Vibhava, Vibhāva: 23 definitions
Vibhava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vibhava (विभव) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Lalita, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Lalita group contains twenty-five out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Vibhava is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 60, where it is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas (temples) having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Vibhava (विभव).—A Vānara chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 232.
2) Vibhāva (विभाव).—A deva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 95; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 9.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Vibhāva (विभाव) refers to “determinant”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31 and chapter 7, the “the sentiment (rasa) is produced (rasa-niṣpattiḥ) from a combination (saṃyoga) of Determinants (vibhāva), Consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāri-bhāva)”.
Accordingly, “the word vibhāva is used for the sake of clear knowledge. It is synonymous with kāraṇa, nimitta and hetu. As Words, Gestures and Representation of the Sattva are vibhāvyte (determined) by this, it is called vibhāva (Determinant). Vibhāvita also means the same thing as vijñāta (clearly known). As many things are vibhāvyate (determined) by this through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the Sattva, it is named vibhāva (Determinant)”.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Vibhāva (विभाव, “excitants”) refers to the “cause of any basic emotion” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).—Mammaṭa is of opinion that vibhāvas are actually causes and has two divisions:
- ālambana-vibhāva (substantial excitant),
- uddīpana-vibhāva (enhancer excitant).
Basing upon which the basic feeling rati etc. are originated, that is called ālambana vibhāva. In fact the dramatic personae like Duṣyanta and Śakuntala etc. are considred as ālambana vibhāva respectively. That which helps to arouse the sentiment or rasa is called uddipana vibhāva. Garland, sandal, garden, moon etc. are considered as uddipana vibhāva in the sentiment of love (śṛṅgāra). These two types of vibhāvas are the cause of the manifestation of rasa.
According to Abhinavagupta, the sthāyibhāva residing in a subdued form in the spectators or readers becomes aroused, being nourished by the vibhāvas, anubhāvas etc. transforms into rasa. The audience gets delighted with a continuous feeling of joy, which is known as carvaṇā or rasa. The vibhāvas and anubhāvas which are described by the poet give away their individual character and turn into general character by eliminating from them the character of individuality.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Vibhāva (विभाव, “determinant”) refers to one of the three main types of Bhāva (“psychological states of the mind”) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Bhāva infuses the meaning of the play into the hearts of the spectators. There are three states in bhāvas. They are vibhāva (determinant), anubhāva (consequents) and vyabhicāribhāva (transient state). The vibhāvas and the anubhāvas are closely connected to the world that is the human nature.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas
Vibhava (विभव) refers to the second saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘vibhava’ enjoys things which are meant to be consumed (foods, drinks etc.) is extremely beautiful, strong and intelligent, knows the mysteries of arts, is like a king in his family (the chief of the family), good mannered, cultured and very learned.
According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year vbhava (1988-1989 AD) will be lustful, pure, constantly cheerful and will have prodigious wealth, relatives, learning and fame.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Jaiva-dharma
Vibhāva (विभाव) refers to one of the four ingredients of rasa.—Vibhāva is the cause of tasting rati, and it has two divisions: ālambana (the support) and uddīpana (the awakening stimulus). Ālambana also has two divisions, namely, the object (viṣaya) and the abode (āśraya). The āśraya of rati is the person in whom rati exists, while the viṣaya of rati is the person towards whom rati is directed. Kṛṣṇa’s bhaktas are the āśraya of rati because they have rati in their hearts, whereas Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya of rati, because rati is directed towards Him.
The anubhāvas that arouse and nourish the vibhāvas then spread throughout the body in the form of udbhāsvara. As soon as the sthāyībhāva in the heart is stimulated by the vibhāva, anubhāva begins its function as another action of the heart. Thus anubhāva is a separate individual ingredient.Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Vibhāva (विभाव) refers to:—Is defined in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.15) as follows: “That in which rati is tasted (ālambana) and that cause by which rati is tasted (uddīpana) is called vibhāva.”. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Vibhava (विभव) is the second of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Vibhava], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Vibhava (विभव) refers to the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.—Vibhavas are the various incarnations and manifestations of the Lord. Accordingly, “there is a large group of deities belonging to vibhava (kind). Understand what was said by me before is of three kinds. This is intended to destroy the defects rising from the calamities (or troubles) of the universe during the four yugas and transition of yuga. The one Lord puts on His own form to become more than one”.Source: archive.org: Lakshmi Tantra
Vibhava (विभव) according to the Lakṣmītantra 11.17-19.—Accordingly, “again at the time of the Vibhava incarnations, the same Viśākhayūpa, not being divided in the fourfold embodiment, develops the Vibhavas. These Vibhava deities are considered to be Padmanābha etc.”.
