Cakra, aka: Cakrā, Cākra; 37 Definition(s)
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
- Relevant definitions
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Cakra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chakra.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Cakra (चक्र) refers to the “disc”, a weapon which should measure should measure twelve aṅguli (unit of measurement), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. In dramatic plays, weapons such as cakra should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons engaged in a fight, angry conflict or siege. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Cakra (discus): Ardha-candra hands askew, the palms in contact.Usage: discus.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Cakra (चक्र, ‘discus’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Chakra is also a characteristically Vaiṣṇava weapon. It is also carried by Durgā, who is said to be the sister and as such the female form of Viṣṇu. It is shown in sculptures in two different forms. In the first variety, it is shaped like the wheel of a cart, with spokes, nave and all, and is meant to be grasped by the rim. But in the other form, it is highly ornamented, the spokes are made to resemble the petals of a lotus so that the interal parts appear like a full blown lotus in the tout ensemble.Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography
The Discus (cakra) in Viṣṇu’s upper right hand is called Sudarśana which means 'pleasing-to-see', it is usually shown in iconography with a hexagon in the centre. The six points of the two triangles represent the six seasons in a yearly time cycle, in the centre nave is the seed sound (bīja) ‘Hrīm’, which represents the changeless, motionless centre , the Supreme Cause.
The Cosmic Mind has the unlimited power which creates and destroys all spheres of existence (lokas) and forms of the universe, the nature of which is to revolve. The Discus represents the “will-to-multiply”. There is only one centre to the wheel but it is said to have a thousand spokes.Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity
Cakra (Discus or wheel) - The wheel is the symbol of the Dharma which rotates and spins its beneficial influence in all directions. It also symbolises the cycle of Samsāra — of repeated birth and death which turns endlessly and from which we desire to be liberated. It is also used as a weapon and it's speed is faster than the speed of the mind — thus representing the cosmic mind which destroys our enemies in the form of the afflictive emotions.Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Cakra (चक्र).—As many as 150 representations of the yogic cakras are found at Śrisailam. Some of them are depicted in association with Siddhas and sometimes with Swan (haṃsa). In addition to these several sculptures depict yogic exercises and postures. All these indicate the popularity of Siddha cult in the sacred complex of Śrisailam.
The sculptural examples of Tiruvaṭṭāṛu in Tamilnādu show some interesting schematic representations of the Yogic cakras in the human body. These sculptures also carry a sexual dimension of the Yogic powers, in the portrayal of ithyphallic men. Similar examples are also found in the temples of Bāhūr, Puducherry; Śrīraṅgam; Tirupathisāram, Tamilnādu and Āraṇmula, Keralā.Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (sculpture)
Cakra (चक्र, “discus”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Cakra is shown in sculptures in two different forms. In the first variety, it is shaped like the wheel of a cart, with spokes, nave and all, and is studded with precious gems. But in the other form, a highly ornamental one, the spokes are made to resemble the petals of a lotus so that the internal parts appear like a full blown lotus. The cakra also has ornamentations on the top and the sides, and a jeweled ribbon, running around it. It is in some cases held in the hand by means of this ribbon, and in other cases, between the first two fingers. It is a weapon resembling modern quoits and must have been used as a missile to be thrown against the enemy to cut him through and kill him.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
1) Cakra (चक्र, “discus”):—One of the nine symbols representing the cosmic principles of the universe, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These nine weapons and ornaments symbolize the principles which they represent as the presiding deity. The Discus (cakra) represents universal mind.
2) Cakra (चक्र) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Cakranṛsiṃha or Cakranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Cakra (चक्र) or Cakramudrā is the name of a mudrā described in the Īśvarasaṃhitā 33-34.—Accordingly, “the two hands are to be joined with each other and clearly stretched out and moved about like a wheel. This is called cakramudrā, which destroys all miseries. This is the supreme mudrā”. Mūdra (eg., Cakra-mudrā) is so called as it gives joy to the tattvas in the form of karman for those who offer spotless worship, drive out the defects which move about within and without and sealing up of what is done.Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
The Discus (cakra):—
bala svarūpam atyanta javenāntaritānilam |
cakra svarūpañca mano dhatte viṣṇuḥ kare sthitam ||
“In the form of mighty power, revolving swifter than the winds—the Universal Mind in the form of a wheel is held in the hand of Vishnu.” (Viṣṇu-purāṇa. 1;22; 70.)
