Sara, Śāra, Shara, Sāra: 25 definitions

Introduction

Sara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śāra can be transliterated into English as Sara or Shara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Sāra (सार) is the Sanskrit word translating to “iron”, a naturally occurring and commonly found metal (symbol Fe). It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi

Sara (सरस्), which means fluid, refers to anything that flows and as such applies to speech and thought as well as water. See Sarasvatī.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sara (सर, “mobile”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Sara is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘mobility’, while its opposing quality, Sthira, refers to its ‘firmness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Sara, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Water (ap) and Air (vāyu).

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Sara (सर) refers to the “cream of curds”, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Curds was widely used in Vedic period. Ṛgveda mentions a preparation in which the curds were mixed with Soma juice and barley meal. [...] According to Om Prakash, the cream of milk (santānikā), the cream of curds (sara), whey (mastu), fresh butter (navanīta), clarified butter (ghṛta) and the butter milk (takra) are all referred to in Ayurvedic preparations. Curds churned without water (ghola) is referred to in Suśrutasaṃhitā.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Śāra (शार).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sāra (सार) refers to “essence”, symbolically represented by ashes (bhasma) used in ceremonies and rites, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “[...] for the sake of resplendence, the ashes (bhasma) shall be taken. The word bhasma (Ash) means that which is honoured and adored. Śiva formerly did so. A king takes the essence (sāra) of wealth by way of tax, in his kingdom. Men burn plants and take the essence (sāra) thereof. The gastirc fire burns different kinds of foodstuffs and with their essence (sāra) nourishes the body. Similarly the great lord Śiva, the creator of the universe, burns the universe presided over by Him and takes the essence of the same. After burning the universe He applies the ashes (bhasma) over his body. Under the pretext of annihilation He has taken the essence out of the same. He assigned the essence (sāra) to His own body. The essence Ākāśa (the Ether) constitutes His hair. The essence of the wind principle constitutes His face. The essence of the Fire principle constitutes His heart, that of the principles of waters the hip and that of the principle of the Earth the knees. Thus the other limbs too. The Tripuṇḍraka (the three parallel lines of ash marks over the forehead) is the essence of Trinity: Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra. Similarly Maheśvara has retained the esence of everything in the form of Tilaka (the small circular mark) on the forehead”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Sara (सर).—A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 232.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śara (शर) refers to the “arrow”, a weapon which should measure should measure four tālas (unit of measurement), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. In dramatic plays, weapons such as śara should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons engaged in a fight, angry conflict or siege. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Sāra (सार) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure of speech sāra has been admitted by Mammaṭa (X/190), Viśvanātha (X/102) and Jagannātha (R.G. P. 626). Jayadeva and Appayyadīkṣita have also admitted sāra-alaṃkāra.

Sāra has also been admitted by Cirañjīva in his Kāvyavilāsa. He has defined sāra as follows—“uttarottaramutkarṣe varṇite sāra ucyate”.—“Where the excellence is described successively, the figure of speech sāra occurs”.

Example of the sāra-alaṃkāra:—

sārā lokeṣu vidvāṃsasteṣu sāra vivekinaḥ |
teṣvanuṣṭhānakartārasteṣu kṛṣṇapadānugāḥ ||

“In this world learned persons are the essence, among them conscientious are excellent. Again among them those who perform actually are excellent, among those who follow the feet of Kṛṣṇa are the essence”.

Notes: Here learned persons are the essence and are superior to common man. Among the learned persons those having conscience are superior among the performers who take resort to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa are the essence of this world. Thus this is an example of sārālaṃkāra as the excellence has been described successively.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda

Śara (शर) refers to an “arrow”. It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.

