Baka, Bakā: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Baka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands that indicate Flying Creatures.—Crane (baka),the mingled-Haṃsa hand, i.e., the forefinger and thumb are joined, the second and third fingers extended, and the little finger made to touch the palm, this is also used in Mantra-bheda.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Baka—Śyenī was a wife of Aruṇa. She gave birth to the Sārasas, Kurnras (kumra/kurma?), and Bakas.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Bakā (बका).—Daughter of the demon, Sumāli. He had four daughters: Bakā, Puṣpotkaṭā, Kaikasī and Kumbhīnadī. Rāvaṇa is the son of Kaikasī. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

2) Baka (बक).—A demon. The Pāṇḍavas escaping from the trap of Arakkilla (lac-house) through a secret tunnel went to the village Ekacakrā on the banks of the river Gaṅgā and stayed there in the house of a brahmin. Baka was a demon who was terrorising the villagers there. He used to come to the village freely and carry away people for his food. Because of this nobody lived in peace and so they all joined together and decided to send one man daily with plenty of other eatables to the demon in this cave. Days went by like that and one day the turn came to the brahmin who was sheltering the Pāṇḍavas. That brahmin had besides his wife one son and a daughter. The problem arose as to who should go to the demon. The father was willing but the wife did not want him to go and vice versa. The children began to cry and hearing the noise Kuntī, mother of the Pāṇḍavas, went there to enquire and learned the tragic story of the family. She immediately went to Bhīma and acquainted him with the problem before the brahmin. Bhīma at once volunteered to go to the demon deciding to kill the man-eater and thus putting an end to his depredations.

2) Bhīma started on his journey to the demon carrying a cartload of rice and curry. Deliberately Bhīma arrived at the place of the demon very late. Baka rolled his eyes in anger at the sight of the late-comer. But Bhīma without heeding him sat in front of the demon and started eating the rice and curry. Baka charged at Bhīma with fury but Bhīma defended and a battle ensued in which Baka was killed and he fell dead like a mountain-head dropping down.* (Chapters 157164, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).

3) Baka (बक).—A demon. As young boys Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāmabhadra were once playing in Ambāḍi (Gokula) on the banks of the river Yamunā when the demon, Baka, despatched by Kaṃsa, went to them in the form of a huge terrible-looking stork. In no time opening its ferocious beaks the stork swallowed Kṛṣṇa. But the touch of Kṛṣṇa burnt the throat of the bird and vomitting Kṛṣṇa the bird fell dead.

4) Baka (बक).—(Bakadālbhya). The great sage who poured into the sacrificial fire the country of King Dhṛtarāṣṭra. For details see under Dālbhya.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Baka (बक) refers to Mimusops eleugi and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 463.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Baka (बक).—An Asura; a son of Andhaka and brother of Āḍi;1 friend of Kaṃsa; seized Kṛṣṇa in the guise of a crane; was torn to death.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 156. 12.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 1; 11. 48-52; 12. 14; 26. 8; 43. 30; 46. 26.

1b) A son of Maṇivara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 160.

1c) Sons of Vṛtra and who became followers of Mahendra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 36.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Baka (बक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.79) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Baka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Baka (बक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “common crane”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Baka is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Baka (बक)—Sanskrit word for a bird “egret” (Egretta alba) or white ibis. This animal is from the group called Plava (‘those which float’ or ‘those move about in large flocks’). Plava itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: archive.org: The religion and philosophy of the Veda and the Upanishads (dharmashastra)

Baka (बक) is the name of a deity to be invoked in a certain ritual, according to the Mānavagṛhyasūtra 2.14. Accordingly, the deity is prescribed when one suffers from possession by the Vināyakas, Śālakaṭaṅkaṭa, Kūṣmāṇḍarājaputra, Usmita and Devayajana. The Baijavāpagṛhyasūtra replaces the names of last two vināyakas with Mita and Sammita. According to R. C. Hazra in his Gaṇapati-worship, “this rite is both expiatory and propitiatory in nature and in which various things including meat and fish (both raw and cooked) and wine and cakes are to be offered”..

The gṛhya-sūtras are a branch of dharma-sūtras and refer to a category of Vedic literature dealing with domstic rites and rituals. The Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra belongs to the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda. The Baijavāpa-gṛhya-sūtra is known only through references to it in other works (e.g., Vīramitrodaya-Saṃskāra).