The Cosmic Mind has the unlimited power which creates and destroys all spheres of existence (lokas) and forms of the universe, the nature of which is to revolve. According to the Ahirbudhnya Samhita 2;26, the Discus represents the “will-to-multiply”. In the beginning the Lord said to Himself eko'ham bahu syam—“I am one, may I become many”. And thus He projected the manifold universe that we see around us. There is only one center to the wheel but it is said to have a thousand spokes (sahasrāra).
The Wheel has eight spokes and 8 wings, which represent the eight syllables of the sacred Aṣṭākṣarī mantra, while the outer circle of the wheel represents ‘māya’, the divine power of manifestation.
In the microcosm the Universal Mind corresponds to the active-notion-of-individual-existence (rajas ahamkara) that is associated with the fiery principle.
Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
“The prodigious power of the mind can destroy all forms of ignorance, hence the discus is the fearful weapon which cuts off the heads of all the demons of error”. ( Śrī Viṣṇnu tattva sidhanta 5;19 44 - 45)
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Cakra (चक्र):—According to tantric principles, the cakra is an inward representation of a maṇḍala, interiorized into the human body. These mystic centres are usually represented as a lotus. Different systems of such centres are recognized with varying number and symbolism. Gorakṣanātha (author of kādiprakaraṇa or kubjikāmata-tantra) recognizes twenty-eight or more of such centres with presiding deity and śaktis. These cakras symbolize the cosmic processes of emanation and re-integration in six levels and in them the Sāṃkhya categories and the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet are represented.Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Cakra (चक्र).—In the Netratantra there are six cakras. Kṣemarāja’s Netratantroddyota commentary to 7.1cd–5 locates them as follows: “‘Season’ stands for ‘six’, [which are] the locations [called] ‘birth’, navel, heart, palate, ‘drop’, and ‘resonance’, where are found wheels (cakra) called ‘channel’ (nāḍi), ‘illusion’ (māyā), ‘union’ (yoga), ‘breaking’ (bhedana), ‘effulgence’ (dīpti), and ‘the peaceful’ (śānta), because they are the substrates (āśraya) of the surges (prasara) of nāḍi, māyā etc.”Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Cakra (चक्र):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Agnipurāṇa, featuring a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Triviṣṭapa, featuring octagonal-shaped temples. This list represents the classification of temples in North-India.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
The Cakras of the microcosm are:
- Mūlādhāra, the support of all the Cakras;
- Maṇipūra, the seat of mind (manas);
- Svādhiṣṭhāna, the seat of intellect (buddhi);
- Anāhata, the seat of the principle of articulate sound (Śabdabrahman);
- Viśuddhi, the seat of Ether (ākāśa)
- and Sahasrāra or Śiva-Śakti or Bindu, the point limit between the unmanifest and the manifest.
The eight Cakras are also given as the eight means necessary to control the inclinations of the inner faculties. They are:
- Yama, restriction,
- Niyama, opbservances,
- Āsana, sitting posture,
- Prāṇāyāma, breath control,
- Pratyāhāra, emptying the mind from external objects,
- Dhāraṇa, its subsequent concentration,
- Dhyāna, keeping it concentrated
- and Samādhi, merging and dissolving it in the object of its concentration.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Cakra (चक्र).—A son of Vāsuki, the Nāga king. He died at the serpent yajña (Sarpa Satra) of Janamejaya by falling into the fire. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 6).
2) Cakra (चक्र).—One of the three attendants given to Subrahmaṇya by Viṣṇu, the other two being Saṅkrama and Atikrama. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 40).
3) Cakra (चक्र).—One of the two attendants presented to Skandhadeva by Tvaṣṭa, the other one being Anucakra. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 40).
4) Cakra (चक्र).—Sudarśana Cakra (disc) of Mahāviṣṇu. The Viṣṇu Purāṇa contains the following story about the origin of the Cakra.
Sūryadeva (the Sun God) married Saṃjñā, daughter of Viśvakarmā. But, due to the insufferable heat of her husband the marital life of Saṃjñā became miserable, and so she requested her father to lessen the heat of Sūrya. And, accordingly Viśvakarmā ground Sūrya on a grinding machine and thus diminished his effulgence. But, the grinding could diminish only (1/8) of that effulgence, which glowing red-hot dropped on the earth, and with that Viśvakarmā made the Sudarśana Cakra, the Triśūla, the Puṣpakavimāna and the weapon called Śakti. Out of those four things the Triśūla came to be possessed by Śiva, the Puṣpakavimāna by Kubera and Śakti by Brahmā. The Sudarśana Cakra which was glowing like anything was deposited in the sea. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 3, Chapter 2). There is a story in the Mahābhārata as to how the Cakra thrown into the sea came into the possession of Mahāviṣṇu. While Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were picnicing on the shores of the Yamunā Agnideva went to them and requested them to give Khāṇḍava forest to him for food. As Takṣaka, friend of Indra, was living in the forest the latter was causing heavy rains to fall there. Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna realized the fact that Agni would be able to consume the forest only after subjugating Indra. But, how to manage it? Then Agni said that he would supply the weapon to fight Indra with, and accordingly he meditated on Varuṇa, who presented to him (Agni) a chariot and flag with monkey as symbol, a quiver which would never become empty of arrows, a bow called Gāṇḍīva and the Sudarśana Cakra. Agnideva gave the Cakra to Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the other things to Arjuna. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 297).