Dhanurveda book cover
context information

Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sara (सर).—Unadi affix सर (sara) mentioned in the rule तितुत्रतथसिसुसरकसेषु च (titutratathasisusarakaseṣu ca) P. VII. 2.7. e.g. अक्षरम् (akṣaram); cf. अशेः क्सरन् (aśeḥ ksaran) Unadi.III.70.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Śara (शर).—1. Arrow. 2. R versed sine. 3. Celestial latitude. 4. Height of an arc or segment of a circle. Note: Śara is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Sāra (सार) is a Sanskrit word referring to a whitish reed.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Sara (“string”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Sara) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śara.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: śara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Sārā.—(EI 9; LP), care; cf. etair = aṣṭabhir = goṣṭhikaiḥ…sārā karaṇīyā, ‘[this place of worship] has to be taken care of by the following eight trustees’. Cf. also Gujarātī sāravār. (EI 8, 11), supervision. Note: sārā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sara : (m.) 1. an arrow; 2. a sound; 3. a vowel; 4. a lake; 5. a kind of reed. || sāra (m.), essence; the pith of a tree; the choicest part. (adj.) essential; excellent; strong.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sāra, (Vedic sāra nt. ) 1. essential, most excellent, strong A. II, 110; Vin. IV, 214; J. III, 368; Pug. 53.—2. (m.) the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree (see also pheggu) M. I, 111; J. I, 331; Miln. 413; most excellent kind of wood Vin. II, 110; D. II, 182, 187; sattasārā the elect, the salt of the earth M. III, 69. ‹-› 3. substance, essence, choicest part (generally at the end of comp.) Vin. I, 184; A. II, 141; S. III, 83, 140; Sn. 5, 330, 364; Dh. 11 sq.; PvA. 132, 211 (candana°). sāre patiṭṭhito established, based, on what is essential M. I, 31; A. II, 183.—4. value Miln. 10; appasāra of small value D. II, 346.—asāra worthless Sn. 937; nissāra the same J. II, 163 (pithless); mahāsāra of high value J. I, 384, 463.

— or —

1) Sara, 5 (Vedic svara, svar, cp. Lat. su-surrus, Ger. surren) sound, voice, intonation, accent Vin. II, 108; D. II, 24 sq.; A. I, 227; Pv. II, 124 (of birds’singing=abhiruda C.); J. II, 109; Sn. 610 (+vaṇṇa, which is doubtful here, whether “complexion” or “speech, ” preferably the former); DhsA. 17; eight qualities D. II, 211, 227; gītāssara song Vin. II, 108; bindussara a sweet voice Sn. 350; adj. J. II, 439; sīhassara with a voice like a lion’s J. V, 296, 311 (said of a prince). Cp. vissara.—In combination with vaṇṇa (vowel) at A. IV, 307; Miln. 340.

2) Sara, 4 (adj.) (fr. sarati2) remembering M. I, 453; A. II, 21; DA. I, 106. °saṅkappa mindfulness and aspiration M. I, 453; III, 132; S. IV, 76, 137, 190; Nett 16. (Page 697)

3) Sara, 3 (m. -nt.) (Vedic saras) a lake J. I, 221; II, 10; VI, 518 (Mucalinda); there are seven great lakes (mahā-sarā, viz. Anotatta, Sīhapapāta, Rathakāra, Kaṇṇamuṇḍa, Kuṇāla, Chaddanta, Mandākini) A. IV, 101; D. I, 54; J. II, 92; DA. I, 164, 283; aṇṇava° the ocean D. II, 89; cp. A. II, 55; Loc. sare J. II, 80; sarasmiṃ Sn. 1092; & sarasi Mhvs 10, 7; jātassara a natural lake J. I, 472 sq. (Page 697)

4) Sara, 2 (adj. -n.) (fr. sarati1 1. going, moving, following Sn. 3, 901 — 2. fluid, flow J. I, 359 (pūti°). (Page 697)

5) Sara, 1 (cp. Vedic śara) 1. the reed Saccharum sara Miln. 342.—2. an arrow (orig. made of that reed) D. I, 9; Dh. 304; Miln. 396; DhA 216 (visa-pīta).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śara (शर).—m (S) An arrow. 2 The arrow of Shiva, i. e. the three stars composing the belt of Orion. See under lubdhaka. 3 Distance from the Ecliptic, celestial latitude. 4 The versed sine.

