Sanga, Saṅga, Śaṅga, Saṃga, Shanga, Shamga, Samga, Samga: 30 definitions

Introduction:

Sanga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaṅga can be transliterated into English as Sanga or Shanga, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Śaṅga (शङ्ग).—A sage of the epoch of Auttama Manu*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 14.

2) Saṅga (सङ्ग).—A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 238.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Saṅga (सङ्ग).—Meeting point of two or more rivers.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Saṅga (सङ्ग) refers to “association”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Saṅga (सङ्ग):—[saṅgaḥ] Contraction of body parts, Retention.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Saṃga (संग) (Cf. Saṃgama) refers to “(extraordinary) intercourse”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The Goddess spoke]:—Tell me, O Maheśvara, how should the Yogin sexually approach the one who is called Māyā, who has neither form/beauty nor a clan/noble family/body? [Bhairava spoke]:—Listen to me, O Goddess, I shall teach you the extraordinary intercourse (saṃgasaṃgam adbhutam) with Māyā. It is fruitful, O Maheśānī, and difficult to learn by others and Yogins without yogic Powers, O Suranāyakī”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sanga (संग): Son of Virata. When king Virata was wounded, he had to get into Sanga's chariot, having lost his chariot, horses and charioteer

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṅga (सङ्ग) refers to an “attachment”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (18) [No matter] how much living beings praise (praśaṃsita) the Victorious One (jina) by means of examples (udāharaṇa), it is still an attachment (saṅga) that they see him with respect to the praising. Because his own qualities (svaguṇa) as the Leader (nāyaka) are just like open space (gagamasama), the praising for non-duality (advaya) is to praise the Victorious One. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Saṃga (संग) refers to “(being) united”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Oṃ blueish, dark-blue, eyeliner dark, a consort united (saṃga-saṃginī) with Akṣhobhya, I worship you with devotion, arising from an indestructible word, Māmakī”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Saṃga (संग) refers to “attachment”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Tolerance of anger and humility towards pride, moreover straightforwardness towards deception [and] abandonment of attachment (saṃga-saṃnyāsa), these are the enemies of desire respectively. Yogis continually drive away desire and dislike through equanimity or through the state of non-attachment , and they drive away wrong faith through the application of right faith”

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Chronology Of Nepal History Reconstructed

Sanga refers to one of the seven villages in Nepal that, together with Bhaktapur, were constructed by Anandamalla during the second Thakuri dynasty of Amshuvarman (720 A.D. to 945 A.D.).—Anandamalla, founded Bhaktapura or Bhatagam and the seven towns, Venipura, Panati, Nala, Dhomakhel, Khadpu or Shadpu, Chankat, and Sanga, and resided in Bhatgam.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṅga : (m.) attachment; clinging.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Saṅga, (fr. sañj: see sajjati1) cleaving, clinging, attachment, bond S. I, 25, 117 sq.; A. III, 311; IV, 289; Dh. 170, 342, etc.; Sn. 61, 212, 386, 390, 475, etc.; Dhs. 1059; DhsA. 363; J. III, 201; the five saṅgas are rāga, dosa, moha, māna, and diṭṭhi, Thag. 633=Dhp. 370; DhA. IV, 187; seven saṅgas, It. 94; Nd1 91, 432; Nd2 620. —âtiga one who has overcome attachment, free from attachment, an Arahant M. I, 386; S. I, 3, 23; IV, 158= It. 58; Sn. 250, 473, 621; DhA. IV, 159. (Page 665)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṅga (संग).—m (S) Union, junction, connection, association, companionship, society. Neatly used in comp. as satsaṅga, khalasaṅga, aṅgasaṅga, sādhusaṅga, strīsaṅga, vidhavāsaṅga, gurusaṅga. 2 Congress of the sexes.

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sāṅga (सांग).—f (śakti S through H) A spear or a javelin (esp. a spear) altogether of iron.

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sāṅga (सांग).—a (S sa & aṅga) That is with all its members, parts, wings, appendages, and appertaining particulars; complete, entire, full, perfect;--as a ceremony, rite, work, act.

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sāṅga (सांग).—m (Vulgar. sāṅgaṇēṃ) Telling, bidding, direction, mandate, order. v sāṅga.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṅga (संग).—m Union, junction, connection, association, society; as in satsaṅga, sādhusaṅga khalasaṅga.

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sāṅga (सांग).—f An iron spear.

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sāṅga (सांग).—a Complete, entire.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃga (संग).—[saṃñj bhāve ghañ]

1) Coming together, joining.

