The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The words denoting earth, city, forest and herbs which is chapter 363 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 363 - The words denoting earth, city, forest and herbs

[Full title: The words denoting earth, city, forest and herbs (bhūmi-vana-auṣadhi-varga)]

[Note: The Purāṇa summarises Amara kāṇḍas II. 2, II. 3 and II. 5]

Fire-god said:

l. I shall describe the words denoting earth, city, forest, herbs and lion etc. (The following words denote the earth): bhūḥ [bhū], anantā, kṣamā, dhātrī, kṣmā, jyā, kuḥ and dharitrī.

2. (The words) mṛt and mṛttikā (denote a piece of earth). Commendable earth (is denoted by the words) mṛtsā and mṛtsnā. (The land space on the earth is denoted by the words) jagat, viṣṭapam [viṣṭapa], loka, bhuvanam [bhuvana] and jagati.

3. (The words), ayanam [ayana], vartma, mārga, adhva, panthā, padavī, sṛti, saraṇī, paddhati, padyā, vartanī and ekapadī (denote a path).

4-6a. (The words) pūḥ, purī, nagarī, pattanam [pattana] and puṭabhedanam [puṭabhedana] (denote a town). Sthānīyam [sthānīya] is a big city surrounding big pathways. Śākhānagaraṃ [śākhānagara] is a suburb of a principal city. The suburb where the harlots dwell is veśa. Āpaṇa and niṣadyā (denote) the place for selling goods. Vipaṇi and paṇyavīthikā (denote) the market street. Rathyā, pratolī and viśikhā (denote) the pathways in the interior of a village. Caya and vapram [vapra] (mean the earth dug up from a moat) in the masculine and neuter.

6b. Prākāra, varaṇa and śāla (denote the surrounding fence set up with poles, thorns etc.). A surrounding fence made up at the border (with bamboo, thorns etc.) (is called) prācīnam [prācīnam].

7-8. Bhitti and kuḍyam [kuḍya] (denote a wall). That wall set with bone etc. inside (is known as) eḍūkaṃ [eḍūka]. (The words) vāsa, kuṭī, śālā and sabhā (denote the assembly hall). Sāñjavanam [sāñjavana] and catuḥśālam [catuḥśāla] (is a group of four houses forming a court). Parṇaśālā and uṭaja (not feminine) denote a hermitage. Caityam [caitya] and āyatanam [āyatana] (denote a sacrificial hall). Vājiśālā and mandurā (denote a stable).

9. The dwelling place of the rich (is) harmyādi. The place of the gods and kings (is called) prāsāda. (The words) Dvāḥ [dvā], dvāram [dvāra] and pratihāra (denote a door), where the word Dvāḥ is feminine. Vitardi and vedikā (mean a fence).

10-lla. (The words) kapotapālikā and viṭaṅkam [viṭaṅka], respectively masculine and neuter (denote a pigeonhouse made of wood etc.). Kapāṭa and arara are synonṭyms (meaning a door). Niḥśreṇi and adhirohiṇī (denote steps made with wood etc. for ascending). Sammārjanī and Śodhanī (mean broom-stick). Saṅkara and avakara (denote sweepings).

11b-12. (The words) adri, gotra, giri and grāvā (denote mountains in general). (The words) gahanam [gahana], kānanam [kānana] and vanam [vana] (denote a forest). (The words) ārāma and upavanam [upavana] (denote) an artificial garden (that has been accomplished). The same that is fit for harem (is called) pramadavanam [pramadavana].

13. (The words) vīthī, āliḥ [āli], āvaliḥ [āvali], paṅktiḥ [paṅkti] and śreṇī (denote a row). (The words) lekhāḥ [lekhā] and rājayaḥ [rājaya] (denote lines). A tree (that is seen) with fruits (produced) from flowers (is) vānaspatyaḥ [vānaspatya]. A tree (that is seen) with fruits not (produced) from flowers (is) vanaspatiḥ [vanaspati].

14. Those which end with fruit-bearing (are known as) oṣadhī-s. (The words) palāśī, druḥ [dru], druma and agama (denote a tree). (The words) sthāṇu, dhruva and śaṅku (denote a cut tree). (The word) stāiṇu is optionally masculine. (The words) praphulla, utphulla and saṃphulla (mean a flower that has blossomed).