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śara (शर).—a S In jyōtiṣa śāstra. Five.

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śarā (शरा).—m ( A) Law. Used in courts as signifying Muhammadan law.

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sara (सर).—m A string (as of gems, beads, flowers); a wreath, garland &c. 2 A long and squared piece of timber; or a long bamboo or other pole (as suitable for a joist, cross-beam, rafter &c.) Applied by many to a thick chop of wood or a stout stick (prepared for or viewed as fit for a pestle). 3 The horn-rope of bullocks. It is fixed on or renewed on the great bullock-festival called bēndūra or pōḷā.

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sara (सर).—m ( P Head.) Head figuratively, i. e. the chief, principal, president, superintendent &c.; as hyā sarvāṃvara harīpanta sara āhē. This use is rare; the general use is as a prefix to words designating the public officers of a state; as saradēśamukha, saradēśapāṇḍyā, sarasubhēdāra, saranāyaka, sarakamāvīsadāra; and their offices; as saradēśamukhī, sarasubhēdārī &c. Head-deshmukh &c. 2 The chief, leading, or preeminent person (of any corporation or company). 3 Following the words gāya, mhaisa, baila, ṭōṇagā, vāsarūṃ &c. it denotes unity, and thus corresponds with Head; as gāya sara ēka, mhaisa sara dōna One head of cows, two head of buffaloes. sara karaṇēṃ To overcome and take (a fort, a territory): also to accomplish or achieve (a great work generally).

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sara (सर).—f Equaling, rivaling, competing or coming up with. Usually neg. con. v . Ex. mātēcī sara na yēī upamātēlā agādha baḷa vāhō || kāya ghṛtācī pāvē upamā tēlālā agādha baḷa vāhō ||. 2 A term at cards,--a synonyme of talapha. 3 (For sarī) A line dug (as a trench or channel); or a line or row (as of plants).

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sara (सर).—f (sara or sarā S A cascade or waterfall.) A sudden and forceful gush, rush, outpouring, or proceeding; e. g. (with or without pāvasācī) a shower of rain; (with or without rāgācī) an outburst of passion; (raḍaṇyācī) a fit of crying; (tāpācī or hiṃvācī) a paroxysm or an accession of fever or of ague; piśācācī a sudden visitation of a pishach; (mamatēcī) a gush or forthflowing of affection or tenderness; (ānandācī or hāsaṇyācī) a rushing emotion or a sally of joy or laughter; paṭakīcī or jarīmarīcī -khōkalyācī &c. -sara. 2 m f A fit of delirium or of minor mental disturbance.

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sara (सर).—ind A particle from saraṇēṃ (To run into, tend towards &c.) expressing slightness, feeble existence, or incipient state of any quality. With this qualifying import it is added to adjectives, correspondingly with the English particle ish; as kāḷasara, kaḍasara, gōḍasara Blackish, bitterish, sweetish. 2 ad (saraṇēṃ) So as to run or flow over; in an overflowing manner;--as a river or a vessel. Ex. nadī varasara or kāṇṭhasara bharūna cālalī; bhāṇḍēṃ varasara or tōṇḍasara bharalēṃ.

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sarā (सरा).—m (Or sara) A long and straight bamboo or other pole (to be used as a rafter, cross-beam &c.) 2 A side-piece of a cart-box answering to the ghōḍēṃ running underneath. 3 A line of loose texture on a web from the turning aside of the threads.

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sarā (सरा).—m C (surā S) Liquor distilled from the juice of trees of the Palm-tribe: also spirituous liquor more generally.

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sāra (सार).—m n (S) Essence, substance, the essential or vital part (of a thing generally); sap, pith, marrow, cream, spirit, lit. fig.

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sāra (सार).—n A dilute mixture of tamarinds, mango-steins, and similar fruits squeezed in any pulse-decoction or in water, with salt, assafœtida &c. 2 The ring or band or rope by which the yard (of boats and small sailing vessels) is secured to the mast. 3 A term for sōṅkaṭyā in enumerating the objects upon which money is lavished; viz. ṭāra, gāra, nāra, sāra. See ṭāra &c.