5) Cakra (चक्र).—A city in ancient India. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 45).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Cakra (चक्र) refers to the bondage of the the rope of activities that revolves like a wheel (cakra), as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “the Jīva bound by the rope of activities revolves round and round for ever like a wheel (cakra) by means of the three types of body (śārira-traya) and their activities (karma). The creator of the wheel (Cakrakartṛ) must be worshipped for the cessation of the revolution of the wheel. The Prakṛti etc. constitute the great wheel and Śiva is beyond the Prakṛti. The creator of the wheel is the Lord Śiva. He is beyond the Prakṛti. Just as a boy drinks or spits out water as he pleases so also Śiva keeps Prakṛti etc. just as he pleases. He is called Śiva because he has brought it under his control. (Vaīśkṛta). Śiva alone is omniscient, perfect and free from desire”.Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
1a) Cakra (चक्र).—A son of Satyabhāmā and Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 47. 17.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 9. 4; VI. 8. 23; VII. 1. 45. IX. 5. 1. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 11; IV. 44. 116; Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 38; 55. 12; 84. 83.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 11. 29; 45. 15-16; 129. 35; 149. 8; 150. 73; 151. 8; 152. 2; 153. 198; 177. 9; 178. 13; 217. 32; 215. 14. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 11; IV. 15. 13; V. 17. 29.
1c) Mountain a hill of Kuśadvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 15.
1d) A tīrtha visited by Balarāma.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 78. 19.
1e) A mountain that entered the sea from fear of Indra—also Cakravat.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 78; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 72.
1f) The wheel of nakṣatras, and planets.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 93; 58. 23; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 85 and 98.
1g) One of the seven ratnas of a king.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 68.
2) Cakrā (चक्रा).—A river of the Bhadra continent.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 25.
Cakra (चक्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.5, I.57, IX.44.33) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cakra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dhanurveda (science of warfare)
Cakra (चक्र) refers to a weapon (also known as Sudarśana; A discus of sharp circular missile weapon). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda
Cakra refers to a wheel and represents a kind of weapon employed in warfare by the soldiers, according to Śrīnātha’s 15th century Palanāṭivīra-caritra. The Vardhmānapuram inscription states that the king should be proficient in dealing several varieties of weapons.Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (weapons)
Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Cakra (चक्र).—According to the Śākta scheme there are six nerve-plexes or wheels (ṣaṭcakras) within the human body.
These (six cakras) are in the:
- mūlādhārā (rectal region, at the base of the spine),
- svādhiṣṭhāna (immediately above the sexual organs),
- maṇipūrāka (the region of the navel),
- anāhata (region around the heart),
- viśuddha (at the front of the throat),
- and ājña (between the eyebrows).
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
1) Cakra (चक्र) is the name of an author of works dealing with prosodoy (chandas or chandaśśāstra) quoted by Kṣemendra (11th century) in his Suvṛttatilaka. The Suvṛttatilaka is a monumental work of Sanskrit prosody in which the author discusses 27 popular metres which were used frequently by the poets (eg., Cakra).
2) Cakra (चक्र) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., cakra) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Cakra (चक्र).—1. Circle. 2. Twelve signs or 360°. Note: Cakra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Katha (narrative stories)
1) Cakra (चक्र) or Cakraparvata is the name of a mountain situated on the island Nārikela, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 54. Accordingly, as four heavenly figures said to Naravāhanadatta: “... there is in the midst of the great sea a great, prosperous and splendid island, which is called the island of Nārikela, and is renowned in the world for its beauty. And in it there are four mountains with splendid expanses of land, named Maināka, Vṛṣabha, Cakra and Balāhaka; in those four we four live”.
2) Cakra (चक्र) is the name of a merchant’s son (vaṇikputra) from Dhavala, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, “... in the city of Dhavala there was a merchant’s son named Cakra. He went on a trading voyage to Svarṇadvīpa against the will of his parents. There he gained great wealth in five years, and in order to return embarked on the sea in a ship laden with jewels”.
