Vritta, Vṛtta, Vṛttā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Vritta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Vṛtta and Vṛttā can be transliterated into English as Vrtta or Vritta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—A nāga (serpent) born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Kadrū. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 10).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vṛtta (वृत्त) refers to “action”, which is of two kinds (pravṛtta and nivṛtta) according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.29. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Then inciting the fury of Dakṣa further, she said to Viṣṇu and all other Devas and sages unhesitatingly.. Satī said:—‘[...] In the Vedas two sorts of actions are ordained—direct (pravṛtta) and renunciatory (nivṛtta). Scholars differentiate between these two and hold that they cannot be simultaneous and they cannot occur in a single entity. But in Śiva the great Brahman, these actions do not have any effect’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Vṛtta (वृत्त).—A son of Śiṣṭa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 39.

2) Vṛttā (वृत्ता).—A daughter of Ṛṣā; mother of Tortoise, śankha, etc.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 414-17; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 291-92.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Vṛtta (वृत्त) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.10, I.35, V.101.14/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vṛtta) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Vṛtta (वृत्त) refers to “syllabic metres” composed of four quarter-verses, or pādas (‘foots’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. While the vṛtta defines the specific pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables used in a pāda, the amount of actual syllables it contains is known as a “rhythm-type” (chandas), of which there are twenty-six.

2) Vṛtta (वृत्त) refers to one of the three limbs of vastu (‘thing’) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the vivadha and the ekaka are generally used in the madraka song, in each half vastu of the prakarī, and in each quarter of the rovindaka. But in the rovindaka, uttara, ullopyaka, pāṇikā, bahirgītas and lāsya, the vṛtta is used”.

3) Vṛtta (वृत्त) refers to one of the three limbs (aṅga) belonging to all types of dhruvā (“song”) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “the vṛtta class of limbs will apply to the superior characters, and the vivadha to the middling ones, and the ekaka to the inferior characters”.

4) Vṛtta (वृत्त) is the name of a meter belonging to the Paṅkti class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the first, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh and the last long, is vṛtta”.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—The metres regulated by akṣaras are called vṛttas and those regulated by mātrās are called jātis. A vṛtta is divided into three classes viz. samavṛtta, ardhasamavṛtta, and viṣamavṛtta. Again, yati or pause or caesura is a part of a verse, at which the reader is required to stop his breath and then proceed on.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vṛtta (वृत्त).—Arrived at or accomplished,as a result of वृत्ति (vṛtti) which means a further grammatical formation from a noun or a verb; resultant from a vṛtti; cf. यावता कामचारो वृत्तस्य ये लिङ्गसंख्ये ते अतिदेक्ष्येते, न पुनः, प्राग्वृत्तेर्ये (yāvatā kāmacāro vṛttasya ye liṅgasaṃkhye te atidekṣyete, na punaḥ, prāgvṛtterye) M Bh. on P.I.2.51; cf also युक्तं पुनर्यद् वृत्तनिमित्तको नाम अनुबन्धः स्यात् (yuktaṃ punaryad vṛttanimittako nāma anubandhaḥ syāt);

2) Vṛtta.—Employment, the same as प्रयोग (prayoga), cf. वृत्ताद्वा । वृत्तं प्रयेगः । (vṛttādvā | vṛttaṃ prayegaḥ |) Pradīpa on P. I. 3.9;

3) Vṛtta.—Behaviour, treatment cf. नकारस्योष्मवद् वृत्तं (nakārasyoṣmavad vṛttaṃ) R. Pr. X.13;

4) Vṛtta.—Manner of Veda writing, metrical form, metre; cf. तद् वृत्तं प्राहुश्छन्दसाम् (tad vṛttaṃ prāhuśchandasām) R. Pr. XVII.22.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Vṛtta (वृत्त) is the name of a metre (chandas), which has 20 letters in each of its pāda. This metre is a combination of guru and laghu letters. Piṅgala does not give any gaṇa-rule to denote this metre, but says long and short varṇas are arranged alternately in this metre (Chandaśśāstra 7.24). Halāyudha also gives example for this metre.

2) Vṛttā (वृत्ता) refers to one of the seventy-two sama-varṇavṛtta (regular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 334th chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (eg., the vṛttā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—1. Circle of its circumference. 2. Epicycle. Note: Vṛtta is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Vṛtta is a Sanskrit term, which can (among others) mean “conduct”, “procedure”, “mode of life”, “behaviour” or “appearance”

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vṛtta (वृत्त).—n (S) Conduct, practice, course, customary procedure. 2 Profession, occupation, practice pursued as a means of subsistence. 3 News, tidings, accounts, intelligence. 4 A measure of verse,--a measure consisting of any number of letters to a caraṇa above ten. 5 A circle.

--- OR ---

vṛtta (वृत्त).—a S Circular.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vṛtta (वृत्त).—n Conduct. Profession. News. A circle. A measure of verse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—p. p. [vṛt-kartari-kta]

1) Lived, existed.

2) Occurred, happened.

3) Completed, finished.

4) Performed, done, acted.

5) Past, gone.

6) Round, circular; निवृत्त- वृत्तोरुपयोधरक्लमः (nivṛtta- vṛttorupayodharaklamaḥ) Ki.8.3; विशालवक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः (viśālavakṣāstanuvṛttamadhyaḥ) R.6.32.

7) Dead, deceased; पत्यौ जीवति वृत्तायाः प्रजायास्तद्धनं भवेत् (patyau jīvati vṛttāyāḥ prajāyāstaddhanaṃ bhavet) Ms.9.195; वृत्तं युद्धे शूरमाश्लिष्य काचित् (vṛttaṃ yuddhe śūramāśliṣya kācit) Śi.18.6.