The thirty-eight Vibhava deities are:
- the tortoise-shaped deity,
- divinely shaped Śrīpati,
- Kāntātman bearing amṛta,
- the great master Dattātreya,
- Ekaśṛṅgatanu (the deity),
- the deity possessing a Vāmana (dwarf’s) form,
- the all-pervading Trivikrama,
- Nara and Nārāyaṇa,
- Rāma with the burning eye,
- and the other Rāma with the bow,
- god Kalkin,
These thirty-eight deities, (named) Padmanābha etc., are God’s manifestations known as the Vibhava deities. According to verse 26-27, “in fulfilment of a specific objective conceived by the all-pervasive Viśākhayūpa, manifestations called Vibhavas devolve into existence and their duties are clearly defined. Padmanābha is stationed in the intermediary region between the pure and the impure courses (i.e. creation). The other deities, viz. Dhruva etc., are on view in (various) temples of the world”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Vibhāva (विभाव) refers to a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Images are classified into five forms, namely parama, vyūha, vibhāva, antaryāmi and arcā. In short, parama, vyūha and vibhāva stand for the subtle states in which the paramātman exists everywhere and eternally.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
N Fact to know no more life, to be lifeless.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vibhava.—(IA 14), used in the sense of nirvāṇa (q. v.). Note: vibhava is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
vibhava : (m.) wealth; prosperity.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Vibhava, (vi+bhava) 1. power, wealth, prosperity DA. I, 147; J. I, 56; V, 285; Mhvs 26, 6; DhA. I, 6; II, 9, 84; IV, 7; VvA. 5, 302 (°sampanna rich); PvA. 122, 130, 176, 196. Great wealth is expressed by asīti-koṭi-vibhava, consisting in 80 koṭis, e.g. DhA. I, 367; II, 25.—bahu° very rich J. I, 145; mahā° id. PvA. 97, 107.—yathā vibhavaṃ according to one’s means or power PvA. 54; vibhav’ânurūpaṃ id. VvA. 254.—2. non-existence, cessation of life, annihilation D. I, 34; Sn. 514 (+bhava), 867 (id.); Nd1 274, 282; J. III, 402 (°ṃ gata=vināsaṃ patta C.); V, 267 (id.); DhsA. 392; DA. I, 120; VbhA. 505 (=bhava-vigama). See also taṇhā B 1.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vibhava (विभव).—m S Greatness, grandeur, glory, majesty.
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vibhāva (विभाव).—m S One of the bhāva or classes of properties into which the objects of poetical composition are divided,--the causative or exciting property. See anubhāva, sthāyībhāva, vyabhicāribhāva, bhāva.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Wealth, riches, property; अतनुषु विभवेषु ज्ञातयः सन्तु नाम (atanuṣu vibhaveṣu jñātayaḥ santu nāma) Ś.5.8; R.8.69.
2) Might, power, prowess, greatness; एतावान् मम मतिविभवः (etāvān mama mativibhavaḥ) V.2; वाग्विभवः (vāgvibhavaḥ) Māl.1.26; R.1.9; Ki.5.21; विभवाद्वा प्रदीपवत् (vibhavādvā pradīpavat) MS.11. 1.59.
3) Exalted position, rank, dignity.
5) Final beatitude, absolution; स भवान् सर्वलोकस्य भवाय विभवाय च अवतीर्णोऽशभागेन (sa bhavān sarvalokasya bhavāya vibhavāya ca avatīrṇo'śabhāgena) Bhāg.1.1.35.
