Punnaga, Punnāga, Pumnaga: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Punnaga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Punnāga, the Pataka and Catura hands;

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning punnāga] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) (identified with Calophyllum inophyllum) is used in various bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis such as manipulating the scent of flowers, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “All types of flowering plants produce excellent fragrance if earth strongly scented by their own flowers is filled around the base (of the trees) and then fed with water mixed with Cyperus rotundus, Erythrina stricta, and Valeriana wallichii leaves. The same treatment used in the evening at their blossoming time along with fat, milk, blood and water extract of Saussurea lappa intensifies the natural fragrance of the blossoms of Calophyllum inophyllum [e.g., Punnāga/Punāga], Mesua ferrea, Mimusops elengi, etc.”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Calophyllum inophyllum by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as punnāga) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Punnāga) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) refers to one of the various flowers conjured by Vasanta (spring) in an attempt to charm Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.9. Accordingly as Kāma related to Brahmā:—“[...] Spring (Vasanta) too did the needful in enchanting Him. O, listen to it, O fortunate Being. I tell you the truth, the truth alone. He caused the various kinds of flowers to bloom in the place where Śiva was stationed—flowers such as Campakas, Keśaras, Punnāgas, Ketakas, Mallikās, Kurabakas etc. etc.”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Punnaga [पुन्नाग] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. from the Dilleniaceae (Karmal) family having the following synonyms: Dillenia floribunda, Dillenia hainanensis. For the possible medicinal usage of punnaga, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Punnaga [পুন্নাগ] in the Bengali language is the name of a plant identified with Calophyllum inophyllum L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family.

Punnaga [ಪುನ್ನಾಗ] in the Kannada language, ibid. previous identification.

Punnaga [पुन्नाग] in the Marathi language, ibid. previous identification.

Punnaga [पुंनाग] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Punnaga [పున్నాగ] in the Telugu language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Punnaga in India is the name of a plant defined with Calophyllum inophyllum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Balsamaria inophyllum (L.) Loureiro (among others).

2) Punnaga is also identified with Dillenia pentagyna It has the synonym Dillenia hainanensis Merrill.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Taxon (1980)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)
· Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society (1963)
· Isis (1828)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· FBI (1872)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Punnaga, for example chemical composition, extract dosage, side effects, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Punnaga in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

punnāga : (m.) the Alexandrian laurel tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Punnāga, (dial. ?) a species of tree J. I, 9 (°puppha); VI, 530; KhA 50 (aggacchinna°-phala), 53 (id.). (Page 467)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

punnāga (पुन्नाग).—m (S) A flower, Michelia Champaca, or Alpinia nutans. Grah. 2 Pinnay-oil tree, Calophyllum Inophyllum.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

punnāga (पुन्नाग).—m A kind of flower.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Punnāga (पुन्नाग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. A tree, from the flowers of which a yellowish dye is prepared, (Rottleria tinctoria.) 2. A white lotus. 3. Nutmeg. 4. A chief, a head or pre-eminent man. 5. A white elephant. E. puṃ male, nāga an elephant, or aff. or eminence.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Punnāga (पुन्नाग).—m. 1. i. e. puṃs -nāga, A pre-eminent man. 2. A white elephant. 3. A tree, from the flowers of which is prepared a yellowish dye, Rottleria tinctoria. 4. A white lotus. 5. Nutmeg.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Punnāga (पुन्नाग):—[pu-nnāga] (gaḥ) 1. m. A tree (Rottleria); a lotus; nutmeg; a chief.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Punnāga (पुन्नाग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Puṃnāga.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Puṃnāga (पुंनाग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Punnāga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Punnāga (ಪುನ್ನಾಗ):—

1) [noun] an excellent man.

2) [noun] a male elephant.

3) [noun] a white elephant.

4) [noun] a royal elephant.

5) [noun] a male buffalo.

6) [noun] a snake.

7) [noun] the middle-sized, evergreen tree Calophyllum inophyllum ( = C. apetalum, = C. spurium) of Guttiferae family, which is grown as ornamental tree.

8) [noun] the tree mallotus philippensis ( = Rottlera tinctoria) of Euphorbiaceae family.

9) [noun] the tree Mammea suriga ( = Ochrocarpus longifolius) of Clusiaceae family.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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