15-16a. (The words) palāśam [palāśa], chadanam [chadana] and parṇam [parṇa] (denote a leaf). (The words) idhmam [idhma], edhaḥ and samit, faminine (denote dry wood and grass). Bodhidruma and caladala (denote the holy fig tree). Dadhittha, grāhī, manmatha, dadhiphala, puṣpaphala and dantaśaṭha (denote the woodapple tree).

16b-17. (The words) udumbara, hemadugdha, kovidāra and dvipatraka (denote udumbara). The saptaparṇa (tree) (is also known as) viśālatvak. The kṛtamāla (tree is also known as) suvarṇaka, ārevata, vyādhighāta, śampāka and cuturaṅgala.

18. The Jambīra (tree is also called) dantaśaṭha. The Varuṇa (tree is also called) tiktaśāka. Punnāga (tree is also called) puruṣa, tuṅga, kesara and devavallabha.

19-20a. Nimbataru, mandāra and pārijātaka (are the other names of) pāribhadra (tree). Vañjula and citrakṛt (are the other names of tiniśa tree). Pītana and kapītana (denote) the āmrātaka (tree). (The other names) of madhūka (are) guḍapuṣpa and madhudruma.

20b. Guḍaphala and sraṃsī (are the other names of) pīlu. Nādeyī is the other name of ambhuvetas.

21. Śigruḥ [śigru], tīkṣṇagandhaka, akṣīva and mocaka (are the other names of) śobhāñjana. If this (śobhāñjana) is red (it is called) madhuśigruḥ [madhuśigru]. Ariṣṭa and phenila are synonyms.

22. Lodhra (is also called) gālava, śābara, tirīṭa, tilva and mārjana. Uddālaka (is also known as) śeluḥ [śelu], śleṣmātaka, śīta and bahuvāraka.

23. (The other names of) vikaṅkata (are) sruvāvṛkṣa, granthila and vyāghrapāt. Tinduka (is also called) sphūrjaka and kāla (skandha)[1]. (The terms) nādeyī and bhūmijambuka (denote nāgaraṅga)[2].

24. Kākatindu and (kāka) pīluka are synonyms. Kramuka and paṭṭikākhya would (denote lohitalodhra)[3]. Kumbhī (is also known as) kaiḍarya and kaṭphala.

25-26a. Vīravṛkṣa, aruṣkara and agnimukhī (are the synonyms of) bhallātakī in (all the three genders). Sarjaka, pītasāraka[4] and asana (are synonyms of) jīva (jīvaka). Sarja and aśvakarṇa (are synonyms of) sāla.[5] Arjuna (tree) (is also called) vīrataru[6], indradruḥ [indradru], and kakubhaḥ [kakubha].

26b-2 7. Iṅgudī (is also known as) tāpasataru. Śālmali [śālmalī?] (is also known as) mocā. Cirabilva [ciravilva], naktamāla and karaja (are the other names of) karañjaka. (Pūtika is also known as) prakīrya and pūtikaraja. Markaṭī and aṅgāravallarī (are varieties of karañja)[7].

28. Rohī, plīhaśatru and dāḍimapuṣpaka (are synonyms of) rohitaka. Khadira (is also known as) gāyatrī, bālatanaya and dantadhāvana.

29. Arimeda and viṭkhadira (denote varieties of bad smelling khadira). Kadara (denotes) the white khadira. (Eraṇḍa is also called) pañcāṅgula, vardhamāna, cañcu and gandharvahastaka,

30-3la. Piṇḍītaka and maruvaka (are synonyms of madana). Devadāru (is also called) pītadāru, dāru and pūtikāṣṭham [pūtikāṣṭha]. Priyaṅgu (is also known as) śyāmā, mahilāhvayā, latā, govandanī, gundrā, phalinī and phalī.

31b-32a. Śoṇaka (is also known as) maṇḍūkaparṇa, patrorṇa, naṭa, kaṭvaṅga, ṭuṇṭuka, śyonāka, śukanāsa, ṛkṣa, dīrghavṛnta and kuṭannaṭa.

32b. Pītadru and sarala (are synonyms). Nicula, ambuja and hijjala [ijjala?] (are the synonyms of a kind of reed).

33. Kākodumbarikā and phalguḥ [phalgu] (are the synonyms of malayū. Ariṣṭa, picumardaka[8], sarvatobhadra (are synonyms of) nimba. Śirīṣa (is also known as) kapītana.

