Sara (सर) [Also spelled sir]:—(nm) see [sira] a pond, pool; an arrow; one of the four top-valued playing cards; (a) conquered, subdued; ~[aṃjāma] see [saraṃjāma kaśa] mischief monger; impudent, rebellious; [kaśī] mischief-mongering; impudence, rebelliousness; [khata] stamped agreement/document, etc; [ganā] leader (of a gang), ring-leader; [garmī] hectic activity; passionate effort; enthusiasm; [gujaśta] description, narration; happening, event; [gośī] whispers, whispering campaign/complaints (against); [jamīna] country; territory; [jora] impudent, insolent; hence [jorī] (nf); ~[tāja] see [siratāja; ~darda] headache botheration; ~[dardī] botheration; source of anxiety/concern; ~[dāra] a chieftain; leader; boss; a sikh; ~[dārī] the office, function or status of a [saradāra; ~nāma] well-known, renowned, famous; ~[nāmā] form of address and superscriptional formalities in a letter etc.; ~[paṃca] the head [paṃca; ~parasta] a patron; supporter; ~[parastī] patronage; support; ~[peca] an ornament worn over the turban, a diadem; [pharoja] honoured; arrogant; hence [pharojī] (nf); ~[pharośa] ready to sacrifice one’s life; intrepid; ~[pharośī] readiness to sacrifice life; intrepidness; ~[śāra] full to the brim; bubbling; buoyant; -[vasamāna] bag and baggage; ~[śumārī] census; ~[sabja] green, verdant; prosperous; [sare-ijalāsa] in the court, while the court is in session; [sare-darabāra] openly; [sare-nau] afresh, anew; [sare-bājāra] openly, publicly; [sare-śāma] early in the evening, as soon as the evening sets in; —[karanā] to conquer; to subdue; to vanquish; —[honā] to be conquered; to be subdued; to be vanquished; —[maṃḍhanā] to impose on; —[muṃḍāte hī ole paḍe] ill-luck overtaking at the very out set.
4) Sāra (सार) [Also spelled saar]:—(nm) substance, gist, purport, abstract; essence, extract; epitome; iron; ~[kathana] recapitulation; ~[garbhita] substantial; meaningful; full of pith/marrow; ~[grāhitā] capability to understand the essentials/substance, a connoisseur’s faculty; ~[grāhī] a connoisseur; ~[tattva] extract; substance; ~[bhūta] essential; substantial; ~[lekha] abstract; condensed article; ~[vāna] substantial, significant, meaningful; precious; useful; ~[vṛtta] resume; ~[saṃgraha] compendium, digest.
5) Sārā (सारा):—(a) entire, whole; all; —[kā sārā] all; —[jātā dekhie ādhā līje bāṃṭa] better give the wool than the whole sheep.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Sara (सर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Smṛ.
2) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Svar.
3) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śara.
4) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Smara.
5) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Sara.
6) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Svara.
7) Sara (सर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saras.
8) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Prahṛ.
9) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Smāra.
10) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Sāra.
11) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Svara.
12) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śāra.
13) Sāra (सार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Sāra.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] an arrow.
2) [noun] the grass Saccharum sara.
3) [noun] a the oily, yellowish part of milk, which rises to the top when the milk is boiled and cooled; cream.
4) [noun] the liquid left after the butter is taken out from curds, by churning; butter-milk.
5) [noun] a wound; a sore.
6) [noun] water.
7) [noun] a pond or lake.
8) [noun] a sound.
9) [noun] any bristlelike fiber or fibers, as on the head of barley, oats or wheat; the awn.
10) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number five.
11) [noun] (pros.) a set of four syllables (some times the initial long one is substituted by two short ones making it five) which can be put in sixteen combinations.
12) [noun] (pros.) a metrical verse, having six lines in which the first, second, fourth and fifth have two groups of four syllabic instants whiile the third and sixth have three groups of four syllabic instants followed by a long one.
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Śarā (ಶರಾ):—[noun] something written in endorsing, at the end of a writing; a note; an endorsement.
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1) [adjective] having or marked with, spots.
2) [adjective] marked with different colours in spots, streaks, etc.; parti-coloured; variegated.
3) [adjective] of yellow colour; yellowish.
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1) [noun] a particoloured thing.
2) [noun] air or wind.
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Ṣarā (ಷರಾ):—[noun] something written in endorsing, at the end of a writing; a note; an endorsement.
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Ṣarā (ಷರಾ):—[noun] an injunction of Koran, read out at the time of marriage.
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1) [noun] a sound; sonance; a tune.
2) [noun] the air taken in and let out; breath.
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1) [noun] a slender, straight, feathered, pointed missile shot from a bow; an arrow.
