Bhasha, Bhāsā, Bhāṣā, Bhāsa, Bhasa, Bhaṣa: 25 definitions
Bhasha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Bhāṣā and Bhaṣa can be transliterated into English as Bhasa or Bhasha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Bhāsa (भास) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “beared vulture”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Bhāsa is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Bhāsa (भास)—Sanskrit word for a bird corresponding to “lammergeier” (the bearded vulture, or, Gypaetus barbatus). This animal is from the group called Prasaha (‘carnivorous birds’). Prasaha itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Bhāsa (भास).—A very prominent dramatist in Sanskrit. As Bāṇa and Kālidāsa have noticed him in their works, it may safely be assumed that Bhāsa lived in an earlier period. Since Pratimā nāṭaka and Abhiṣeka nāṭaka, which are universally admitted to have been composed by Bhāsa, depend for their themes on the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, it is clear that Bhāsa lived after Vālmīki. Kālidāsa’s period has not yet been fixed beyond doubt. It is almost settled that Bāṇa lived sometime between the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. Prof. Keith has been of the view that Vālmīki lived before the 4th century B.C. In the light of all such factors it could be presumed that Bhāsa lived in the period between the 4th century B.C. and 6th century A.D.
Though Bhāsa has so many glories to his credit he does not fully match Kālidāsa, and this might have been the reason why Indians did almost forget Bhāsa with the advent of Kālidāsa on the literary arena. (See full article at Story of Bhāsa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Bhāsa (भास).—A Vānara chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 242.
Bhāsā (भासा) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.20) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Bhāsā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Bhāṣā (भाषा, “language”).—There are four types of languages occurring in dramatic plays (nāṭya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 18.
They are as follows:
- atibhāṣā (the Super-human Language),
- āryabhāṣā (the Noble Language),
- jātibhāṣā (the Common Language),
- yonyantarībhāṣā (the Language of Other Animals).
Bhāṣā can also refer to “major dialects” of language, of which there are seven defined:
- Āvantī (Avantijā),
- Śaurasenī (Śūrasenī),
The minor dialects of language are known as Vibhāṣā.Source: archive.org: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music
Bhāṣā (भाषा).—There are four kinds of bhāṣā defined according to Mataṅga in his 9th century Bṛhaddeśī:
These are established in grāma-rāgas. Mataṅga says that the grāmarāgas are derived from the 2 grāmas, and from the grāmarāgas are derived bhāṣās. From these vibhāṣās originate, and from them, antarabhāṣās.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
1) Bhāsa (भास) is the son of one of the ministers of king Candraprabha, appointed to his son, Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 44. Accordingly, as Vajraprabha said to Naravāhanadatta: “... and then, when he [Sūryaprabha] was sixteen years old, and captivated the subjects by his virtues, his father, Candraprabha, appointed him Crown Prince, and he gave him the sons of his own ministers, many in number, Bhāsa, Prabhāsa, Siddhārtha, Prahasta and others”.
In chapter 45, Bhāsa is said to be an incarnation of Viṣaparvan. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Maya, Sunītha and Sūryaprabha: “... and the other Asuras, who were your companions, have been born as his friends; for instance,... this Bhāsa, his minister, is an incarnation of a Daitya by name Viṣaparvan”.
In chapter 47, Bhāsa is considered a chief of a host of great warriors (mahāratha) in Sunītha and Sūryaprabha’s army. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya explained the arrangement of warriors in Sunītha’s army: “... Viśvaruci, and Bhāsa and Siddhārtha, these three ministers of Sūryaprabha, are chiefs of hosts of great warriors”.
2) Bhāsa (भास) is the father of Prabhāsa (the incarnation of Prabala, who in turn is the incarnation of Namuci), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 50. Accordingly, as Brahmā said to Indra during the war between Śrutaśarman and Sūryaprabha: “... for that Asura Namuci, who was so hard for the gods to subdue, and who was then born again as Prabala, one entire and perfect jewel, has now been born as the invincible Prabhāsa, son of Bhāsa, and Bhāsa too was in a former birth the great Asura Kālanemi, who afterwards became Hiraṇyakaśipu and then Kapiñjala”.
