Hiranyaksha, aka: Hiraṇyākṣa, Hiranya-aksha; 7 Definition(s)
Hiranyaksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Hiraṇyākṣa can be transliterated into English as Hiranyaksa or Hiranyaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
1) Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष).—A brother of Hiraṇyakaśipu. (See Hiraṇya).
2) Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष).—One of the sons of Viśvāmitra, who was a Brahmavādin. (Anuśāsana Parva. Chapter 4, Verse 57).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष).—A son of Kaśyapa and Ditī and an Ādīdaitya who died in fight with Viṣṇu; a brother of Hiraṇyakaśipu. Sought fight in heaven, entered the ocean and called upon Varuṇa to fight. Entered Rasātala in search of Hari and seeing Varāha—Hari remarked that it was a forest beast. A mad fight ensued when he put an end to him. It was sandhya with abhijit yoga, unfavourable to the enemy;1 lust of, for more territory;2 married Upadānavī;3 in the next birth he was Kumbhakarṇa, and in the succeeding one Dantavaktra. A person of much valour and heroism, defeated by Hari with difficulty;4 father of Śambara, Śakuni, Kālanābha, Mahānābha, Ulūka and Bhūtasantāpana;5 killed by Varāhaviṣṇu at the Sumana hill of the Śakadvīpa.6
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 17. 18-31; Chh. 18 and 19 (whole); III. 14. 2-3; VI. 18. 11; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 8; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 140; Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 59, 67.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 3. 11.
- 3) Ib. VI. 6. 34.
- 4) Ib. VII. 1. 39-45; 19. 5-6.
- 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 13; 20. 36; III. 5. 4-5, 12-32; 72. 77; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 14.
- 6) Ib. 47. 47; 122. 16; 153. 6; 250. 57.
1b) A son of Śūrabhūmī and Syāmaka.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 42.
1c) A son of Devajānī an yakṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 130.
1d) A son of Maṇivara, killed by the boar.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 11; 69. 161; 97. 78.
1e) An Asura of the V tala or Mahātala.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 35.
1f) Of Kauśīka gotra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 72; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 100.
1g) A tīrtha sacred to Pitṛs.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 52.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Hiraṇyākṣa) various roles suitable to them.(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Itihasa (narrative history)
Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIII.4.56, XIII.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Hiraṇyākṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Katha (narrative stories)
1) Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side, but was slain by Abhimanyu, who fought on Sūryaprabha’s side, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... then a fight took place between those Vidyādhara princes on the one side and Prabhāsa and his comrades on the other, in which there was a great slaughter of soldiers. And in the single combats between the two hosts many warriors were slain on both sides, men, Asuras and Vidyādharas... Then the Vidyādhara hero Hiraṇyākṣa was killed by Abhimanyu, but Abhimanyu and Haribhaṭa were slain by Sunetra”.
The story of Hiraṇyākṣa was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
2) Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष) is the name of an ancient king from Hiraṇyapura (in Kaśmīra), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 65. Accordingly, “... and there was born to that king [Kanakākṣa], owing to his having propitiated Śiva, a son named Hiraṇyākṣa, by his wife Ratnaprabhā. The prince was one day playing at ball, and he purposely managed to strike with the ball a female ascetic who came that way”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Hiraṇyākṣa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
General definition (in Hinduism)
In Hinduism, Hiranyaksha ('golden-eyed') was an Asura and the son of Diti and Kashyap.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Languages of India and abroad
Hiraṇyākṣa (हिरण्याक्ष).—Name of a celebrated demon, twin brother of Hiraṇyakaśipu; अंशे हिरण्याक्षरिपोः स जाते हिरण्यनाभे तनवे नयज्ञः (aṃśe hiraṇyākṣaripoḥ sa jāte hiraṇyanābhe tanave nayajñaḥ) R.18.25. [On the strength of a boon from Brahman, he became insolent and oppressive, seized upon the earth, and carried it with him into the depths of the ocean. Viṣṇu therefore became incarnate as a boar, killed the demon and lifted up the earth.]
Derivable forms: hiraṇyākṣaḥ (हिरण्याक्षः).
Hiraṇyākṣa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms hiraṇya and akṣa (अक्ष).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 20 books and stories containing Hiranyaksha, Hiraṇyākṣa or Hiranya-aksha. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 17 - Victory of Hiranyaksa Over All the directions of the Universe < [Canto III - The Status Quo]
Chapter 19 - The Killing of the Demon Hiranyaksa < [Canto III - The Status Quo]
Chapter 2 - Hiranyakasipu, King of the Demons < [Canto VII - The Science of God]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 42 - Hiraṇyākṣa is slain < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 43 - Hiraṇyakaśipu is slain < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 10 - The narrative of Nṛsiṃha (man-lion) < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.5.16-17 < [Chapter 5 - Priya: The Beloved]
Verse 1.6.47 < [Chapter 6 - Priyatama: The Most Beloved]
Verse 2.4.155-157 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Lalitopakhyana (Lalita Mahatmya) (by G.V. Tagare)