Lakshmana, aka: Lakṣmaṇa, Lakṣmaṇā; 16 Definition(s)
Lakshmana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Lakṣmaṇa and Lakṣmaṇā can be transliterated into English as Laksmana or Lakshmana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Hands of Famous Emperors.—For Lakṣmana, the Śikhara hand on the left shoulder.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण):—Son of Daśaratha (son of Aja). He was an incarnation who appeared to his father in the form of a son. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.10.2)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—Son born to Daśaratha of Sumitrā. Short history. Since details about Lakṣmaṇa are included in the story under 'Rāma' only a short description is given below:
Daśaratha, King of Ayodhyā had three wives, Kausalyā, Kaikeyī and Sumitrā. To obtain children Daśaratha performed a sacrifice named Putrakāmeṣṭi requesting the great sage Ṛṣyaśṛṅga to officiate at the ceremony. At the close of the ceremony a divine person rose up from the sacrificial fire with a pot of pudding and all the three wives became pregnant by eating the same. Kausalyā gave birth to Śrī Rāma, Kaikeyī to Bharata and Sumitrā to Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna. Lakṣmaṇa was an incarnation of Ananta and so Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa had more attachment to each other. (See full article at Story of Lakṣmaṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—A very brave son of Duryodhana. He was a great archer. The Mahābhārata gives the following information about him.
2) (i) In the great battle Abhimanyu defeated this Lakṣmaṇa. (Śloka 32, Chapter 73, Bhīṣma Parva).
2) (ii) Lakṣmaṇa fought against Kṣatradeva. (Śloka 49, Chapter 14, Droṇa Parva).
2) (iii) Abhimanyu killed him in the battle-field. (Śloka 17, Chapter 46, Droṇa Parva).
2) (iv) After the great war when once, at the request of Kuntī and Gāndhārī, Vyāsa by his yogic powers arrayed the dead warriors for Kuntī and Gāndhārī to see, this Lakṣmaṇa was also among them. (Śloka 11, Chapter 32, Āśramavāsika Parva).
3) Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा).—One of the queens of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Chapter 33, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātyapāṭha).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—A son of Daśaratha and younger brother of Rāma;1 took part in the Lankā expedition; respected the Brahmaṇas and elders; present at Rāma's coronation; father of Angada and Citraketu,2 whose cities were Korayaṇa and Candracakra, near the Himālayas; created with Rāma by Lalitā, he killed Meghanāda in Bhaṇḍāsura war.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 3; V. 19. 1 and 6.
- 2) Ib. IX. 10. 19, 41-7; 11. 12; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 37. 31; 63. 185; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 184, 187; 108. 25; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 87, 104.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 114.
1b) A mantrakṛt.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 145. 101.
2a) Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा).—A daughter of the king of the Madras; heard of Kṛṣṇa's glory from Nārada and set her mind on him. It was arranged that in a svayaṃvara he, who hit a target (fish) correctly by looking at its reflection in the water below was to wed her. All tried in vain but Kṛṣṇa succeeded and married her; when she was taken in a chariot, other kings attacked Kṛṣṇa; he vanquished all of them, and reached Dvārakā. Addressed Draupadī at length on her marriage;1 sons, Gātravat and others.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 58. 57; 83. 6, 17-39; Matsya-purāṇa 47. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 234; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 5.
- 2) Ib. V. 32. 4.
2b) A daughter of Duryodhana married by Sāmba in a svayaṃvara. For this the Kurus like Karṇa and Duryodhana took him captive after a severe fight and threw him into prison. Afraid of Balarāma's prowess, Duryodhana agreed to her marriage with Sāmba and sent a rich dowry.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 68. 1-12, 43-51.
2c) An Apsaras.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 7.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा) is a Sanskrit word [probably] referring to Ipomoea sepiaria, a plant in the Convolvulaceae family. Certain plant parts of Lakṣmaṇā are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा) is another name for Śvetakaṇṭakārī, a medicinal plant related to Kaṇṭakārī, according to verse 4.33-36 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Lakṣmaṇā and Śvetakaṇṭakārī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Katha (narrative stories)
1) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण) is the younger brother of Rāma, both sons of Daśaratha, the king of Ayodhyā, according to in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 51. Accordingly, “... long ago king Daśaratha, the sovereign of Ayodhyā, had a son named Rāma, the elder brother of Bharata, Śatrughna and Lakṣmaṇa. He was a partial incarnation of Viṣṇu for the overthrow of Rāvaṇa, and he had a wife named Sītā, the daughter of Janaka, the lady of his life. As fate would have it, his father handed over the kingdom to Bharata, and sent Rāma to the forest with Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa”.
2) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण) and Rāma were the twin-sons born to king Tārāvaloka and Mādrī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 113. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Naravāhanadatta: “... then he [Tārāvaloka] had two twin sons born to him by Mādrī, and the father called them Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. And the boys grew like the love and joy of their parents, and they were dearer than life to their grandparents. And Tārāvaloka and Mādrī were never tired of looking at them, as they bent before them, being filled with virtue, like two bows of the prince, being strung”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Lakṣmaṇa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Lakṣmaṇa is the name of a deity depicted at Ramaswamy Temple in Kumbakonam (Kumbhakonam), representing a sacred place for the worship of Viṣṇu.—(a) In the sannidhi for Rāma, there are icons of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa and Hanumān. [...] Lakṣmaṇa is found standing in samapāda-sthānaka to the right of Rāma with hands in añjali-hasta. (b) In front of the stone images are the utsava-mūrti of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, Satrukguṇa and Hanumān. Lakṣmaṇa is also found in the same pose as Rāma. He is found to the left of Rāma.
The images of Rāma Sītā and Lakṣmana are made out of stone. While depicting in dancing, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa are found in samapāda-sthānaka with the right hand in kapittha-hasta and the left hand in śikhara-hasta.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Lakshmana was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within a number of Hindu traditions Lakshmana is considered to be an avatar, in a secondary form to Rama's main appearance. In some Hindu traditions he is worshiped as an avatar of Shesha. The name may also be written as Lakshman or Laxman.
Lakshmana is the twin brother of Shatrughna, born in Ayodhya to Sumitra, the third wife of Dasharatha, king of Kosala. Thus, Rama is the eldest, Bharata is the second, Lakshmana is the third, and Shatrughna is the youngest of the four brothers. Despite being the twin of Shatrughna, Lakshmana is specially attached to Rama, and the duo are inseparable. When Rama marries Sita, Lakshmana married the younger sister of Sita named Urmila.
2) Lakshmaṇa (लक्ष्मण): Younger stepbrother of Rama and son of Sumitra and King Dasaratha. Duryodhana's gallant young son also bore this name.
Etymology: Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण, IAST Lakṣmaṇa; Chinese: Loman; Indonesian and Javanese: Leksmana, Lesmana, Lesmono; Khmer:; Lao:; Malay: Laksamana; Maranaw: Mangawarna; Tamil: லக்ஷ்மணன் ; Thai: พระลักษมณ์)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Lakṣmaṇa is the incarnation of SaṅkarṣaṇaSource: Vaniquotes: Hinduism
1) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—A very brave son of Duryodhana. He was killed by Abhimanyu during the battle of Kurukṣetra.
2) Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—A younger brother of Lord Rāmacandra’s. An incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa, He accompanied Rāma and Sītā in Their exile.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
Lakṣmaṇā (लक्ष्मणा) is the mother of Candraprabha according to Śvetāmbara (but she is named Lakṣmī according to Digambara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Candraprabha is the eighth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The husband of Lakṣmaṇā is Mahasena. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण) is an example of a name based on Rāma mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. Lord Rāma is believed to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu. Rāma occurring in our inscriptions seems to have been Rāma Rāghava. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (eg., Lakṣmaṇa) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Lakṣmaṇa (लक्ष्मण).—a. [lakṣman-aṇ na vṛddhiḥ]
1) Having marks.
2) Possessed of good or auspicious marks, fortunate, lucky.
3) Prosperous, thriving.
-ṇaḥ 1 The crane. -2> Name of a son of Dasaratha by his wife Sumitrā. [He was so much attached to Rāma from his very childhood that he became ready to accompany him during his travels, and took no small part in the several events that took place during the fourteen years of Rāma's exile. In the war of Laṇkā he killed several powerful demons, but particularly Meghanāda, the most heroic of the sons of Rāvaṇa. He was at first mortally wounded by Meghanāda by means of a magical weapon, but was restored to life by Suṣeṇa by means of the medicinal durgs fetched by Māruti. One day, Time in the disguise of a hermit came to Rāma and said that he who should happen to see them converse in private should be immediately abandoned, which was agreed to Laksmana on one occasion intruded on their privacy and made the word of his brother true by throwing himself into the Śarayū; (see R.15.92-95.). He married Urmilā by whom he had two sons, Aṅgada and Chandraketu.]; अथ लक्ष्मणानुगतकान्तवपुः (atha lakṣmaṇānugatakāntavapuḥ) Śi.9.31.
-ṇā 1 A goose (sārasā); 'हंसस्य योषिद्वरटा सारसस्य तु लक्ष्मणा (haṃsasya yoṣidvaraṭā sārasasya tu lakṣmaṇā) |' Śi.4.59.
2) A kind of pot-herb.
-ṇam 1 A name, an appellation.
2) A mark, sign, token.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Lakṣmaṇaprasū (लक्ष्मणप्रसू).—Name of Sumitrā, mother of Laksmaṇa.Derivable forms: lakṣmaṇapras...
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Sītā (सीता)is the wife of Śrī Rāma; as Śrī Rāma is an incarnation of Viṣṇu, Sītā is also a form...
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Search found 44 books and stories containing Lakshmana, Lakṣmaṇa or Lakṣmaṇā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 4: Marriage with Lakṣmaṇā < [Chapter VI - Marriage of Kṛṣṇa with Rukmiṇī and others]
Part 3: Birth of Candraprabha < [Chapter VI - Candraprabhacaritra]
Part 7: Winning of Jitapadmā < [Chapter V - The kidnapping of Sītā]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.23 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 2.4.243 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 2.4.259 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 10 - The Pastimes of the Supreme Lord, Ramacandra < [Canto IX - Liberation]
Chapter 68 - The Marriage of Samba < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Chapter 83 - Draupadi Meets the Queens of Krishna < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.109 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 2.1.298 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)