34-35a. Vakula (bakula) (is said to be vañjula. (Kapilā[9] is also called as) picchilā and aguruśiṃśapā. Jayā, jayantī and tarkārī (are synonyms of vaijayantikā[10]. Kaṇikā (is also known as) gaṇikārikā, śrīparṇam [śrīparṇa] and agnimantha. Vatsaka and girimallikā (are synonyms of kuṭaja).[11]

35b-36. Kālaskandha (is a synonym of) tamāla. Taṇḍulīya (is known as) alpamāriṣa. Sinduvāra (is also known as) nirguṇḍī. The same (mallikā) grown in the forest (is known as) āsphoṭā[12]. Yūthikā (is also known as) gaṇikā and ambaṣṭhā. Navamālikā (is also known as) saptalā.

37. Atimukta and puṇḍraka (are different varieties of kunda).[13] Kumārī (is also known as) sahā and taraṇi. Therein[14], the red variety is kurabaka and the yellow variety is kuruṇṭaka.

38. The blue jhiṇṭī (is also known as) bāṇā. (It is also known as dāsī and artagala[15].) Jhiṇṭī (in general is known as) saireyaka. If it is red, it is known as kurabaka. If it is yellow, it is known as sahacarī (and also as sahacara).

39. Kitava and dhūrta (are the other names of) dhattūra. Rucaka (is the other name of) mātuluṅgaka. Samīraṇa, maruvaka, prasthapuṣpa and phaṇijjaka (are the synonyms of jambīra)[16].

40-42a. Kuṭheraka (is the other name of) parṇāsa. Vasuka and āsphoṭa (are the synonyms of) arka. Śivamallī and pāśupata (are synonyms). Vṛndā, vṛkṣādanī, jīvantikā and vṛkṣaruhā (are the synonyms of the plant that clings to a tree and grows). Guḍūcī (has the other names) tantrikā, amṛtā, somavallī and madhuparṇī. Mūrvā (is also called) moraṭā, madhūlikā, madhuśreṇī, gokarṇī and pīluparṇī.

42b-43. Pāṭhā (is also known as) āmbaṣṭhā, viddhakarṇī, pracinā and vanatiktikā. Kaṭuḥ [kaṭu], kaṭumbharā, cakrāṅgī and śakulādanī (are the names of kaṭurohiṇī[17]). Ātmaguptā, prāvṛṣāyī[18] and kapikacchu (are the other names of) markaṭī.

44. Apāmārga (is also known as) śaikharika, pratyakparṇī and mayūraka. Phañjikā[19] and brāhmaṇī (are the other names of) bhārgī. Dravantī, śambarī and vṛṣā (are synonyms).

45. Maṇḍūkaparṇī, bhaṇḍīrī, samaṅgā and kālameṣikā (are synonyms of mañjiṣṭhā). Rodanī, kacchurā, anantā, samudrāntā and durālabhā (are synonyms of dhanvayāsa)[20].

46. Pṛśniparṇī, pṛthakparṇī, kalaśi, dhāvani and guhā (are synonyms). Nidigdhikā, spṛśī, vyāghrī, kṣudrā and dussparśā (are synonyms).

47. Avalguja, somarājī, suvalli, somavallikā, kālameśī, kṛṣṇaphallā and pūtiphalī (are synonyms of) vākucī.

48. Kaṇā, uṣaṇā and upakulyā (are synonyms). Śreyasī and gajapippalī[21] (are synonyms). Cavyam [cavya] and cavikā (are synonyms). Kākaciñcī, guñja and kṛṣṇalā (are synonyms).

49-50. Viśvā, viṣā and prativiṣā (are synonyms). Vanaśṛṅgāṭa and gokṣura (are synonyms). Nārāyaṇī and śatamūlī (are synonyms). Kālīyaka, haridruḥ [haridru], dārvī, pacampacā, dāruśuklā[22] and haimavatī[23] (are synonyms of parjanī). Ugragandhā, ṣaḍgranthā, golomī and śataparvikā (are the synonyms of) vacā.

51. Āsphoṭā and girikarṇī (are synonyms). Siṃhāsya, vāsaka and vṛṣa (are synonyms). Madhurikā (is also called) misi and chatrā. Kokilākṣa (is also known as) ikṣura and kṣura.

52. Viḍaṅga is known as kṛmighna (and is used) in the masculine and neuter. Vajradru (is also known as) snuk, snuhī and sudhā.[24] Mṛdvīkā and gostanī (are the other names of) drākṣā. Balā and vāṭyālakā (are synonyms).

