Cara, Cāra: 14 definitions


Cara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chara.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Cāra (चार) refers to “spy” (a man who, keeping his real character concealed, comes to know what is done and what is not done by others). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.116)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Cara (चर).—A son of Devajani, a Yakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 128.

2) Cāra (चार).—The spy in different disguises to be sent over his kingdom and that of the enemy; king not to act on the report of a single Cāra; the source of the kingdom; Cāracakṣu is the king.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 51 and 64; 25. 12. Matsya-purāṇa 215. 90-6; 226. 12.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Cara (चर).—Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising. Note: Cara is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cara.—(CII 4), a spy. Note: cara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Cāra.—(IE 8-3; EI 26), a spy; same as Cara; sometimes used in place of Cāṭa. (EI 15), cf. a-cāra-asana-carm-āṅgāra (IE 8-5), probably, passage [of royal officers through a village]; cf. also a-pār- āsana-carm-āṅgāra with pāra (probably, ferrying) instead of cāra. Note: cāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

cara : one who walks or frequents; 2. a spy. || cāra (m.), motion; action; process; going.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cāra, (fr. car carati to move about) motion, walking, going; doing, behaviour, action, process Miln. 162 (+vihāra); Dhs. 8=85 (=vicāra); DhsA. 167. Usually —° (n. & adj.): kāma° going at will J. IV, 261; pamāda° a slothful life J. I, 9; piṇḍa° alms-begging Sn. 414, 708; sabbaratti° wandering all night S. I, 201; samavattha° A. III, 257. See also carati Ib.

— or —

Cara, (n-adj.) (from car, carati) 1. the act of going about, walking; one who walks or lives (usually —°): oka° living in water M. I, 117; J. VI, 416; antara° S. IV, 173; eka° solitary Sn. 166; saddhiṃ° a companion Sn. 45; anattha° J. V, 433; jala° Dāvs. IV, 38. See also cāreti & gocara.—Instr. carasā (adv.) walking M. I, 449.—cara-vāda “going about talk,” gossip, idle talk S. III, 12; V, 419.—sucara easy, duccara difficult Vin. III, 26.—2. one who is sent on a message, a secret emissary, a spy S. I, 79. Also as carapurisa J. II, 404; IV, 343; VI, 469; DhA. I, 193. ‹-› Note.—cara-purāya at A. V, 133 should be changed into v. l. SS paramparāya. (Page 262)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cara (चर).—n (S) The difference of time between the rising of a heavenly body at laṅkā (over which the first meridian passes), and that of its rising at any particular place, ascensional difference. 2 In astrology. Monday.

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cara (चर).—a (S) Locomotive, moving, going. Ex. caradravya Moveables, goods and chattels; jalacara water-going; khacara heaven-going; bhūcara, vanacara &c. 2 An epithet for certain mansions of the moon and for a division of the signs of the zodiac; viz. for Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricornus. Whatever is to be accomplished with expedition is to be done under these signs; but not that of which the permanency is desired. Of the lunar asterisms, of the signs of the zodiac, of the lagma or signs of the oblique ascension, and of the vēḷā or divisions of time, three departments are made, named severally cara or carasvabhāva, sthira or sthira svabhāva, & dvisvabhāva, moving, stationary, partaking of the two. The cara signs are mēṣa, karka, tulā, makara; the sthira signs are vṛṣabha, siṃha, kumbha, vṛścika; the dvisvabhāva are mithuna, kanyā, dhana, mīna. 3 Laxly. That is on the move or wing; that is about to start.

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cara (चर).—m ( H) A ditch round a fort, a moat; a long trench or channel gen. 2 m f A scratch or mark (as made by scouring or rubbing). v paḍa.

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cara (चर).—m (caraṇēṃ or cāraṇa S) Spreading (as of an ulcer or a sore, as of a liquor under capillary attraction). v ghē.

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carā (चरा).—m A scratch (as from scouring or rubbing): also a jag (as of a blade).

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cāra (चार).—m pl or by redup. cāracāra m pl (ācāra S Conduct.) Light habits or ways; mischievous or idle tricks, pranks, frolics: ex. tyajuni cāra vicāra karī barā ("ceasing from evil, may learn to do well. " Is. i. 16, 17): also airs, manners, freaks, fancies, whimsies, dainty or delicate ways. v kara. 2 Splicing, splice, splicedness; i. e. the act, the work wrought, or the state effected. cārā cārānīṃ or cārēṃ cārēṃ Daintily, delicately, nicely, squeamishly; with finikin, fastidious, or fanciful airs and ways. Used with jēva, khā, pi, bōla, cāla, liha &c.

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cāra (चार).—f Young green grass. 2 Any thing green (leaves &c.) considered as food for cattle. 3 m A tree, Chirongia sapida, or, according to Graham, Buchanania latifolia. 4 The shreds or filamentous substance around the pulp of the jack. 5 n R The seed of Chirongia sapida. 6 An inferior kind of bāraphaḷa or jujube. The tree is called cārācēṃ jhāḍa.

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cāra (चार).—m S A spy, scout, secret emissary. 2 A messenger; a herald.

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cāra (चार).—a (Char. catura S) Four. 2 Used to express a moderate number or quantity. Ex. tyālā cāra gōṣṭī samajavūna sāṅga; tyācē javaḷa cāra paisē āhēta. cāra gōṣṭī lāvaṇēṃ or karaṇēṃ To start perverse objections or demurrings. cāra gōṣṭī sāṅgaṇēṃ To use pacificatory or persuasive arguments or explanations. cāra ghēṇēṃ cāra dēṇēṃ Phrase expressive of sociality and neighborliness. (Readiness to give and to take, to do and to be done for.) cāra hāta hōṇēṃ g. of s. reciprocally. (To come to handling of each other.) To come to scuffling or fisticuffs;--used of two persons.