6) Protection (pālana); नियन्ता जन्तूनां निखिलजगदुत्पादविभवप्रतिक्षेपैः क्रीडन् (niyantā jantūnāṃ nikhilajagadutpādavibhavapratikṣepaiḥ krīḍan) Viś. Guṇa.198.
7) Development; evolution.
Derivable forms: vibhavaḥ (विभवः).
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Vibhāva (विभाव).—(In Rhet.)
1) Any condition which produces or develops a particular state of body or mind; (one of the three main divisions of Bhāvas, the other two being anubhāva and vyabhicāribhāva q. q. v. v.); रत्याद्युद्बोधका लोके विभावाः काव्यनाट्ययोः (ratyādyudbodhakā loke vibhāvāḥ kāvyanāṭyayoḥ) S. D.62; its chief subdivisions are आलम्बन (ālambana) and उद्दीपक (uddīpaka); see आलम्बन (ālambana).
2) A friend, an acquaintance.
3) Any exciting circumstance (as dress &c.).
Derivable forms: vibhāvaḥ (विभावः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vibhava (विभव).—(1)? adj. [bahuvrīhi], free from existence: (bahu bodhisattvās tatha śrāvakāś ca…) bhavaprahīṇā vibha- vāś ca sarve Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 152.11 (verse), rid of existence and free from it, all of them; so both edd., no v.l.; but Burnouf exempts de terreur, implying vibhayāś, supported by Tibetan ḥjigs pa rab spaṅs; probably this is the true reading (vi-bhava would duplicate bhava-prahīṇa); (2) m. (= Pali id.) annihilation, destruction (Tibetan regularly ḥjig pa): (sarva-)dharmaprakṛti- svabhāvaṃ-(read °va- with Calcutta (see LV.) ?)-saṃdarśana-vibhava- cakraṃ (of the dharmacakra) Lalitavistara 422.19; vibhavaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 6469 = Tibetan (read) ḥbyer ba or ḥjig pa; often associated with its antonym saṃbhava, coming into existence, Mahāvyutpatti 6845 loka-vi° (6846 loka-saṃ°); (lokadhātusaṃbhavaṃ ca…) lokadhātuvibhavaṃ ca vicārayati Daśabhūmikasūtra 67.23; (kalpadā- haṃ) saṃdarśayanta vibhavaṃ tatha saṃbhavaṃ ca Lalitavistara 298.12 (verse); saṃbhavaṃ vibhavaṃ caiva mohāt paśyanti bāliśāḥ, na saṃbhavaṃ na vibhavaṃ prajñāyukto vipaś- yati Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 269.2—3 (verse); lokasya saṃbhavaṃ ca vibhavaṃ ca vyavalokayate Daśabhūmikasūtra 47.24; vibhava ucyate prahāṇaṃ tyāgaḥ (definition) Bodhisattvabhūmi 50.14; with bhava, instead of saṃbhava, vibhavaṃ ca bhavaṃ ca jñātva loke Mahāvastu iii.395.13 (verse); it is heresy to believe in either, bhava- vibhava-dṛṣṭi-vigatenānutpādanirodhajñānena Gaṇḍavyūha 469.11; ātmadṛṣṭi-(add bhavadṛṣṭi-with WT)-vibhavadṛṣṭi-Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 71.2.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-vaḥ) 1. Substance, thing, property, wealth. 2. Emancipation from existence. 3. Supreme or superhuman power. 4. Magnanimity, lofty-mindedness. E. vi implying variety, privation, &c., and bhava being.
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(-vaḥ) 1. A friend or acquaintance. 2. One of the Bhayas or classes of properties into which the objects of poetical composition are divided; the causative or exciting property, as dress, perfumes, &c. of amorous desire; extravagant gesture of mirth; distress or pain of tenderness; arms and tumult of wrath or heroism, &c. E. vi various, and bhāva property, disposition.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vibhava (विभव).—i. e. vi-bhū + a, m. 1. Power, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 49. 2. Supreme or superhuman power, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 21. 3. Wealth, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 96. 4. Property. 5. Substance. 6. Thing, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 167. 7. Magnanimity. 8. Emancipation from existence.
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Vibhāva (विभाव).—i. e. vi-bhū + a, m. 1. An acquaintance. 2. An excitant of the sentiments of poetical composition, Sāh. Darp. p. 31. 3. The affections or sentiments, as love, Sch. ad [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 2, 8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vibhava (विभव).—[adjective] rich. [masculine] omnipresence, ubiquity, evolution, development, growth; power, might, majesty, rank, high position; property, wealth, money.
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Vibhāva (विभाव).—[adjective] the same.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vibhava (विभव):—[=vi-bhava] a etc. See under vi-√bhū.
2) Vibhāva (विभाव):—[=vi-bhāva] 1. vi-bhāva (for 2. See p. 978, col. 3) mf(arī See next)n. ([vocative case] vi-bhāvas), idem, [ib.]
3) [=vi-bhāva] a 1. and 2. vi-bhāva. See above and p. 978, col. 3.
4) Vibhava (विभव):—[=vi-bhava] [from vi-bhū] b mfn. powerful, rich, [Mahābhārata xiii, 802]
5) [v.s. ...] m. being everywhere, omnipresence, [Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra]
6) [v.s. ...] development, evolution (with Vaiṣṇavas ‘the evolution of the Supreme Being into secondary forms’), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
7) [v.s. ...] power, might, greatness, exalted position, rank, dignity, majesty, dominion, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kālidāsa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc. (ifc. with [locative case], ‘one whose power consists in’ [Gīta-govinda])
8) [v.s. ...] influence upon ([locative case]), [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
9) [v.s. ...] (also [plural]) wealth, money, property, fortune, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
10) [v.s. ...] luxury, anything sumptuary or superfluous, [Harṣacarita]
11) [v.s. ...] magnanimity, lofty-mindedness, [Horace H. Wilson]
12) [v.s. ...] emancipation from existence, [Inscriptions; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
13) [v.s. ...] Name of the 2nd year in Jupiter’s cycle of 60 years, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
14) [v.s. ...] destruction (of the world), [Buddhist literature]
15) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure
16) Vibhāva (विभाव):—[=vi-bhāva] [from vi-bhū] 2. vi-bhāva m. (for 1. See under vi-√bhā) any condition which excites or develops a [particular] state of mind or body, any cause of emotion (e.g. the persons and circumstances represented in a drama, as opp. to the anu-bhāva or external signs or effects of emotion), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] (-tva n.)
17) [v.s. ...] a friend, acquaintance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Pañcarātra]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+8): Vibhava Ditthi, Vibhava Tanha, Vibhava-tanha, Vibhavadrishti, Vibhavagandha, Vibhavaka, Vibhavakshaya, Vibhavamada, Vibhavamati, Vibhavan, Vibhavana, Vibhavanagandha, Vibhavanavyakhya, Vibhavaniya, Vibhavara, Vibhavari, Vibhavarikanta, Vibhavarimukha, Vibhavarisha, Vibhavarivilasa.
Ends with: Ajavamjavibhava, Attavibhava, Devavibhava, Devibhava, Dravibhava, Durvibhava, Dvibhava, Galitavibhava, Gatavibhava, Hasyapadavibhava, Mandavibhava, Navibhava, Rajyavibhava, Vagvibhava, Yathavibhava.
Full-text (+140): Vaibhava, Anubhava, Bhava, Vibhavin, Vibhavatas, Gatavibhava, Sthayibhava, Uddipana, Vibhavan, Vibhavatva, Vibhavamati, Vibhavavat, Vibhavakshaya, Vibhavamada, Rasa, Vibhavas, Yathavibhavavistaram, Yathavibhavavistarais, Yathavibhavasambhavat, Yathavibhavatas.
Search found 42 books and stories containing Vibhava, Vibhāva, Vi-bhava, Vi-bhāva; (plurals include: Vibhavas, Vibhāvas, bhavas, bhāvas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.106 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Verse 2.1.13 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Verse 3.2.3 < [Part 2 - Affection and Service (dāsya-rasa)]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
The Four Noble Truths (by Ajahn Sumedho)
Part 1 - Three Kinds Of Desire < [Chapter 2 - The Second Noble Truth]
Introduction < [Chapter 2 - The Second Noble Truth]
Nectar of Devotion (by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Parama Samhita (English translation) (by Krishnaswami Aiyangar)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)