53. Kālā and masūravidalā (are synonyms of black trivṛt). Trivṛt (is also known as) tripuṭā and trivṛtā. Madhukam [madhuka], klītakam [klītaka], yaṣṭimadhukam [yaṣṭimadhuka] and madhuyaṣṭikā (are synonyms).

54. Ikṣugandhā (is also known as) vidārī, kṣīraśukla and kroṣṭrī. Gopī, śyāmā, śārivā and anantā (are the other names of) utpalaśārivā.

55. Mocā and rambhā (are synonyms of) kadali. Bhaṇṭākī and duṣpradharṣiṇī (are synonyms) . Sālaparṇī (is also called) sthirā and dhruvā. Śṛṅgī and vṛṣa (are the synonyms of the herb) vṛṣabha.

56. Gāṅgerukī (is also called) nāgabalā. Muṣalī (Musalī) and tālamūlikā (are synonyms). Paṭolikā (is also known as (jyotsnī and jāla. Ajaśṛṅgī and viṣāṇikā (are synonyms).

57. Lāṅgalī (is also known as) agniśikhā. Tāmbūlī and nāgavallī (are synonyms). (The fragrant) reṇukā (is also called) hareṇu and kauntī. Hrībera (is also known as) divyanāgaram [divyanāgara].[25]

58. (The other names of) śaileya (are) kālānusārī, vṛddhā, aśmapāṣpam [=aśmapūṣpam/aśmapūṣpa?] and śītaśivam [śītaśiva]. Murā (is also known as) tālaparṇī, daitya and gandhakuṭī.

59. Śukam [śuka] and barham [barha] (are other names of) granthiparṇam [granthiparṇa] (as well as) balā[26]. Tripuṭā and truṭi (are the synonyms of sūkṣmailā)[27]. Śivā and tāmalakī (are synonyms of bhūmyāmalakī). Hanu and haṭṭavilāsinī (are synonyms).

60. Kuṭannaṭam [kuṭannaṭa], dāśapuram [dāśapura], vāneyam [vāneya] and paripelavam [paripelava] (are synonyms). Jaṭāmāṃsī (is also known as) tapasvinī. Spṛkkā (is also called) devi, latā and laghu.[28]

61. Karcūraka and drāviḍaka (are synonyms). Gandhamūlī is also known as śaṭhī. Vṛddhadāraka (is also known as) ṛkṣagandhā, chagalāntrā and vegī.

62. Raktaphalā, bimbikā and pīluparṇī (are the other names of) tuṇḍikerī. Cāṅgerī, cakrikā[29] and ambaṣṭhā (are synonyms). Svarṇakṣirī (is also known as) himāvatī.

63. Sahasravedhī, cukra and śatavedhī (are the other names of) amlavetas. Jīvantī (is also known as) jīvanī and jīvā. Bhūnimba (Bhūminimba) (is also called) kirātaka.[30]

64. Kūrcaśīrṣa and madhuraka (are synonyms). Candra, kapivṛka,[31] dadrughna and eḍagaja are synonyms. Probably varṣābhū and sobahāriṇī are also synonyms (?).

65. Kunandatī, nikumbhastrā, yamānī and vārṣikā (are synonyms).[32] Laśunam [laśuna] (is also known as) gṛñjanam [gṛñjana], ariṣṭa, mahākanda and rasonaka.

66-67. Badarā and gṛṣṭi (are synonyms of) vārāhī. Vāyasī (is also known as) kākamācī. Madhurā (is also known as) śatapuṣpā, sitacchatrā, aticchatrā, misi, avākpuṣpī and kāravī. Saraṇā, prasāraṇī, kaṭambharā and bhadrabalā (are synonyms). Karcūra and śaṭī (are synonyms).

68. Paṭola is (also known as) kulaka and tiktaka. Kāravella (is also known as) kaṭhillaka. Kūṣmāṇḍaka (is otherwise called) karkāru. Karkaṭī (is known as) urvāruḥ [urvāru] and (used) in the feminine.

69. Kaṭutumbī (is also called) ikṣvāku. Indravāruṇī (is also known as) viśālā. (The other names of) sūraṇa (are) arśoghna and kanda. Mustaka and kuruvindaka (are synonyms).