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Baka (बक) refers to the bird “Egret/heron” (Bubulcus ibis).—Birds have been described in several ancient Sanskrit texts that they have been treated elaborately by eminent scholars. These birds [viz., Baka] are enumerated in almost several Smṛtis in context of specifying the expiations for killing them and their flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites. These are elaborated especially in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [chapter VI], Gautamasmṛti [chapter 23], Śātātapasmṛti [II.54-56], Uśānasmṛti [IX.10-IX.12], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.172-I.175], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.28-51.29], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.16].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Baka (बक) refers to one of the various leaves and flowers used in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Baka][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Baka (बक) is the name of an Āyuṣmat who was later reborn as Bakabrahmā in Brahmaloka, according to a note in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 51.—Four jātakas describing the ups and downs of Baka during his earlier lives explain why, without being eternal, he now enjoys a long life. [...] Before taking rebirth in the Brahmaloka, Baka was a Buddhist monastic. It is said in the Tsa pao tsang king: There was an Āyuṣmat camed P’o-k’ie (Baka). Venerable Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana taught him the contents of the Dharma (dharmoddāna) and he became anāgāmin. After death, he was reborn among the Brahmadevas and had the name P’o-k’ie-fan (Bakabrahmā). When Kokālika, a disciple of Devadatta, accused Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana of misconduct, Bakabrahmā came down from the Brahmā heaven to defend his former teachers.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Baka (बक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Bakī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Baka] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

baka : (m.) a crane; heron.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Baka, (cp. Epic Sk. baka) 1. a crane, heron Cp. III, 102; J. I, 205 (°suṇikā), 221, 476; II, 234; III, 252.—2. N. of a dweller in the Brahma world M. I, 326; S. I, 142. (Page 481)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

baka (बक).—m (S) A kind of heron, Ardea Torra vel Putea. Buch. 2 (arbhaka S) A young one (of man or animal). 3 f (vāk) S through H) Used pl, as bakā, Idle chat or talk; mere report. Pr. ha- jāra bakā āṇi ēka likhā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

baka (बक).—m A kind of heron. pl bakā Idle chat or talk. Ex. hajāra bakā āṇi ēka likhā.

--- OR ---

bākā (बाका).—a A daring, expert. bākā killā Impregnable fort. bākā bōlaṇārā Smart and able speaker.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Baka (बक).—

1) The Indian crane; न प्रयत्नशतेनापि शुकवत् पाठ्यते बकः (na prayatnaśatenāpi śukavat pāṭhyate bakaḥ) H.

2) A cheat, rogue, hypocrite (the crane being a very cunning bird that knows well how to draw others into its clutches).

3) Name of a demon killed by Bhīma.

4) Name of another demon killed by Kṛṣṇa.

5) Name of Kubera.

6) An apparatus for subliming metals or minerals.

-kī = पूतना (pūtanā) q. v. अहो बकी यं स्तनकालकूटं जिघांस- यापाययदप्यसाध्वी (aho bakī yaṃ stanakālakūṭaṃ jighāṃsa- yāpāyayadapyasādhvī) Bhāg.3.2.23.

2) A female crane.

Derivable forms: bakaḥ (बकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Baka (बक).—(= Pali Baka-brahman), name of a pratyeka-brahman (q.v.), in Baka-pratyekabrahma-sūtra, name of a work: Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 34.8; see Lévi's note.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Baka (बक).—[masculine] a kind of heron; hypocrite, flatterer, a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Baka (बक):—m. (also written vaka) a kind of heron or crane, Ardea Nivea (often [figuratively] = a hypocrite, cheat, rogue, the crane being regarded as a bird of great cunning and deceit as well as circumspection), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) Sesbana Grandiflora, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) an apparatus for calcining or subliming metals or minerals, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Name of Kubera, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) of a demon, [Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra]

6) of an Asura (said to have assumed the form of a crane and to have been conquered by Kṛṣṇa), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) of a Rākṣasa killed by Bhīma-sena, [Mahābhārata]

8) of a Ṛṣi (with the [patronymic] Dālbhi or Dālbhya), [Kāṭhaka; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata]

9) of a peasant, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

10) of a king, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

11) ([plural]) of a people, [Mahābhārata]

12) Bāka (बाक):—n. ([from] baka) a multitude of cranes, [Pāṇini 4-2, 37 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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