Garuda, aka: Garuḍa, Gāruḍa; 20 Definition(s)

Introduction

Garuda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Garuda in Natyashastra glossaries]

One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Garuḍa: Ardha-candra hands are held with palms askew, and the thumbs interlocked. Usage: Garuḍa.

(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

[Garuda in Purana glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड)—Garutmat or Garuḍa had four wives, viz.

  1. Bhāsī,
  2. Krauñcī,
  3. Śukī
  4. and Dhṛtarāṣṭrī.

Śukī gave bbirth to sons who are the enemies of snakes who occupy various regions such as the Śālmali-dvīpa, and Devakūṭa and other mountains. Following are the progeny of Bhāsī: ulūkas, kākas, kukkuṭas, mayūras, kalaviṅkas, kapotas and lāvatittiras. Krauñcī gave birth to the vārdhīṇasas and the progeny of Dhṛtarāṣṭrī is as follows: haṃsas, kalahaṃsas, cakravākas and various other kinds of birds.

Garuḍa as the vehicle of Viṣṇu is also mentioned (Vāyu-purāṇa 97.22). Viṣṇu is called garuḍa-dhvaja and Śiva too is mentioned as the lord of Garuḍas. Garuḍa is the “consecrated lord” of the birds.

(Source): Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

1a) Garuḍa (गरुड).—(Garutmat)—a son of Tārkṣya (Kāśyapa) and Vinatā (Suparṇā), and vehicle of Hari.1 Has abode in Śālmalidvīpa.2 Took Kṛṣṇa to Madhuvana;3 Identified with Hari, and regarded as the embodiment of the Vedas.4 Attacked Asura followers of Bali, and knowing Hari's mind, he bound Bali with cords of Varuṇa.5 Serves as a watch for Kṣīroda. When he saw Bali carrying away Hari's crown-jewel, he pursued him and recovered it after a fight. When he saw on his return from Gomanta, he placed it on His head and belauded him, requesting him for opportunities of service to Him, who ordered him to go back and come whenever He thought of him.6 His winning nectar is compared to Kṛṣṇa winning Vaidarbhī in svayaṃvara.7 Kālīya, the enemy of snakes, freed from fear of; entered into an agreement with snakes of Ramaṇaka to give him bali every fortnight. Kālīya failed to do this, and after a fight escaped to the river Kālindī where Garuḍa could not go, as he was under a curse. It happened once that Garuḍa took a kingfish from the river against the wish of the sage Saubhari who cursed that Garuḍa's coming again there would mean the end of his life.8 Attacked by Mura,9 killed all elephants of Naraka,10 carried Kṛṣṇa to Indra's city. Defeated Varuṇa attacking Kṛṣṇa, flung Śiva and his bull to a distance of a hundred dhanus. Discomfited Airāvata of Indra, and took Kṛṣṇa and Satyabhāmā safely to Dvārakā.11 Garuḍa standard of Hari.12 Praise of Hari.13 Took nectar for mother's sake to Somaka hill of Plakṣa; married five daughters of Tāmra and became father of birds in all the world.14 Younger brother of Aruṇa.15 Worship of, on the Bhīmadvādaśi, and in the Lakṣa homa of Grahabali. Icon of.16 In the Tārakāmaya: in the war with Kālanemī: performed tapas at Kanakhala.17 had a number of wives, sons and grandsons; the eater of all cruel snakes—his descendants spread over largely the whole of Śālmalidvīpa, and the mountains Devakūṭa, Maṇimanta, Sahasraśikhara, Parnamala, Sukeśa, and Sataśruga, the five-peaked Kauraja, Hemakūṭa etc.18

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 22: III. 19. 11. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 29: 8. 11. Matsya-purāṇa 6. 34: 146. 22. Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 10; 69. 66: 70. 11: 72. 45. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 18.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 8.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 9. 1.
  • 4) Ib. VI 8. 29. VIII. 3. 31.
  • 5) Ib. VIII. 21. 16 and 26.
  • 6) Ib. X. 53 (V) 10-19.
  • 7) Ib. X. 52. 17.
  • 8) Ib. 16. 63; 17. 1-11. Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 7. 78.
  • 9) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 7-8.
  • 10) Ib. 59. 19. Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 29. 14.
  • 11) Bhāgavata-purāṇa 65 (V) 1: 66 (V) 22-25, 48; 67 (V) 11-14, 38-39, Matsya-purāṇa 150. 219 Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 30. 64-70. XI. 30. 44.
  • 12) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 248.
  • 13) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 30. 6. XI. 27. 28.
  • 14) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 11-12: III. 7. 448-51: Matsya-purāṇa 122. 15.
  • 15) Matsya-purāṇa 150-53.
  • 16) Matsya-purāṇa 53. 41; 69. 26; 93. 99: 258. 11 and 12.
  • 17) Matsya-purāṇa 152. 6-7, 36: 153. 181: 171. 50: 178. 32 and 50: 193. 70: 249. 35
  • 18) Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 328-335.