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sāra (सार).—f Commonly sāīra.

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sārā (सारा).—a (sarva S) All or the whole; the whole number, mass, or quantity.

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sārā (सारा).—m A white film over the eyes; a thin layer or pellicle as over corrupted curds &c. 2 Assessment or tax.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śara (शर).—m An arrow.

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sara (सर).—m A string A wreath. The chief. f A row A shower of rain. Equal- ling. ind A particle expressing slight- ness. sara karaṇēṃ Overcome and take (a fort, &c.). Accomplish.

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sarā (सरा).—m Spirituous liquor.

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sāra (सार).—m n Essence; sap. n A dilute mix- ture of tamarinds, &c.

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sārā (सारा).—a All, the whole. m A white film over the eyes. Tax, assessment.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śara (शर).—[śṝ-ac]

1) An arrow, a shaft; क्व च निशितनिपाता वज्रसाराः शरास्ते (kva ca niśitanipātā vajrasārāḥ śarāste) Ś.1.1; शरश्च त्रिविधो ज्ञेयः स्त्री पुमाँश्च नपुंसकः । अग्रस्थूलो भवेन्नारी पश्चात्स्थूलो भवेत् पुमान् । समो नपुंसको ज्ञेयः (śaraśca trividho jñeyaḥ strī pumāṃśca napuṃsakaḥ | agrasthūlo bhavennārī paścātsthūlo bhavet pumān | samo napuṃsako jñeyaḥ) Dhanur. 62-63.

2) A kind of white reed or grass (Mar. devanaḷa, borū); कुशकाशशरैः पर्णैः सुपरिच्छादितां तथा (kuśakāśaśaraiḥ parṇaiḥ suparicchāditāṃ tathā) Rām.3.15.22; शरकाण्डपाण्डुगण्डस्थला (śarakāṇḍapāṇḍugaṇḍasthalā) M.3.8; मुखेन सीता शरपाण्डुरेण (mukhena sītā śarapāṇḍureṇa) R.14.26; Śi.11.3.

3) The cream of slightly curdled milk, cream; आपो वा अर्कस्तद्यदपां शर आसीत् सम- हन्यत सा पृथिवी (āpo vā arkastadyadapāṃ śara āsīt sama- hanyata sā pṛthivī) Bṛ. Up.1.2.2.

4) Hurt, injury, wound.

5) The number 'five'; cf. शराग्नि (śarāgni) q. v.

6) (In astr.) The versed sine of an arc.

7) Kuśa grass; तथा शरेष्वपि (tathā śareṣvapi) MS.8.3.33 (śaraśabdasyāpi kuśeṣu prayogo dṛśyate ŚB. on ibid.); भृशरसं शरसंहितकान्तिके (bhṛśarasaṃ śarasaṃhitakāntike) Rām. ch.4.7.

-ram Water.

Derivable forms: śaraḥ (शरः).

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Śāra (शार).—a. [śār-ac śṝ-ghañ vā]

1) Variegated, speckled, mottled, spotted; पक्ष्मोत्क्षेपादुपरिविलसत् कृष्णशारप्रभाणाम् (pakṣmotkṣepāduparivilasat kṛṣṇaśāraprabhāṇām) Me. 49.

2) Yellow.

-raḥ 1 A variegated colour.

2) Green colour.

3) Air, wind.

4) A piece used at chess, a chessman; कालः काल्या भुवनफलके क्रीडति प्राणिशारैः (kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ) Bh.3.39.

5) Injuring, hurting.

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Sara (सर).—a. [sarati-sṛ-ac]

1) Going or moving.

2) Cathartic, purgative.

-raḥ 1 Going, motion.

2) An arrow.

3) The coagulum of curds or milk, cream.

4) Salt.

5) A string, necklace; अयं कण्ठे बाहुः शिशिरमसृणो मौक्तिकसरः (ayaṃ kaṇṭhe bāhuḥ śiśiramasṛṇo mauktikasaraḥ) U. 1.39.29.

6) A water-fall.