The stories of Bhāsa was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Bhāsa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Bhāsa (भास).—The Trivedrum plays appear to he the composition of a later poet. They were ascribed to Bhāsa. Kālidāsa in the prologue to Mālavikāgnimitra mentions, “How can there he a great regard for the work of a contemporary poet, leaving aside the composition of Bhāsa, Kaviputra, Saumillaka and others of established fame?”.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Bhāṣā (भाषा).—Spoken language as opposed to the archaic Vedic Language; cf. भाषायां सदवसश्रुवः (bhāṣāyāṃ sadavasaśruvaḥ);P.III2.108;प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यम् (pratyaye bhāṣāyāṃ nityam) . P. VIII. 4, 45 Vārt. 1 ; cf. also R. T. 96, 212; cf also नेति प्रतिषेधार्थीयो भाषायाम् । उभयमन्वध्यायम् (neti pratiṣedhārthīyo bhāṣāyām | ubhayamanvadhyāyam) Nir. I.4.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Bhāsa (भास) refers to the bird “White backed vulture” (Gyps bengalensis).—Birds have been described in several ancient Sanskrit texts that they have been treated elaborately by eminent scholars. These birds [viz., Bhāsa] are enumerated in almost several Smṛtis in context of specifying the expiations for killing them and their flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites. These are elaborated especially in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [chapter VI], Gautamasmṛti [chapter 23], Śātātapasmṛti [II.54-56], Uśānasmṛti [IX.10-IX.12], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.172-I.175], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.28-51.29], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.16].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Bhāṣā (भाषा) or Bhāṣāsamiti refers to “(the care) not to injure any one by speech”, and represents one of the five Samiti (“five kinds of carefulness”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] the gift of supporting dharma (dharmopagrahadāna) is five-fold: purity of giver, receiver, gift, time, and thought. [... ] That gift would have purity of receiver, whose receiver is such a man [who] observes the five kinds of carefulness (samiti) [viz., bhāṣā-samiti], [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Bhāṣā.—(IE 8-8; EI 30), probably, a written declaration. Note: bhāṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
bhāsā : (f.) language; dialect.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Bhāsā, (f.) (cp. Epic Sk. bhāṣā) speech, language, esp. vernacular, dialect J. IV, 279 (manussa° human speech), 392 (caṇḍāla°); KhA 101 (saka-saka°-anurūpa); SnA 397 (Milakkha°); DA. I, 176 (Kirātā-Yavanâdi-Millakkhānaṃ bhāsā); MA. I, 1 (Sīhaḷa°); VbhA. 388 (18 dialects, of which 5 are mentioned; besides the Māgadhabhāsā). (Page 503)
— or —
Bhāsa, (cp. Epic Sk. bhāsa) —sakuṇa a bird of prey, a vulture (Abhp. 645, 1049); as one of the lucky omens enumerated (under the so-called maṅgala-kathā) at KhA 118 (with v. l. SS. cāta° & vāca°, BB cāba°)=Nd1 87 (on Sn. 790) (T. reads vāta°; v. l. SS vāpa°, BB chapa°). (Page 503)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bhāṣa (भाष).—f (bhāṣā S) A promise or an assurance. v dē. 2 A mutual assurance; a compact or co-agreement. v dē. bhāṣa satya karaṇēṃ To redeem or make good one's promise.
--- OR ---
bhāṣā (भाषा).—f (S) A speech, language, tongue, dialect.
--- OR ---
bhāsa (भास).—m (S) Impression made on the mind; perception; fancy or view of as actual or probable. Ex. bāhēra kōṇhī ālā asā malā bhāsa jhālā. 2 Semblance, seeming, likeness, appearance. Ex. śarīrānta jvarācā bhāsa hōtō or disatō. 3 Likelihood or verisimilitude. 4 f Manner, fashion, style.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bhāṣa (भाष).—f A promise. A mutual assurance. A compact,
--- OR ---
bhāṣā (भाषा).—f A speech, language. Promise.
--- OR ---
bhāsa (भास).—m Perception; semblance; likeli- hood. f Style.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Bhaṣa (भष).—A dog.
Derivable forms: bhaṣaḥ (भषः).
See also (synonyms): bhaṣaka.
--- OR ---
Bhasa (भस).—a. Shining; तनुवारभसो भास्वान् (tanuvārabhaso bhāsvān) Ki.15.23.