1b) A son of Viśveśā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 50.

2) Gāruḍa (गारुड).—The Purāṇa of 19000 verses narrated by Kṛṣṇa in the Gāruḍa kalpa; the origin of Garuḍa from the mundane egg; a gift of, takes one to Śiva loka, see Gāruḍa Purāṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 53. 53-4.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[Garuda in Pancaratra glossaries]

Lord Vishnu’s vehicle is Garuda which means ‘Wings-of-speech,’ in the Vedas he is also known as Garutman. He represents the Vedas which carry the Lord of Sacrifices. Garuda is the mantras of the Veda which travel with the speed of light from one world to another.

Garuda is also taken as the personification of courage (Satapatha Brahmana 6;7;2;6.)

According to the Puranas, Garuda is the son of Kaśyapa (vision) and Vinata (She-before-whom-knowledge-bows).

Garuda’s wife is Unnati (progress) also called Vināyakā (queen-of-knowledge). He has six sons;

  1. Summukha (Beautiful-face),
  2. Sunāma (Beautiful-name),
  3. Sunetra (Beautiful eyes),
  4. Suvarcas (Beautiful vigour),
  5. Suruk (Beautiful brightness)
  6. and Subala (Beautiful strength).
(Source): SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Garuda in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Gāruḍa (गारुड) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Gāruḍa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a bull. His right hand is in Pravacana-Mūdra and a viṇā is in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Gāruḍa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Garuḍa (Viṣṇu’s vehicle).—Viṣṇu rides upon a creature half-human & half-eagle known as Garuḍa or Garutman which means “wings-of-speech”. Garuda in the mythical and colourful Hindu scriptures is the King of the Birds and acts as messenger between Gods and Humans. He is the manifestation of the triple Vedas.

Garuḍa is depicted as the mortal enemy of snakes — he thus represents courage. Snakes represent all those factors that obstruct the spiritual path. His wife's name is Unnati or “progress” also called “queen-of-knowledge”.

(Source): Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity

Garuḍa (गरुड) is depicted as a sculpture on the fourth pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—Garuḍa is shown at the extreme right end of the panel. He first fights with a serpent and then there are series of divine beings including Indra on his elephant, Yama on the buffalo. After facing all these hurdles, Garuḍa reaches the spot where the nectar is kept. At the extreme left of the panel is shown Viśvakarman surrounded by flames. In the Mahābhārata, it is told that Garuḍa took the form of a being with hundred and eight mouths. He extinguished the fire by spitting water on the fire from his hundred and eight mouths. (Mahābhārata, Ādiparvan, adhyāya 32). But in the image under study, Garuḍa is shown pouring water from a pot on the fire.

(Source): Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[Garuda in Vastushastra glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the 2nd century Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. In the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, the name for this temple category is Suparṇa. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Garuḍa is also mentioned in a list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, in the first the group named Lalita (containing 25 unique temple varieties) and in the second the group named Sāndhāra (containing 25 unique temple varieties).

Garuḍa is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 63, where it is listed in the group named Nāgara, containing 20 different prāsādas (temples/buildings).

Garuḍa is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Maṇika, featuring oval-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Katha (narrative stories)

[Garuda in Katha glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड) is the “king of the birds”, and mentioned as the son of Vinatā (one of the two wives of Kaśyapa), according to a story called “the dispute about the colour of the sun’s horses” in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 22.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Garuḍa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

The Garuḍa bird is the vehicle of Viṣṇu. It is described as half-man and half-bird, having the head, wings, beak and talons of an eagle, and human body and limbs, its face being white, its wings red and its body golden.

Garuḍa is the son of one of the daughters of Dakṣa. The account of its miraculous birth and how it became the vehicle of Viṣṇu is given at the beginning of the Mahābhārata (I, xvi). Other adventures in its life, such as the attempt to stop Rāvaṇa from abducting Sītā, are described in the Rāmāyaṇa and the Viṣṇu Purāṇa.