7) A short vowel (in prosody).

-ram 1 water.

2) A lake, pool.

-rā 1 Motion, movement.

2) A cascade.

-rī A water-fall.

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Sāra (सार).—a. [sṛ-gham, sār-ac vā]

1) Essential.

2) Best, highest, most excellent; एतद्वः सारफल्गुत्वं बीजयोन्योः प्रकीर्तितम् (etadvaḥ sāraphalgutvaṃ bījayonyoḥ prakīrtitam) Ms.9.56; द्वयोः सारं तुल्यं द्वितयमभियुक्तेन मनसा (dvayoḥ sāraṃ tulyaṃ dvitayamabhiyuktena manasā) Mu.1.13.

3) Real, true, genuine.

4) Strong, vigorous; सारबलम् (sārabalam) Kau. A.1; सुयुद्धकामुकं सारमसारं विपरीतकम् (suyuddhakāmukaṃ sāramasāraṃ viparītakam) Śukra.4.872.

5) Sound, thoroughly proved.

6) Highest or best (at the end of comp.); त्रिवर्गसारः (trivargasāraḥ) Ku.5.38.

7) Just, right; पृथोस्तत् सूक्तमाकर्ण्य सारं सुष्ठु मितं मधु (pṛthostat sūktamākarṇya sāraṃ suṣṭhu mitaṃ madhu) Bhāg.4.22.17.

8) Speckled, motley.

9) Driving away; योऽयं दिधक्षोर्दावपावकस्य गरिम- सारः सीकरासारः (yo'yaṃ didhakṣordāvapāvakasya garima- sāraḥ sīkarāsāraḥ) B. R.2.6/61.

-raḥ, -ram (but usually m. only except in the first 4 senses)

1) Essence, essential part, quintessence; स्नेहस्य तत् फलमसौ प्रणयस्य सारः (snehasya tat phalamasau praṇayasya sāraḥ) Māl.1. 9; U.6.22; असारे खलु संसारे सारमेच्चतुष्टयम् । काश्यां वासः सतां संगो गङ्गांम्भः शंभुसेवनम् (asāre khalu saṃsāre sārameccatuṣṭayam | kāśyāṃ vāsaḥ satāṃ saṃgo gaṅgāṃmbhaḥ śaṃbhusevanam) || Dharm.14.

2) Substance, pith.

3) Marrow; निःशेषं शकलितवल्कलाङ्गसारैः (niḥśeṣaṃ śakalitavalkalāṅgasāraiḥ) Ki.17.62.

4) Real truth, main point.

5) The sap or essence of trees; as in खदिरसार, सर्जसार (khadirasāra, sarjasāra).

6) Summary, epitome, compendium.

7) Strength, vigour, power, energy; सारं धरित्रीधरणक्षमं च (sāraṃ dharitrīdharaṇakṣamaṃ ca) Ku.1.17; R.2.74.

8) Prowess, heroism, courage; राज्ञा हिमवतः सारो राज्ञः सारो हिमाद्रिणा (rājñā himavataḥ sāro rājñaḥ sāro himādriṇā) R.4.79.

9) Firmness, hardness.

1) Wealth, riches; गामात्तसाराम् (gāmāttasārām) R.5.26.

11) Nectar.

12) Fresh butter.

13) Air, wind.

14) Cream, coagulum of curds.

15) Disease.

16) Matter, pus.

17) Worth, excellence, highest perception.

18) A man at chess.

19) Impure carbonate of soda.

2) A figure of speech corresponding to English 'climax'; उत्तरोत्तरमुत्कर्षो भवेत् सारः परावधिः (uttarottaramutkarṣo bhavet sāraḥ parāvadhiḥ) K. P.1.

21) The heart.

22) Course, motion.

23) Extension.

24) Any or chief ingredient.

25) (In Rhet.) A kind of climax.

26) Dung.

27) Pus.

-rā 1 Dūrvā grass.

2) Kuśa grass.

-ram 1 Water

2) Fitness, propriety.

3) Wood, thicket.