2) [noun] a pond or lake.
3) [noun] a garland or necklace.
4) [noun] a line; a row.
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Sara (ಸರ):—[noun] a long, thick beam bearing the weight of the roof of a building.
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1) [noun] a wooden structure built over a stream, small river, etc. for crossing over from one side to another; a wooden bridge.
2) [noun] a flight of stairs.
3) [noun] a ladder-like implement used to climb the forts of enemies, while attempting to seize.
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Sāra (ಸಾರ):—[adjective] of the most excellent sort; surpassing all others; best.
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1) [noun] the essential part; substance; essence; quintessence.
2) [noun] that which is juicy.
3) [noun] a strong thing.
4) [noun] the quality of being proper, fit, appropriate; appropriateness; propriety.
5) [noun] an able, efficient man.
6) [noun] any of various mixtures of solid or semisolid triglycerides, that are soluble in organic solvents, found in adipose animal tissue; fat.
7) [noun] the soft, spongy tissue in the center of certain plant stems; pith.
8) [noun] animal excrement or other substance put on or into the soil to fertilise it.
9) [noun] the sweetish liquid in many flowers, used by bees for the making of honey; nectar.
10) [noun] the usu. yellowish-white liquid matter produced in certain infections, consisting of bacteria, white corpuscles, serum, etc.; pus.
11) [noun] the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract; the semen.
12) [noun] marked courage; valour; bravery; prowess.
13) [noun] skill; dexterity.
14) [noun] firmness (of the mind) resoluteness.
15) [noun] riches; wealth.
16) [noun] the essence or main point, as of an article or argument; gist.
17) [noun] water.
18) [noun] rain.
19) [noun] fresh butter.
20) [noun] a hard, tough metal composed of iron alloyed with various small percentages of carbon and often variously with other metals; steel.
21) [noun] quality of character or temperament; mettle.
22) [noun] any carbonated drink.
23) [noun] fish.
24) [noun] any disease; sickness.
25) [noun] the state or quality of being stable or fixed; steadiness; stability.
26) [noun] a condition of distress.
27) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of figure of speach in which, by comparison one thing, person is placed superior to another.
28) [noun] the worth of a thing in money or goods; value.
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Sārā (ಸಾರಾ):—[noun] whole; entire; complete.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+1501): Cara, Cara-konraipuli, Caracan, Caracarenal, Caracayanam, Caracca, Caraccuvati, Caracuvatiney, Caracuvatipantaram, Caracuvatiyantati, Caraivalan, Caraka, Carakam, Carakantakam, Carakati, Carakkavil, Carakku, Carakkukkatai, Caraku, Caralavatti.
Ends with (+1744): Abahvakshara, Abdasara, Abdhisara, Abhassara, Abhayadanasara, Abhayapradanasara, Abhisamsara, Abhisara, Abhissara, Abhitahsara, Abhitsara, Abhrasara, Abjasara, Acarasara, Accakshara, Accasara, Adapasara, Adasara, Adbhutasagarasara, Adbhutasara.
Full-text (+2081): Saras, Saraja, Kshirashara, Sarabhanga, Pushpasara, Saramaya, Manisara, Sarasara, Sharabhyasa, Agrasara, Sharadhi, Sarah, Saroja, Sarasa, Sarita, Krishnasara, Sharatva, Sharata, Sharaghata, Sharakanda.
Search found 186 books and stories containing Sara, Śāra, Shara, Sāra, Ṣaṟā, Śara, Śarā, Sarā, Sārā, Sa-ra, Sa-rā, Ṣarā; (plurals include: Saras, Śāras, Sharas, Sāras, Ṣaṟās, Śaras, Śarās, Sarās, Sārās, ras, rās, Ṣarās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana (by Gaurapada Dāsa)
Text 4.21 < [Chapter 4 - First-rate Poetry]
Text 10.194 [Sāra] < [Chapter 10 - Ornaments of Meaning]
Text 9.9 < [Chapter 9 - Ornaments of Sound]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 1.191.3 < [Sukta 191]
Rig Veda 9.41.6 < [Sukta 41]
Rig Veda 7.40.5 < [Sukta 40]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 1.46 < [Chapter 1 - Sainya-Darśana (Observing the Armies)]
Verse 4.33 < [Chapter 4 - Jñāna-Yoga (Yoga through Transcendental Knowledge)]
Verse 17.26 < [Chapter 17 - Śraddhā-traya-vibhāga-yoga]
Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.1.47 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Verse 1.1.18 < [Chapter 1 - Bhauma (the earthly plane)]
Verse 2.1.1 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Dhammapada (Illustrated) (by Ven. Weagoda Sarada Maha Thero)
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