(Source): archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1
Katha book cover
context information

Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Garuda in Shaivism glossaries]

Gāruḍa (गारुड) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra  verse 1.5-7.—“At a previous time, when Pārvatī asked him, Śaṅkara told of the attainments of vidyā in the wide worldly life, in various ways. I observed each teaching taught also by the troops of Gods, Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural power), Munis (saints), Deśikas (spiritual teachers), and Sādhakas (tantric practicioners). They are [, for example]: Gāruḍa... I shall carefully extract all the above-mentioned āgamas, which are transmitted from mouth to mouth, like butter extracted from coagulated milk”.

(Source): Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Gāruḍa (गारुड) or Gāruḍāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kiraṇāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Gāruḍa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Kiraṇa-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Garuda in Hinduism glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड).—Lord Viṣṇu's eternal carrier, a great devotee, the son of Aditi and Kaśyapa who takes the form of an eagle and is the bird carrier of Lord Viṣṇu. He is often found atop a pole facing the entrance of Viṣṇu temples. The emblem of Garuḍa is always on the chariot of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary

Gāruḍa (गारुड) medicine;—The method of treating envenomation and poisoning with mantra systems and herbal or mineral cures expounded in the Gāruda Tantras.

(Source): ZORA: Gāruḍa Medicine: A History of Snakebite and Religious Healing in South Asia

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[Garuda in Mahayana glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड) refers to “golden-winged birds” and represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. Very generous (mahātyāgin), if they have tormented beings by their arrogance (cittonnati) and their tyranny (darpa), they take the form of [for example], a golden-winged bird (garuḍa).

According to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XX), “when the Bodhisattva cultivates generosity (dāna),... He knows that a proud man, but one who practices generosity even though it be ostentatiously (abhimāna), is reborn among the golden-winged birds (garuḍa), where he will always have power (aiśvarya), possess the philopher’s stone (cintāmaṇi) in place of a ring (keyūra), succeed in having all his needs satisfied, suffer nothing contrary to his wishes, and can manage everything”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Garuda in Marathi glossaries]

garuḍa (गरुड).—m (S) The bird and vehicle of viṣṇu, the king of birds. He is represented as a being something between a man and a bird. 2 A large kind of vulture.

--- OR ---

gāruḍa (गारुड).—n (S The mantra of garuḍa, the bird of viṣṇu) A charm against venom or poison.

--- OR ---

gārūḍa (गारूड).—n (gāruḍa S) Juggling or leger de main. 2 Arts, tricks, chicanery, evil devising and scheming.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

garuḍa (गरुड).—m An eagle.

--- OR ---

gāruḍa (गारुड).—n Juggling. Arts, tricks, chicanery. Evil devising and scheming.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Garuda in Sanskrit glossaries]

Garuḍa (गरुड).—[garudbhayāṃ ḍayate, ḍī-ḍa pṛṣo° talopaḥ, gṝ-uḍac Uṇ 4. 166.]

1) Name of the king of birds. [He is a son of Kaśyapa by his wife Vinatā. He is the chief of the feathered race, an implacable enemy of serpents, and elder brother of Aruṇa. In a dispute between his mother and Kadrū, her rival, about the colour of उचैःश्रवस् (ucaiḥśravas) Kadrū defeated Vinatā, and, in accordance with the conditions of the wager, made her her slave. Garuḍa brought down the heavenly beverage (Amṛta) to purchase her freedom, not, however, without a hard struggle with Indra for the same. Vinatā was then released; but the Amṛta was taken away by Indra from the serpents. Garuḍa is represented as the vehicle of Visnu, and as having a white face, an aquiline nose, red wings and a golden body.]

2) A building or architecture (such as citi) shaped like Garuḍa; गरुडो रुक्मपक्षो वै त्रिगुणोऽष्टादशात्मकः (garuḍo rukmapakṣo vai triguṇo'ṣṭādaśātmakaḥ) Rām.1.14. 29.

3) Name of a particular military array.

Derivable forms: garuḍaḥ (गरुडः).

--- OR ---

Gāruḍa (गारुड).—a. (-ḍī f.) [गरुडस्येदं अण् (garuḍasyedaṃ aṇ)]

1) Shaped like Garuḍa.

2) Coming from or relating to Garuḍa.

-ḍaḥ, -ḍam 1 An emerald; राशिर्मणीनामिव गारुडानां सपद्मरागः फलितो विभाति (rāśirmaṇīnāmiva gāruḍānāṃ sapadmarāgaḥ phalito vibhāti) R.13.53.

2) A charm against (snake) poison; संगृहीतगारुडेन (saṃgṛhītagāruḍena) K.51 (where it has sense 1 also).

3) A missile presided over by Garuḍa.

4) A military array (vyūha) of the shape of Garuḍa.

5) Gold.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 403 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

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