4) Steel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śara (शर).—name of a yakṣa: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.17.7.

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Śāra (शार).—m. or nt. (= AMg. sāla; perhaps read śāla ?), either ‘the 77th planet, named śāla’, or (more probably) ‘a celestial abode named śāla of the 8th Devaloka’ (Ratna- chandra, s.v. sāla, 7 and 8). In Mahāvastu i.231.4 (verse) read: ādityo (? next word uncertain; mss. vatavallo, which is metrical(ly) correct, or vadbalo) śāraṃ (or śālaṃ; mss. śāram) abhyud- gato (mss. atyudgataṃ; em. Senart) yathākāśe, like the sun when it has arisen in the sky up to the śāra (śāla). (On *śāra, a kind of bird, see sāra.)

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Sara (सर).—nt. (Sanskrit Lex., m.; Pali id. in [compound] sīghasara, uddhaṃsara, Sn 3, 901), going, course: (te satpuruṣā ye…) tathāgatacaṅkramaṇāni dharma-sarāṇi ca paśyanti Kāraṇḍavvūha 13.15 (prose). In Lalitavistara 329.5 (verse) kāmasarāhatāḥ, struck with the arrows of love (so Tibetan, ḥdod paḥi mdaḥ yis phog pa), sara (no v.l.) = Sanskrit śara.

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Sāra (सार).—m. (= Sanskrit śārī, śārikā, also written sā°), a [Page593-a+ 71] kind of bird, maina: sāra (all mss.; n. pl.), ivā ravanto Lalitavistara 296.11 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śara (शर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A sort of reed or grass, (Saccharum sara.) 2. An arrow. 3. The upper part or cream of slightly curdled milk. 4. Mischief, injury, hurt. 5. The number “five.” n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Versed sine of an arc. E. śṝ to hurt, aff. ap or ac; also sara .

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Śāra (शार).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Variegated, (in colour.) 2. Yellow. m.

(-raḥ) 1. Air, wind. 2. A piece or man at chess, backgammon, &c. 3. Hurting, injuring. 4. A mixture of blue and yellow, a green. 5. Spotting, variegating. f. (-rī) Kuśa grass. E. śṝ to injure, ghañ aff.

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Sara (सर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Who or what goes, occurring chiefly in composition, as anusara, avasara, &c. 2. Cathartic, purgative. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The thick part or coagulum of curds or milk, cream, &c. 2. Going, motion. 3. An arrow. 4. Saltness, salt. 5. A string. n.

(-raṃ) 1. A lake, a pool. 2. Water. mf. (-raḥ-rā or -rī) A cascade, a water-fall; also śara. E. sṛ to go, aff. ac .

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Sāra (सार).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Best, excellent. 2. Irrefragable, (as an argument.) mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) 1. The pith or sap of trees, &c. 2. Strength, vigour. 3. The essence of anything, the essential or vital part of it. 4. The substance or material part, (of a speech, book, message, &c.) 5. Marrow. 6. Air, wind. 7. Sickness, disease. 8. Firmness, hardness. 9. The coagulum of curds, &c., cream. 10. Fresh butter. 11. Prowess, valour, heroism. 12. Nectar. 13. Wealth, riches. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A man at chess, backgammon, &c. 2. Worth, excellence. 3. Compedium, summary. 4. Impure carbonate of soda. 5. Climax, (in rhetoric.) n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Wealth. 3. Propriety, fitness. 4. Steel. 5. Wood, thicket. f.

(-rā) 1. Essential. 2. Best. 3. Strong, vigorous. 4. Genuine, true. 5. Thoroughly proved 6. Durbagrass. f. (-rī) The Shalika or Sarika, (Turdus salica, Buch.) E. sṛ to go, aff. ghañ; or sār-ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śara (शर).—I. m. 1. A sort of reed, Saccharum sara, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 247; a reed, [Pañcatantra] 140, 25. 2. An arrow (i. e. śṛ10 + a), [Pañcatantra] 224, 11. 3. The cream of slightly curldled milk, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 43 (cream, cf. sara). Ii. n. Water.