The story of Cakra was narrated by Candrasvāmin to his son Mahīpāla in order to demonstrate that “one who is cursed by his father and mother does not long enjoy prosperity”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Cakra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Cakra (चक्र) refers to “wheel” and in the hand of Viṣṇu is called the sudarśana-cakra [which] reveals many lofty ideas. Cakra is the solar symbol representing eternity. It symbolizes the wheel of time where the destiny of man is seen in all his ebbs and flows in life when he mounts up in fortune and goes down in adversity. It symbolizes the wheel of power representing sovereignty. Viṣṇu, as the protector of the universe, and as the Emperor of emperors, carries the wheel which is the symbolic of the power that he wields for the benefit of the universe. The cakra in Viṣṇu’s hand symbolizes the destructive ability of the Lord. The devotee prays to Lord Viṣṇu and gains all the fortunes from each part of the deity.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (vaishnavism)
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Cakra (चक्र):—The chariot (ratha) has, as a rule, two wheels (cakra), to which reference is frequently made. The wheel consisted of a rim (Pavi), a felly (Pradhi), spokes (Ara), and a nave (Nabhya). The rim and the felly together constitute the Nemi. The hole in the nave is called Kha: into it the end of the axle was inserted ; but there is some uncertainty whether Āṇi denotes the extremity of the axle that was inserted in the nave, or the lynch-pin used to keep that extremity in the wheel. Sometimes a solid wheel was used.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Chakra (चक्र): An energy node in the human body. The seven main chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. Each chakra is associated with a certain colour, multiple specific functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Buddhism)
Cakra (चक्र, “wheel”) or Cakraratna refers to the “wheel jewel” and represents the first of the “seven jewels of universal monarchs” (saptaratna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 85). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., cakra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgrahaA wheel in Yoga, one of the psychic centres of the body.Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
Cakra (चक्र, “discus”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—The cakra is a discus embellished with jewels; the Cakravartī hurls it in the battle againts his opponent. Provided with unfailing power, it returns into the hand of the one who has thrown it, after it has smashed the head of the enemy. If it does not immediately kill the opponent for some reason, then it follows him, likea falcon its booty where it can destroy him.Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Cakra.—cf. Cakrin (EI 4); a district; same as maṇḍala. Cf. sakkaram (SITI), wheel of authority; the king's order; an officer entrusted with the execution of the king's order. (CII 3), ‘the discus’; an emblem on seals. Cf. śakkara-kāṇikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; tax paid by potters; also called tirigai-āyam. Note: cakra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
cakra (चक्र).—n (S) A wheel. 2 A discus or sharp circular missile weapon, esp. the discus of viṣṇu. 3 A play thing, a bandalour. 4 Circular lines at the finger-ends (opp. to the conchform lines); held as a favorable sign. 5 An army, a host, an assemblage. 6 A realm, region, country: also a province or district. 7 A cant term for the dish vaḍē. 8 A common term for the two wheels attached to the ends of the kapāḷakāṭhī of a loom: or for the wheel supplying the kapāḷakāṭhī (or ḍhēṅkaṇī) in its absence. 9 A form of array of troops,--the circle. 10 A whirlpool. 11 A diagram of various forms for calculating nativities or foretelling events. 12 An anatomical division of the body, --a ring or a depression. Six are reckoned: viz. ādhāra-liṅga-nābhi-hṛt-kaṇṭha-bhrū-cakra. See further under ṣaṭcakrabhēda. 13 A cycle of years. 14 In astronomy. A sphere or circle, as rāśicakra, prāk- cakra, jyōtiṣacakra. 15 (Vulgar.) A trouble; a maze, vortex, puzzle, quandary.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
cakra (चक्र).—n A wheel. An army, a host, an as- semblage. (Astronomy) A sphere or circle, as rāśicakra, jyōtiṣacakra. A trouble, a maze, vortex, puzzle, quandary.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Cakra (चक्र).—[kriyate anena, kṛ ghañarthe< ka ni° dvitvam Tv.]
1) The wheel of a carriage; चक्रवत्परिवर्तन्ते दुःखानि च सुखानि च (cakravatparivartante duḥkhāni ca sukhāni ca) H.1.173.
2) A potter's wheel.
3) A sharp circular missile, weapon, a disc (especially applied to the weapon of Viṣṇu).
4) An oil-mill; दशसूनासमं चक्रं दशचक्रसमो ध्वजः (daśasūnāsamaṃ cakraṃ daśacakrasamo dhvajaḥ) Mb.13.125.9.