8) Firm, fixed.

9) Read through, studied; P.VII.2.26.

1) Derived from.

11) Famous.

12) Covered; स्वभावस्रोतसा वृत्तमुह्यते सततं जगत् (svabhāvasrotasā vṛttamuhyate satataṃ jagat) Mb.12.235.13.

13) Turned.

14) Unimpaired (apratihata); महाभूतादि (mahābhūtādi) (vyañjayan) वृत्तौजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः (vṛttaujāḥ prādurāsīttamonudaḥ) Ms.1.6. (See vṛt).

-ttaḥ 1 A tortoise.

2) A kind of grass.

3) A round temple.

-ttam 1 An event, occurrence.

2) History, account; वृत्तं रामस्य वाल्मीकेः कृतिस्तौ किन्नरस्वनौ (vṛttaṃ rāmasya vālmīkeḥ kṛtistau kinnarasvanau) R. 15.64.

3) News, tidings; समरवृत्तविबोधसमीया कुरुवरेण मुदा कृतयाचनः (samaravṛttavibodhasamīyā kuruvareṇa mudā kṛtayācanaḥ) Veda-Vyāsāṣṭaka 6.

4) Practice, profession, mode of life, occupation; सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः (satāṃ vṛttamanuṣṭhitāḥ) Ms.1.127; 7.122; Y.3.44.

5) Conduct, behaviour, manner, act, action; as in सद्वृत्त, दुर्वृत्त (sadvṛtta, durvṛtta).

6) Good or virtuous conduct; एवं चलितवृत्तस्तु वृत्तशेषं न रक्षति (evaṃ calitavṛttastu vṛttaśeṣaṃ na rakṣati) Pt.4.28.

7) An established rule or usage, law, custom; observance of such rule or usage, duty; किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूर्वृत्ते स्थितस्याधिपतेः प्रजानाम् (kimatra citraṃ yadi kāmasūrbhūrvṛtte sthitasyādhipateḥ prajānām) R.5.33.

8) A circle, circumference of a circle.

9) A metre in general, especially a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. jāti); पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षर- संख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् । सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं चेति तत् त्रिधा (padyaṃ catuṣpadī tacca vṛttaṃ jātiriti dvidhā | vṛttamakṣara- saṃkhyātaṃ jātirmātrākṛtā bhavet | samamardhasamaṃ vṛttaṃ viṣamaṃ ceti tat tridhā) | Chand. M.; see App.

1) The epicycle.

11) Transformation, change into.

12) Appearance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—mfn.

(-ttaḥ-ttā-ttaṃ) 1. Chosen, selected, appointed. 2. Done, performed, engaged in or undertaken. 3. Past, gone, been. 4. Over, finished. 5. Dead, deceased. 6. Read, studied, read through. 7. Covered. 8. Round. 9. Firm, hard. 10. Unobstructed, unimpaired. 11. Famons, celebrated. 12. Turned. 13. Been, existed. n.

(-ttaṃ) 1. Verse, metre. 2. Conduct, observance of enjoined practice in private or social life. 3. Practice, profession, means of gaining a subsistence. 4. Procedure, event, occurrence. 5. A circle. m.

(-ttaḥ) A tortoise. E. vṛt to be, &c., aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtta (वृत्त).—[adjective] turned, round; happened, passed; finished, accomplished; ceased, gone, died; being, present (°—); become; having behaved towards ([locative]).

— [neuter] occurrence, appearance, event, adventure; cause, matter; conduct, behaviour, practice; verse, metre.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vṛtta (वृत्त):—[from vṛt] mfn. turned, set in motion (as a wheel), [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] round, rounded, circular, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] occurred, happened (cf. kiṃ-v), [Āpastamba; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) continued, lasted for a certain time, [Mahābhārata vii, 6147]

5) [v.s. ...] completed, finished, absolved, [Maitrī-upaniṣad]

6) [v.s. ...] past, elapsed, gone, [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] quite exhausted, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] (= śrānta [Scholiast or Commentator])

8) [v.s. ...] deceased, dead, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] studied, mastered, [Pāṇini 7-2, 26]

10) [v.s. ...] existing, effective, unimpaired (See vṛttaūjas)

11) [v.s. ...] become (e.g. with mukta, become free), [Kathāsaritsāgara xviii, 306]

12) [v.s. ...] acted or behaved towards ([locative case]), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] fixed, firm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] chosen (= vṛta), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] m. a tortoise, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a kind of grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] a round temple, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

19) Vṛttā (वृत्ता):—[from vṛtta > vṛt] f. Name of various plants (= jhiñjariṣṭā, māṃsa-rohiṇī, mahā-kośātakī, and priyaṅgu), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] a kind of drug (= reṇukā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

22) Vṛtta (वृत्त):—[from vṛt] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) a circle, [Gaṇitādhyāya]

23) [v.s. ...] n. the epicycle, [Sūryasiddhānta]

24) [v.s. ...] occurrence, use, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

25) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) transformation, change into, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

26) [v.s. ...] appearance, [Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

27) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) formed of or derived from (See kiṃ-v)

28) [v.s. ...] an event, adventure, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara]

29) [v.s. ...] a matter, affair, business, [ib.]

30) [v.s. ...] (also [plural]) procedure, practice, action, mode of life, conduct, behaviour ([especially] virtuous conduct, good behaviour), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

31) [v.s. ...] means of life, subsistence, [Harivaṃśa 335] (more correct vṛtti)

32) [v.s. ...] ‘turn of a line’, the rhythm at the end of a verse, final rhythm, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

33) [v.s. ...] a metre containing a fixed number of syllables, any metre, [Kāvyādarśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

34) [v.s. ...] a metre consisting of 10 trochees, [Colebrooke]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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