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cāra (चार).—ind (cāra Green grass.) An enhancing adjunct to hiravā, as hiravācāra Dark green.

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cārā (चारा).—m ( H) Food for beasts and birds. (Grass, leaves, grains, worms &c., yet esp. understood of Grass.) Ex. gaganīṃ lāgalā kōsalā || cārā kōṇa puravī tyālā ||.

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cāra (चार).—a Add:--This word, written as cāraṃ or cyāraṃ, from the Persian Fourth, is much used in papers of Revenue, in the sense of (Land or soil) of the fourth quality.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cara (चर).—a Locomotive, moving, going. cara- dravya Moveables, goods and chattels.

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cara (चर).—m A ditch round a fort, a moat. A scratch or mark.

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carā (चरा).—m A scratch (as from scouring or rubbing): also a jag (as of a blade).

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cāra (चार).—a Four; a moderate number or quan- tity. cārī diśā mōkaḷyā hōṇēṃ To have the wild world open before one. cārī vāṭā mōkaḷyā Atlarge. cāra divasa sāsūcē cāra divasa sunēcē Every dog has his day. cārāñcārānnī Delicately; with fastidious airs. cāra gōṣṭī sāṅgaṇē To persuade or pacify. cāra ghēṇēṃ cāra dēṇēṃ To be freely social; to give and take. cāra hāta hōṇēṃ To come to an altercation.

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cāra (चार).—m A spy. A herald. f Young green grass. m pl Light habits.

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cārā (चारा).—m Food for beasts and birds.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cara (चर).—a. (- f.) [चर्-अच् (car-ac)]

1) Moving, going, walking, grazing &c.; धर्मारण्यचरेषु प्राणिषु (dharmāraṇyacareṣu prāṇiṣu) Ś.5.9.

2) Following, practising (at the end of comp.).

3) Trembling, shaking.

4) Movable; see चराचर (carācara) below; Ms.3.21; Bg. 13.15.

5) Animate; Ms.5.29;7.15.

6) (Used as an affix) formerly, late; आढ्यचर (āḍhyacara) 'one who was formerly rich' so देवदत्तचर, अध्यापकचर (devadattacara, adhyāpakacara) late teacher &c.

-raḥ 1 A spy.

2) A wagtail.

3) A game played with dice and men.

4) A cowrie.

5) The planet Mars.

6) (Hence) Tuesday.

7) The seventh Karaṇa in astrology.

8) The Karaṇas taken collectively.

9) The difference of time between two meridians.

1) The first, fourth, seventh, and tenth signs of the zodiac.

11) The wind; क्वाहं तमो- महदहंखचराग्निवार्भूसंवेष्टिताण्डघटसप्तवितस्तिकायः (kvāhaṃ tamo- mahadahaṃkhacarāgnivārbhūsaṃveṣṭitāṇḍaghaṭasaptavitastikāyaḥ) Bhāg.1.14.11.

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Cāra (चार).—[cara eva aṇ]

1) Going, walking, gait, wandering about; मण्डलचारशीघ्रः (maṇḍalacāraśīghraḥ) V.5.2; क्रीडाशैले यदि च विचरेत् पाद- चारेण गौरी (krīḍāśaile yadi ca vicaret pāda- cāreṇa gaurī) Me.6; निवृत्तचारः सहसा गतो रविः प्रवृत्तचारा रजनी ह्युपस्थिता (nivṛttacāraḥ sahasā gato raviḥ pravṛttacārā rajanī hyupasthitā) Rām.2.66.26 walk on foot.

2) Motion, course, progression; मङ्गलचार, शनिचार, राहु° (maṅgalacāra, śanicāra, rāhu°) &c.

3) A spy, scout, secret emissary; Ms.7.184;9.261; see चारचक्षुस् (cāracakṣus) below.

4) Performing, practising.

5) A prison.

6) A bond, fetter.

7) The Pippalī tree or the Priyāla tree.

8) A platform, Māna.62.1.3.

-ram An artificial poison.

Derivable forms: cāraḥ (चारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cāra (चार).—(m.; Ap. and Deśīn. id., also Sanskrit Lex.; = Sanskrit cāraka, in Kauṭ. Arth. as well as Daśak., BR), prison: cāra-pālānām ājñā dattā…(etān…cārake baddhvā sthāpayata) Divy 565.19 f. (prose) to the prison-guards a command was given (compare cāraka-pālavad Śikṣ 231.5).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cara (चर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā or -rī-raṃ) 1. Moveable, locomotive. 2. Trembling, shaking, unsteady. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A spy, a secret emissary or agent. 2. The planet Mars. 3. A game played with dice and men, similar to backgammon. 4. A wagtail. 5. A cowri. 6. The seventh Karana, (in Astrology.) 7. The Karanas collectively. f. (-rī) A young woman. E. car to go, affix ac or ṭac and in the latter case the fem. affix is ṅīp.

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Cāra (चार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Going in motion. 2. A spy, a secret agent or emissary. 3. Binding, a binding, a fetter, &c. 4. A prison, a house of confinement. 5. A kind of tree, the Piyal, (Buchanania latifolia, Rox.) see piyāla 6. Wandering about, travelling. n.

(-raṃ) A factitious poison. E. cara going, &c. affix aṇ.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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