Chatra, Chātra, Chatrā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Chatra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chhatra.

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Chatra (छत्र, “the parasol”).—In Indian culture only high dignitaries were allowed the use of a parasol the largest ones usually white were reserved for the king and for the gods. The larger the number of smaller parasols heaped above the main one, the higher the personage represented. Thus in Indian culture the parasol is a symbol of spiritual power.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Chatra (छत्र) refers to the “umbrella” which forms part of the royal paraphernalia (mahārājopacāra), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.28. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Lord Śiva, possessed of the perfect vision, realising everything and seeing all, and the cause of protection, being requested by the Goddess, spoke to her:—‘[...] You can go in royal splendour mounting this bull richly caparisoned’. Satī thus commanded to mount the decorated bull, bedecked herself and started for her father’s abode. The royal paraphernalia (mahārājopacāra) like the umbrella (chatra), chowries, silken clothes and ornaments were given to her by (Śiva) the great lord”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Chatra (छत्र).—The seven worlds, white in colour, are one above the other umbrella-like.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 19; III. 49. 23; 55. 15; IV. 37. 35.

1b) The white umbrella as insignia of royalty given to Kāmeśvara by Viṣṇu; lofty as the sky.1 Kauravas threatened Ugrasena to deprive him of that.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 15. 23; 17. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 13. 96.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 35. 14.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Chatra (छत्र) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Chatranṛsiṃha or Chatranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Chatrā (छत्रा) is another name for Śatāhvā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.10-13 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Also see the description of the plant Miśreyā. Together with the names Chatrā and Śatāhvā, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Chatrā (छत्रा) is also mentioned as a synonym for for Miśreyā, an unidentified medicinal plant possibly identified with Foeniculum vulgare (synonym Foeniculum capillaceum) or “fennel”, from the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) or “carrot family” of flowering plants, according to verse 4.14-19. Also see Śatāhvā. Together with the names Chatrā and Miśreyā, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Chātra (छात्र) refers to one of the eight kinds of honey (madhu) according to the Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.133, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Honey was possibly, the earliest sweet thing Indians knew. [...] According to Suśruta the eight varieties of honey are mākṣika, bhrāmara, kṣaudra, pauttika, chātra, ārghya, auddalika and dāla each of these being obtained from different types of bees.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

One of the Eight Auspicious Symbols.—The Precious Parasol (Sanskrit: Chatra) or Sacred Umbrella which is similar in ritual function to the baldachin or canopy. Muller Ebeling, Ratsch & Shahi (2002) scholarly chart the origins of the Sacred Parasol as a symbolic depiction of sacred medicinal and hallucinogenic mushrooms of the Himalayan pharmacopeia; representing the protection of beings from harmful forces, illness; represents the canopy or firmament of the sky and therefore the expansiveness and unfolding of space and the element aether; represents the expansiveness, unfolding and protective quality of the sahasrara; under the auspice of the precious parasol all take refuge in the Dharma;

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Chatrā (छत्रा) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Padmaprabha are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to the Digambara tradition. According to the Śvetāmbara tradition the tree is known as Caturābha (identified with Anethum sava). The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Padmaprabha is the sixth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Dhara according to Śvetāmbara but Dharaṇa according to Digambara and his mother is Susīmā, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation

Chatra (छत्र, “sun-umbrella”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—The chatra is a glittering white sun-umbrella. It is for the Cakravartī not only as a symbol of his dignity as a ruler, but it also cripples his enemy by its look. It protects against rain and sun, against wind and weather and gives cool shade in hot season and a warm shade in cold season.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Chatra.—an umbrella; cf. pañcāṅga-prasāda. (EI 27), an attendant or Piāda; cf. Chātra. Cf. Varāha-kṣetra = Barāh-chatra (Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, p. 221); corruption of Sanskrit kṣetra. Note: chatra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Chātra.—(IE 8-3, 8-8; EI 23, 30), cf. a-bhaṭa-cchātra- prāveśya (IE 8-5); literally, ‘one bearing an umbrella’ or ‘the king's umbrella-bearer’; but probably the same as the Cāṭa or the leader of a group of Bhaṭas (Pāiks or Piādas) as in a-cāṭa- bhaṭa-prāveśya; a peon of the law-court. See Chatracchāyika. (CII 3), used in composition with bhaṭa and also singly; literally, ‘an umbrella-bearer’; but actually, a constable like a Pāik or Piāda. (SITI), celebate (Brahmacārin) in charge of a temple and the śālai attached to it; also called Śaṭṭar, Śāttirar. Note: chātra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

chatra (छत्र).—n (S) A large and lofty parasol, usually of red silk. It is an ensign of dignity. 2 A little silver or brass umbrella-form canopy over an idot. 3 fig. Defence, protection, guard. Ex. rājā prajācēṃ chatra; mātāpitā hīṃ mulācēṃ chatra. 4 S An umbrella or a parasol gen., a chattah or chhatri. chatra dharaṇēṃ To hold the chatra over a king or grandee in procession; and, derisively, over a person seated upon an ass in disgrace. Ex. kaikaicēṃ vapana karōnī satvara || tijavarī dharāvēṃ chatra ||. mēghānnīṃ chatra dharilēṃ It is clouding over.

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chātra (छात्र).—m S A disciple or pupil. (From chatra Umbrella or cover; as a scholar must conceal the faults of his teacher.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

chatra (छत्र).—n A large and lofty parasol. Fig. Defence. Protection.

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chātra (छात्र).—m A disciple or pupil.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Chatra (छत्र).—A mushroom.

-tram 1 A parasol, an umbrella; अदेयमासीत् त्रयमेव भूपतेः शशिप्रभं छत्रमुभे च चामरे (adeyamāsīt trayameva bhūpateḥ śaśiprabhaṃ chatramubhe ca cāmare) R.3.16; Ms. 7.96.

2) Concealing the fault of one's teacher.

Derivable forms: chatraḥ (छत्रः).

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Chatrā (छत्रा).—A mushroom; Ms.5.19; V. .176; also छत्राकी-कम् (chatrākī-kam).

See also (synonyms): chatrāka.

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Chātra (छात्र).—[chatraṃ gurorvaiguṇyāvaraṇaṃ śīlamasya Sk.; chatrā° ṇa] A pupil, disciple.

-tram A kind of honey.

Derivable forms: chātraḥ (छात्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Chatra (छत्र).—n.

(-traṃ) A parasol, and umbrella, the Indian ch'hattah. f.

(-trā) 1. A kind of fennel, (Anethum sowa.) 2. A pungent seed, coriander. 3. A mushroom. 4. Anise. E. chad to cover, and ṇic and ṣṭran Unadi affixes hrasvaśca; hence the word and its derivatives are also written with a double ta, chatra &c.

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Chātra (छात्र).—m.

(-traḥ) A scholar, a pupil, a disciple, a tyro or novice. n.

(-traṃ) Honey. E. chatra an umbrella, a screen or cover, affix ṇa . chatraṃ guroḥ vaiguṇyāvaraṇaṃ śīlamasya chatrā0 ṇa .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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