--- OR ---
1) Speech, talk; as in चारुभाषः (cārubhāṣaḥ).
2) Language, tongue; सत्या न भाषा भवति यद्यपि स्यात् प्रतिष्ठिता (satyā na bhāṣā bhavati yadyapi syāt pratiṣṭhitā) Ms.8.164.
3) A common or vernacular dialect; (a) the spoken Sanskṛt language (opp. chandas or veda); विभाषा भाषायाम् (vibhāṣā bhāṣāyām) P.VI.1.181; (b) any Prākṛta dialect (opp. saṃskṛta); भाषाश्च विविधा नृणाम् (bhāṣāśca vividhā nṛṇām) Ms.9.332; see प्राकृत (prākṛta).
4) Definition, description; स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा (sthitaprajñasya kā bhāṣā) Bg.2.54.
5) An epithet of Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech.
6) (In law) The first of the four stages of a law-suit; the plaint, charge or accusation; यदावेदयते राज्ञे तद्भाषेत्यभि- धीयते (yadāvedayate rājñe tadbhāṣetyabhi- dhīyate) Y.
7) (In music) Name of a Rāgiṇī.
--- OR ---
Bhāsa (भास).—[bhās-bhāve ghañ]
1) Brightness, light, lustre.
3) A cock; Mb.12.36.23; Bhāg.8.1.1.
4) A vulture.
5) A cow-shed (goṣṭha).
6) Name of a poet; भासो हासः कविकुलगुरुः कालिदासो विलासः (bhāso hāsaḥ kavikulaguruḥ kālidāso vilāsaḥ) P.R.1.22; M.1.
7) A kind of bird; कृत्रिमं भासमारोप्य वृक्षाग्रे शिल्पिभिः कृतम् (kṛtrimaṃ bhāsamāropya vṛkṣāgre śilpibhiḥ kṛtam) Mb.1.132.68 (com. bhāsaṃ nīlapakṣaṃ pakṣiṇaṃ śakuntamityanye gṛdhramityapare).
Derivable forms: bhāsaḥ (भासः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣaḥ) A dog. f. (-ṣī) A bitch. E. bhaṣ to bark, aff. ac .
--- OR ---
(-ṣā) 1. Speech. 2. A language. 3. Common or vernacular speech. 4. A charge, (in law.) 5. Saraswati, the goddess of speech. 6. One of the Raginis. E. māṣ to speak, affs. aṅ and ṭāp .
--- OR ---
(-saḥ-sā) Light, lustre, shining. m. (saḥ) 1. A vulture. 2. A sort of bird described as a water-fowl. 3. A cock. 4. A station of cowherds. 5. Fancy. E. bhās to shine, ghañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhaṣa (भष).—[bhaṣ + a], m. A dog. f. ṣī, A bitch.
--- OR ---
Bhāṣā (भाषा).—[bhāṣ + ā], f. 1. Speech,
--- OR ---
Bhāsa (भास).—[bhās + a], I. m., and f. sā, Light. Ii. m. 1. A vulture, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 135; [Pañcatantra] 157, 3(?). 2. A cock. 3. A sort of water-fowl. 4. A station of cowherds.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhaṣa (भष).—[adjective] barking.
--- OR ---
Bhāṣā (भाषा).—[feminine] speech, language, [especially] vernacular l., dialect; description, definition; accusation, plaint.
--- OR ---
Bhāsa (भास).—[masculine] light, brightness; a cert. bird of prey ([feminine] bhāsī their mother), a man’s name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Bhāsa (भास) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. Mentioned by Kālidāsa in Mālavikāgnimitra, by Bāṇa, Rājaśekhara, Jayadeva in Prasannarāghava, in Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa. Verses of his given in Śp. p. 65. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhaṣa (भष):—[from bhaṣ] mf(ī)n. barking, yelping, chiding, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] (cf. [gana] pacādi)
2) [v.s. ...] m. a dog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) Bhaṣā (भषा):—[from bhaṣa > bhaṣ] f. a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) Bhāṣā (भाषा):—[from bhāṣ] f. speech, language ([especially] common or vernacular speech, as opp. to Vedic or in later times to Sanskṛt), [Nirukta, by Yāska; Pāṇini; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata]
5) [v.s. ...] any Prākṛt dialect or a [particular] group of 5 of them (viz. Māhārāṣṭrī, Śaurasenī, Māgadha, Prācyā, and Avanti, also called Pañca-vidhā Bhāṣā; cf. under prākṛta, p.703), [Catalogue(s)]
6) [v.s. ...] description, definition, [Bhagavad-gītā]
7) [v.s. ...] (in law) accusation, charge, complaint, plaint, [Dhūrtasamāgama; Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]
8) [v.s. ...] Name of Sarasvatī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] (in music) of a Rāgiṇī.
10) Bhāṣa (भाष):—[wrong reading] for bhāsa q.v.
11) Bhāsa (भास):—[from bhās] m. light, lustre, brightness (often ifc.), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Kathāsaritsāgara]
12) [v.s. ...] impression made on the mind, fancy, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
13) [v.s. ...] a bird of prey, vulture ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] = śakunta, kukkuṭa, gṛdhra etc.), [Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa; Āpastamba; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. ([wrong reading] bhāṣa)
14) [v.s. ...] a cow-shed, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
16) [v.s. ...] of a dramatic poet (also called Bhāsaka), [Mālavikāgnimitra; Harṣacarita] etc.
17) [v.s. ...] of a son of a minister of king Candra-prabha, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
18) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [ib.]
19) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Mahābhārata]
20) [from bhās] n. (m., [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]) Name of a Sāman, [Brāhmaṇa; ???]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+23): Bhasaka, Bhasamana, Bhasantara, Bhasha Vargana, Bhasha-bheda, Bhashachitraka, Bhashacitraka, Bhashajna, Bhashakaumudi, Bhashakshara, Bhashakumudamanjari, Bhashakusumamanjari, Bhashalilavati, Bhashamanaka, Bhashamanjari, Bhashammanjari, Bhashana, Bhashanaka, Bhashanga, Bhashani.
Ends with (+102): Abhasa, Advaitaparibhasha, Advaitavedantaparibhasha, Aksharaparibhasha, Alpabhasha, Antarangaparibhasha, Apabhasha, Apraptavibhasha, Arthavadgrahanaparibhasha, Aryabhasha, Asambhasha, Ashtaksharaparibhasha, Ashvalayanagrihyaparibhasha, Ashvalayanahomaparibhasha, Asiddhaparibhasha, Atibhasha, Atmanebhasha, Bahirangaparibhasha, Bahubhasha, Balabhasha.
Full-text (+367): Bhasas, Bhasata, Sambhasa, Ubhayatobhasha, Pushabhasa, Tanuvarabhasa, Bhashi, Abhasa, Anabhaka, Parasmaibhasha, Bhashavivritigita, Nirbhasa, Atmanebhasha, Udbhasa, Brihadbhasa, Parabhasha, Muhurbhasha, Pratyavabhasa, Aryabhasha, Bhasantara.
Search found 55 books and stories containing Bhasha, Bhāsā, Bhāṣā, Bhāsa, Bhasa, Bhāṣa, Bhaṣa, Bhaṣā; (plurals include: Bhashas, Bhāsās, Bhāṣās, Bhāsas, Bhasas, Bhāṣas, Bhaṣas, Bhaṣās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Part 3 - Literature on Ancient Indian Music < [Introduction, Part 2]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Notes on Atiśaya (supernatural powers) < [Notes]
Tattva 6: Saṃvara (methods of impeding karma) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 29: The people in the Manuṣyaloka < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 11.30 < [Chapter 11 - Viśvarūpa-darśana-yoga (beholding the Lord’s Universal Form)]
Verse 11.12 < [Chapter 11 - Viśvarūpa-darśana-yoga (beholding the Lord’s Universal Form)]
Verse 2.54 < [Chapter 2 - Sāṅkhya-yoga (Yoga through distinguishing the Soul from the Body)]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 11.25 < [Section II - The Brāhmaṇa’s Responsibilities and Privileges regarding Sacrificial Performances]
Verse 8.164 < [Section XXIX - Contracts, when invalid]
Verse 11.135 < [Section XV - Expiation for the killing of Cats and other Animals]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.248 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 1.2.145 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 2.1.24 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)