5) A circle, ring; कलाप- चक्रेषु निवेशिताननम् (kalāpa- cakreṣu niveśitānanam) Ṛs.2.14.
6) A troop, multitude, collection, Śi.2.17.
7) A realm, sovereignty; स्वस्थं स्वचक्रं परचक्रमुक्तम् (svasthaṃ svacakraṃ paracakramuktam) Bu. Ch.2.15; cf. चक्रं सैन्यथाङ्गयोः । राष्ट्रे दम्भान्तरे (cakraṃ sainyathāṅgayoḥ | rāṣṭre dambhāntare) ... ()| Medinī.
8) A province, district, a group of villages.
9) A form of military array in a circle.
1) A circle or depression of the body.
11) A cycle, cycle of years.
12) The horizon; यावदावर्तते चक्रं तावती मे वसुन्धरा (yāvadāvartate cakraṃ tāvatī me vasundharā) Rām.2.1.36.
13) An army, a host.
14) Section of a book.
15) A whirlpool.
16) The winding of a river.
17) An astronomical circle; राशि° (rāśi°) the zodiac.
18) Circular flight (of birds &c.).
19) A particular constellation in the form of a hexagon.
2) Range, department in general.
21) The convolutions or spiral marks of the शालिग्राम (śāligrāma).
22) A crooked or fraudulent contrivance.
-kraḥ 1 The ruddy goose (also called cakravāka); पद्मोल्लासविधायिनि सत्पथदीप्तिकृति चक्रभव्यकरे (padmollāsavidhāyini satpathadīptikṛti cakrabhavyakare) Viś. Guṇā.274.
2) A multitude, troop, group.
Derivable forms: cakram (चक्रम्).
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Cākra (चाक्र).—a. (-krī f.) [चक्रेण निर्वृत्तं अण् (cakreṇa nirvṛttaṃ aṇ)]
1) Carried on with the discus (as a battle).
3) Relating to a wheel.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Cakra (चक्र).—nt., circle; (= Pali cakka) one of the four circles or states of (desirable, happy) existence (in which gods and men may find themselves): catvāri devamanu- ṣyāṇāṃ cakrāṇi Mvy 1603 (similarly Pali Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) ii.32.1), listed 1604—7, pratirūpadeśavāsaḥ, satpuruṣāpāśrayam, ātmanaḥ samyakpraṇidhānam, pūrve ca kṛtapuṇyatā (= Pali ibid. 5 paṭirūpadesavāso sappurisūpassayo at- tasammāpaṇidhi pubbe ca katapuññatā); see further cakra-bheda, vidyuc-cakra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Kālacakra (कालचक्र) refers to the “wheel of time” situated beyond the fifty-six worlds ending w...
Dharmacakra (धर्मचक्र) refers to the “Wheel of Dharma”, according to an appendix at the 2nd cen...
Cakravāka (चक्रवाक, “cakra bird”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (anim...
Cakravyūha (चक्रव्यूह).—m. (-haḥ) The circular array of troops. E. cakra and vyūha array.
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—(1) n. of one of the Uṣṇīṣa-rājānaḥ (see uṣṇīṣa 3): Mmk 41.10; (2) ...
Ekacakra (एकचक्र).—m. (-kraḥ) The name of a city: see harigṛha. E. eka, cakra a circle.
Cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—m. (-laḥ) A range of mountains supposed to encircle the earth, and to be t...
Cakravāṭa (चक्रवाट).—m. (-ṭaḥ) 1. Limit, boundary. 2. A lamp stand. 3. Engaging in any action. ...
Cakravṛddhi (चक्रवृद्धि).—f. (-ddhiḥ) Compound interest. E. cakra a wheel, vṛddhi increase.
Cakreśvarī (चक्रेश्वरी).—f. (-rī) A female deity peculiar to the Jainas, one of their Vidya Dev...
Cakradhara (चक्रधर).—mfn. (-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Having a wheel, &c. m. (-raḥ) 1. A village or commo...
Śrīcakra (श्रीचक्र).—n. (-kraṃ) 1. A magical diagram. 2. An astrological division of the body, ...
Rāśicakra (राशिचक्र).—n. (-kraṃ) The zodiac. E. rāśi, a sign, and cakra a wheel or circle.
Bhacakra (भचक्र).—Circle of the asterisms. Note: Bha-cakra is a Sanskrit technical term used in...
Nāḍīcakra (नाडीचक्र).—The ten nāḍīs where the yogī in meditation retains the five prāṇas form t...