2) Meeting, union, confluence (as of rivers); विभाति संगात् स्फटिकोपलो यथा (vibhāti saṃgāt sphaṭikopalo yathā) A. Rām.7.5.31.

3) Touch, contact.

4) Company, association, friendship, friendly intercourse; सतां सद्भिः संगः कथमपि हि पुण्येन भवति (satāṃ sadbhiḥ saṃgaḥ kathamapi hi puṇyena bhavati) Uttararāmacarita 2.1; संगमनुव्रज् (saṃgamanuvraj) 'to keep company with, herd with'; मृगाः मृगैः संगमनुव्रजन्ति (mṛgāḥ mṛgaiḥ saṃgamanuvrajanti) Subhās.

5) Attachment, fondness, desire; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः संगस्तेषूपजायते (dhyāyato viṣayān puṃsaḥ saṃgasteṣūpajāyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.62.

6) (a) Attachment to worldly ties, association with men; दौर्मन्त्र्यान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति यतिः संगात् (daurmantryānnṛpatirvinaśyati yatiḥ saṃgāt) Bhartṛhari 2.42; विमुक्त° (vimukta°) Kumārasambhava 1.53; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.169. (b) The subject or cause (hetu) of attachment; अजितं जेतुकामेन भाव्यं संगेष्वसंगिना (ajitaṃ jetukāmena bhāvyaṃ saṃgeṣvasaṃginā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.189.14.

7) Encounter, fight.

8) Hindrance, obstruction; नाप्सु वा गतिसंगं ते पश्यामि हरिपुंगव (nāpsu vā gatisaṃgaṃ te paśyāmi haripuṃgava) Rām.4.44.3; तत्पूर्वसंगे वितथप्रयत्नः (tatpūrvasaṃge vitathaprayatnaḥ) R.2.42;3.63.

Derivable forms: saṃgaḥ (संगः).

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Saṃga (संग).—1 Ā.

1) To come or join together, meet, encounter; अक्षधूर्तैः समगंसि (akṣadhūrtaiḥ samagaṃsi) Dk.; एते भगवत्यौ कलिन्दकन्यामन्दाकिन्यौ संगच्छेते (ete bhagavatyau kalindakanyāmandākinyau saṃgacchete) A. R.7.

2) To cohabit, have sexual intercourse with; भार्या च परसंगता (bhāryā ca parasaṃgatā) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.238; Manusmṛti 8.378.

3) To keep company or intercourse with, associate with.

4) To agree, harmonize, be suitable.

5) To become contracted, shrink up.

6) To die, depart.

7) To go to, attain (with acc.). -Caus.

1) To bring together, join, unite; वधूवरौ संगमयांचकार (vadhūvarau saṃgamayāṃcakāra) R.7.2.

2) To endow or present with, unite with, bestow on, give to; प्रियसुहृदि विभीषणे संगमय्य श्रियं वैरिणः (priyasuhṛdi vibhīṣaṇe saṃgamayya śriyaṃ vairiṇaḥ) R.12.14.

3) To deliver, hand over.

4) To kill.

Derivable forms: saṃgam (संगम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sāṅga (साङ्ग).—a. [sahāṅgena aṅgairvā]

1) Having members.

2) Complete in every part.

3) Together with the six aṅgas or auxiliary members.

4) Concluded, finished.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṅga (सङ्ग).—m.

(-ṅgaḥ) 1. Meeting, encountering. 2. Association, intercourse, friendship. 3. Joining, uniting. 4. Desire, wish, cupidity. 5. Addiction or devotion to. 6. Confluence of rivers. 7. Contact, touch. 8. Worldly attachment. E. sam together, gam to go, aff. ḍa; or ṣañj to embrace, ghañ aff.

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Sāṅga (साङ्ग).—mfn.

(-ṅgaḥ-ṅgā or ṅgī-ṅgaṃ) 1. Having all the members. 2. Comprising all the sub-divisions. E. sa with, aṅga a limb or part.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṅga (सङ्ग).—i. e. sam-ga (vb. gam), and sañj + a, m. 1. Joining, uniting, [Pañcatantra] 187, 6. 2. Meeting, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 33, 6. 3. Confluence of rivers. 4. Touch, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 170, 3. 5. Association, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 202, M. M.; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 224; keeping company, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 34; intercourse, friendship, love (kāntā-, of one’s wife), [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 83. 6. Attaching, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 42 (an arrow, i. e. throwing). 7. Attachment, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 600; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 194; wordly attachment, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 48. 8. Desire, cupidity, [Indralokāgamana] 4, 3; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 181, 3.

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Sāṅga (साङ्ग).—i. e. sa-aṅga, adj. 1. With the members, divisions. 2. Complete, finished, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 166, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṃga (शंग).—v. śaṃgu.

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Saṃga (संग).—2. [masculine] hostile encounter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṅga (सङ्ग).—1. [masculine] (adj. —° [feminine] ā & ī) sticking to, hanging upon, contact with ([locative] or —°); meeting, encounter; near relation to, intercourse (also sexual) with ([genetive], [instrumental] ±saha, [locative], or —°); attachment or devotion to, propensity for, desire of ([locative] or —°).

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Sāṅga (साङ्ग).—[adjective] haviNg limbs or a body; with all parts or supplements (Veda); complete, finished.

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Sāṅga (साङ्ग).—[adjective] haviNg limbs or a body; with all parts or supplements (Veda); complete, finished.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃga (शंग):—[=śaṃ-ga] a śaṃ-gaya etc. See p. 1054, col. 3.

2) [=śaṃ-ga] [from śaṃ > śam] b mfn. [varia lectio] for -gu, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

3) Saṃga (संग):—[=saṃ-ga] a and saṅga See below and √sañj.

4) [=saṃ-ga] [from saṃ-gam] b m. (for saṅga See √sañj) ‘coming together’, conflict, war, [Ṛg-veda] (cf. [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 17]).

5) Saṃgā (संगा):—[=saṃ-√gā] [Parasmaipada] -jigāti, to come together, [Atharva-veda];

—to go to, approach ([accusative]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṅga (सङ्ग):—[from saj] m. (ifc. f(ā or ī). ) sticking, clinging to, touch, contact with ([locative case] or [compound]), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] relation to, association or intercourse with ([genitive case] [instrumental case] with and without saha [locative case], or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] addiction or devotion to, propensity for, ([especially]) worldly or selfish attachment or affection, desire, wish, cupidity, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (with atreḥ) Name of a Sāman, [Brāhmaṇa]

5) Sāṅga (साङ्ग):—mfn. or saṅga having limbs or a body, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) together with the limbs, [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

7) with all its Aṅgas or supplements, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

8) complete, entire, [Mahābhārata]

9) concluded, finished, [Uttararāma-carita]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṅga (सङ्ग):—[sa-ṅga] (ṅgaḥ) 1. m. Meeting, union, company; confluence; cupidity.

2) Sāṅga (साङ्ग):—[(ṅgaḥ-ṅgā-ṅgaṃ) a.] Having all the parts; complete.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṅga (सङ्ग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sanga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Saṃga (संग) [Also spelled sang]:—(nm) company, association, contact; attachment; stone; (ind) with, along with; ~[ja] born through contact; ~[dila] stone-hearted, cruel; ~[dilī] stone heartedness, cruelty; ~[maramara] marble; ~[maramarī] white and gracious like marble; ~[rodha] quarantine; —[sonā] to go to bed (with).

2) Sāṃga (सांग) [Also spelled sang]:—(nf) a heavy iron implement for digging up a well.

3) Sāṃga (सांग) [Also spelled sang]:—(a) having limbs or body, together with the body; complete, entire; organic; —[rūpaka] sustained metaphor.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃga (संग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śrṛṅga.

2) Saṃga (संग) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śārṅga.

3) Saṃga (संग) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṅga.

4) Saṃgā (संगा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃgai.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃga (ಸಂಗ):—[noun] a gathering of people or things; assemblage.

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Saṃga (ಸಂಗ):—

1) [noun] a joining of two or more persons; a union.

2) [noun] companionship; association; intercourse.

3) [noun] sexual union; coition.

4) [noun] agreement; correspondence; harmony.

5) [noun] (fig.) a man very fond of the company of women; a lady’s man.

6) [noun] Śiva of Kūḍalasaṃgama, popular for Basava's association with it;7) [noun] ಸಂಗಬಿಡು [samgabidu] sanga biḍu to become unfriendly or hostile; to estrange from another’s assoiation.

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Sāṃga (ಸಾಂಗ):—

1) [adjective] having limbs; consisting of parts.

2) [adjective] of or relating to limbs or parts.

3) [adjective] entire; whole; complete.

4) [adjective] having, complemented by, the supplementary works (said of the vedas).

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Sāṃga (ಸಾಂಗ):—[noun] an iron spear.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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