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Śāra (शार).—I. adj. 1. Variegated (in colour), [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 1 (of hair, mixed with greyand white). 2. Yellow. Ii. m. 1. Hurting (vb. śṛ10). 2. A mixture of blue and yellow, a green. 3. Variegating. 4. Air, wind (cf. sāra). 5. A piece or man at chess, backgammon, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 185, 24 (cf. sāra). Iii. f. . 1. An arrow (vb. śṛ10, cf. śara), Chr. 297, 16 = [Rigveda.] i. 112, 16. 2. Kuśa grass.

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Sara (सर).—i. e. sṛ + a, I. adj. Who or what goes. Ii. m. 1. Going. 2. An arrow (? see śara). 3. The coagulum of curds or milk. 4. Salt, saltness. Iii. m., and f. or , A waterfall. Iv. n. 1. Water. 2. A pond, a lake, [Pañcatantra] 131, 15.

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Sāra (सार).—perhaps sṛ + a, with ‘cream,’ Ii. 9. as first signification, I. adj. 1. Easential, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 71. 2. Excellent, best, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 194, 22; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 284; [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 89. 3. Hard, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 10. 4. Irrefragable (as an argument), proved, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 262. Ii. m. (and n.). 1. The pith or sap of trees. 2. The essence of anything, the essential or vital part of it, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 126; [Pañcatantra] 49, 4. 3. Nectar, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 6, 25. 4. The substance or material part (of a book, speech, etc.), [Pañcatantra] pr. [distich] 3; 10 (n.). 5. Marrow, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 10, 10. 6. Strength, vigour, [Hitopadeśa] 104, 7; affluence, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 90, M.M. (artha-, of wealth, cf. Iv. 2.). 7. Prowess, heroism. 8. Firmness, hardness. 9. The coagulum of curds, cream. 10. Fresh butter. 11. Air, wind (cf. śāra). 12. Disease, pus, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 101 (and wealth). Iii. m., and f. , A man at chess, backgammon (cf. śāra). Iv. n. 1. Water. 2. Wealth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 126; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 189, 3 (at the end of a comp. adj.). 3. Fitness. 4. Steel. 5. (In rhetoric), Climax. V. f. , Kuśa grass. Vi. f. , Turdus Salica Buch.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śara (शर).—1. [masculine] reed, arrow.

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Śara (शर).—2. [masculine] sour cream.

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Śara (शर).—3. (°—) water.

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Śāra (शार).—[feminine] ā mottled, spotted; [masculine] a stone or piece used at [several] games (also [feminine] ī).

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Sara (सर).—[adjective] fluid, liquid; ([feminine] ī) running, moving, going (—°). [feminine] sarā brook, sarī waterfall.

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Sāra (सार).—1. [adjective] driving away, removing; [masculine] course, way (only —°).

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Sāra (सार).—2. [masculine] [neuter] the interior firm parts of a body; firmness, solidity, strength; property, wealth; substance or essence of anything; nectar; water.

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Sarā (सरा).—= [Simple]

Sarā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and (रा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śara (शर):—m. ([from] √śṝ ‘to rend’ or ‘destroy’) a sort of reed or grass, Saccharum Sara (used for arrows), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) an arrow, shaft, [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) Name of the number ‘five’ (from the 5 arrows of the god of love), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

4) (in [astronomy]) the versed sine of an arc ([according to] to [Āryabhaṭa] also ‘the whole diameter with subtraction of the versed sine’)

5) a [particular] configuration of stars (when all the planets are in the 4tb, 5th, 6th, and 7th houses), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) the upper part of cream or slightly curdled milk ([varia lectio] sara), [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra; Caraka]

7) mischief, injury, hurt, a wound, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) Name of a son of Ṛcatka, [Ṛg-veda]

9) of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] śuka)

10) n. water (See śara-varṣa and ṣin)

11) Śāra (शार):—1. śāra mf(ā)n. (in most meanings also written sāra; of doubtful derivation) variegated in colour, of different colours (as dark hair mixed with grey), motley, spotted, speckled, [Pāṇini 3-3, 21], [vArttika] 2

12) yellow, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) m. variegating or a variegated colour, ([especially]) a mixture of blue and yellow, green, [ib.]

14) (also śāraka) a kind of die or a piece used at chess or at backgammon, [Bhartṛhari; Daśakumāra-carita]

15) air, wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) hurting, injuring ([from] √śṝ), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) n. a variegated colour, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

18) 2. śāra Vṛddhi form of śara, in [compound]

19) Sara (सर):—a mf(ā)n. ([from] √sṛ) fluid, liquid, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

20) cathartic, purgative, laxative, [Suśruta; Vāgbhaṭālaṃkāra]

21) (ifc. f(ī). , [Pāṇini 3-2, 18]) going, moving etc. (cf. anu-, abhi-, puraḥ-s)

22) m. going, motion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) a cord, string (cf. prati-, maṇi-, muktā-maṇi-, and mauktika-s)

24) a short vowel (in prosody), [Colebrooke]

25) salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) Name of Vāyu or the wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) a waterfall, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

28) often [varia lectio] or [wrong reading] for śara (also in [compound] sara-ja etc. for śara-ja etc.)

29) Sarā (सरा):—[from sara] f. moving or wandering about, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

30) [v.s. ...] a brook, [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

31) [v.s. ...] a cascade, waterfall, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

32) [v.s. ...] Paederia Foetida, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) Sara (सर):—n. a lake, pool (also irregularly in [compound] for saras), [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 188 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

34) milk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

35) Sāra (सार):—1. sāra m. ([from] √sṛ) course, motion (See pūrva-s)

36) stretching out, extension, [Kālacakra]

37) mfn. driving away, destroying, [Bālarāmāyaṇa ii, 60/61]

38) 2. sāra mn. (ifc. f(ā). ; perhaps to be connected with 1. sāra above; [probably] [from] a lost root meaning ‘to be strong’) the core or pith or solid interior of anything, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

39) firmness, strength power, energy, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

40) the substance or essence or marrow or cream or heart or essential part of anything, best part, quintessence (ifc. = ‘chiefly consisting of or depending on etc.’ cf. para e.g. dharma-sāraṃ jagat, ‘the world chiefly depends on justice’; tūṣṇīṃ-sāra mfn. ‘chiefly silent’; sārat sāram, ‘the very best’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

41) the real meaning, main point, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

42) a compendium, summary, epitome (often ifc. in titles of books)

43) a chief-ingredient or constituent part of the body (causing the peculiarities of temperament; reckoned to be 7, viz. sattva, śukra, majjan, asthi, medas, māṃsa, rakta), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

44) any ingredient, [Suśruta]

45) nectar, [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

46) cream, curds, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

47) worth, value (eṇa, ‘in consideration of.’, ‘according to’), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.

48) wealth, property, goods, riches, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

49) (in [rhetoric]) a kind of climax (uttarottaram utkarṣaḥ), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Kāvyaprakāśa]

50) resin used as a perfume, [Suśruta; Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]

51) water, [Vāsavadattā]

52) dung, [Kṛṣisaṃgraha]

53) the matter formed in a boil or ulcer, pus, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

54) impure carbonate of soda, [ib.]

55) a confederate prince, ally, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

56) (= 1. śāra) a piece at chess or backgammon etc.

57) Sārā (सारा):—[from sāra] f. a kind of plant (= kriṣṇa-trivṛtā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

58) [v.s. ...] Kuśa grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

59) Sāra (सार):—mf(ā)n. hard, firm solid strong, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

60) precious, valuable, [Daśakumāra-carita]

61) good, sound, best, excellent, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Pañcarātra]

62) sound (as an argument, thoroughly proved), [Horace H. Wilson]

63) full of ([instrumental case]), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

64) motley, speckled (= śāra), [Suśruta; Kādambarī]

65) 3. sāra mfn. having spokes, [Śulba-sūtra]

66) Sara (सर):—[from sṛ] b etc. See p. 1182, col. 1.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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