70. Veṇu (is also called) vaṃśa, tvaksāra, karmāra, maskara and tejana. Chatra, aticchatra, pālaghna, mālātṛṇaka and bhūstṛṇa (denote different kinds of jalatṛṇa).

71a. Tāla is also called tṛṇarāja. Pūga (is also called) ghoṇṭā and kramuka.

71b. Śārdūla[33] and dvīpī [dvīpin?] (are synonyms of) vyāghra (tiger). Haryakṣa, kesarī and hari (denote a lion).

72. (The words) kola, potrī and varāha would (denote a boar). (The words) koka, īhāmṛga and vṛka (denote a wolf). Lūtā, ūrṇanābha, tantuvāya and markaṭa (denote a spider).

73. Vṛścika and śūkakīṭa (scorpion) (are synonyms). Sāraṅga[34] and tokaka are synonyms (denoting a cātaka bird). Kṛkavāku and tāmracūḍa (are synonyms denoting a cock). Pika and kokila (are synonyms denoting a cuckoo).

74. Karaṭa and ariṣṭa (denote) a crow. Baka and kahva denote a crane. Cakravāka is also known as koka and cakra. Kādamba and kalahaṃsaka (are synonyms).

75. Pataṅgikā and puttikā (are synonyms denoting different kinds of honey-bees). Dvirepha, puṣpaliṭ, bhṛṅga, ṣaṭpada, bhramara and ali (denote a bee).

76. Kekī (denotes a peacock). Kekā (denotes) the sound made by a peacock. (The words) śakunti, śakuni and dvija (denote a bird). Pakṣati is the base of the wing. It is in the feminine. Cañcu and troṭi [toṭi?] (denote the beak). Both (the words) are feminine.

77-78. (The words) uṇḍīnam [uṇḍīna] and saṇḍīnam [saṇḍīna] (denote) the gait (of birds). Kulāya and nīḍam [nīḍa] (denote a nest). They are (used) in the masculine and neuter. Peśī, koṣa and aṇḍa (denote an egg). If less than two, aṇḍa is used in the neuter. (The young one of a bird is denoted by the words) pṛthuka, śāvaka, śisu, pota, pāka, arbhaka and ḍimbha. (The following words denote a collection): sandoha, vyūhaka, gaṇa, stoma, ogha, nikara, vrāta, nikurambam [nikuramba], kadambakam [kadambaka], saṅghātaḥ [saṅghāta], sañcayaḥ [sañcaya] and vṛndam [vṛnda]. Puñja, rāśi [rāśī?] and kūṭakam [kūṭaka] (are used to denote heap of grains).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 725.

[2]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti 724.

[3]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti 730.

[4]:

The Purāṇa wrongly reads pītaśāla. Cf. Amara paṅkti 735.

[5]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 737. The purāṇic reading is wrong.

[6]:

Cf Amara paṅkti 738.

[7]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 745.

[8]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 773—picumanda.

[9]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti 773.

[10]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti. 779.

[11]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti. 781.

[12]:

The Purāṇa mixes with the previous. Cf. Amara paṅktis 785 and 788.

[13]:

Cf Amara paṅkti 792.

[14]:

Refers to amlāna. Cf. Amara. paṅkti 796.

[15]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 797.

[16]:

Cf. ibid. paṅkti 806-807.

[17]:

Cf. Amara. paṅkti 819.

[18]:

prāvṛṣāyaṇī. cf. Amara paṅkti 821.

[19]:

Amara paṅkti 827 reads hañjikā.

[20]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 831 -832.

[21]:

karipippalī. Cf. Amara paṅkti 842.

[22]:

Amara paṅkti 852 reads dāru haridrā.

[23]:

ibid. reads parjanī.

[24]:

Amara paṅkti 859 reads guḍā.

[25]:

This name is not found in Amara paṅkti 892.

[26]:

This term is not found in Amara paṅkti 913.

[27]:

Cf. Amara paṅkti 899.

[28]:

The purāṇic reading laśūḥ [laśū] is obviously wrong.

[29]:

Amara paṅkti 929 reads cukrikā.

[30]:

kirātatikta. cf. Amara paṅkti 934.

[31]:

Corrupt reading for kāmpilya and karkaśa. cf. Amara paṅkti 941-2.

[32]:

The Purāṇic reading is corrupt. Cf. Amara paṅkti 937-38.

[33]:

The section on animals begins here.

[34]:

From here begins the listing of synonyms of birds.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: