Khadira, Khādira: 36 definitions


Khadira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Khadira, the Tāmracūḍa quite face downwards.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Khadira (खदिर) is the name of a tree (Khair) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Ārdrā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Khadira], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Khadira (खदिर) refers to the “Acacia catechu” and is mentioned as a source of fuel for boiling water (jala), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—[...]. It is interesting to note that the properties of boiled water based on the fuel used to boil the same are described. The fuels discussed here are [viz., khadira (Acacia catechu)]

Khadira (Acacia catechu) is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., vāstuka (spinach) siddhārthaka (mustard)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., khadira (Acacia catechu)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Khadira (खदिर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Acacia katechu (Linn.f.) Willd.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning khadira] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Khadira (खदिर) refers to the Acacia catechu, and is used in the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—[Kuṣṭhacikitsā (treatment of cutaneous infections)]—In any cuetaneous infection a decoction of nimbapatra (neem leaves), paṭola (snake gourd), triphalā (three myrobalans), and Khadira (Acacia catechu) should be successively given for three days to a horse, after raktamokṣaṇa (blood-letting).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Khadira (खदिर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “Catechu tree” tree from the Fabaceae family, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known as Khayara or Khaira. Its official botanical name is Senegalia catechu (Acacia catechu), and is commonly known in English as “Catechu”, “Terra Japonica” and “Japan earth” among many others. It has been used since ancient times in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Khadira (खदिर).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—Khadira is a specific drug for kuṣṭha. It is astringent, cold, pacifies kapha and pitta, purifies blood, strengthens teeth and alleviates prameha and obesity.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Khādira (खादिर) or Khera refers to Acacia catechu, and is the name of a medicinal plant dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs (viz., Khādira) during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Khadira (खदिर) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Senegalia catechu (catechu) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as khadira).”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Khadira (खदिर) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Khadira) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Source: Addaiyan Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: Tantra Literature of Kerala- Special Reference to Mātṛsadbhāva

Khadira (खदिर) or “cutch tree” refers to of the trees used for making Bimbas or Pratimās, according to the Mātṛsadbhāva, one of the earliest Śākta Tantras from Kerala.—Mātṛsadbhāva is a Kerala Tantric ritual manual dealing with the worship of Goddess Bhadrakālī (also known as Rurujit) along with sapta-mātṛs or Seven mothers. [...] There are many descriptions about the flora and fauna in Mātṛssadbhāva. [...] In the fourth chapter the author discussed about different types of trees [e.g., khadira] can be used to make pratimā or bimba.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Khādira (खादिर) wood is used for brushing the teeth in the month Pauṣa for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Pauṣa, the tooth-brush is that of khādira-wood. The food taken is candana. The deity to be worshipped is Yogeśvara. The flowers used in worship are marubhaka. The naivedya offerings is odana. The result  accrued is rājasūya.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Khadira (खदिर) refers to one of the items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey, ghee, dadhi, and milk. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Khadira (खदिर) is classified as a “tree beneficial for the construction of temples”, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood (e.g., from the Khadira tree) for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the woods of some particular trees remain beneficial for the construction of temples. At the time of cutting the trees [e.g., Khadira] one should clean the axe by smearing honey and ghee. After collecting the suitable wood from forest, the architect uses it according to his requirements and purposes.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Khadira (खदिर)—Sanskrit word for a plant (Acacia catechu).

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Khadira (खदिर) is mentioned frequently from the Rigveda1 onwards as a tree with hard wood—the Acacia catechu. The Aśvattha is referred to as engrafting itself upon it in the Atharvaveda, and from it the climbing plant Arundhatī is said to have sprung.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Khadira (खदिर) or Bhadira refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Kāyacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the kāyacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Khadira is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Śūlabhinna and with the hell-guardian (narakapāla) named Bhadirakī.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Khadira (खदिर) refers to a type of wood used for stakes (as part of an offering ritual), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān said]: “Now I shall teach the offering manual which is auspicious and can bring about any effect. [...] Four stakes made of khadira wood and iron [should be placed] after they have been enchanted with the mantra sixty times. All stakes should measure eight aṅgulas. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Khadira (खदिर) refers to the “Acacia catechu”, as occurring in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 278, l. 9]—‘Khadira’, a homonym, here means a kind of tree, Acacia catechu, noted in Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1,302). In Gujarati it means khera. Its Pāiya (Prakrit) equivalent ‘khaira’ occurs in Āyāra.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Khadira in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Senegalia chundra (Roxb. ex Rottler) Maslin from the Mimosaceae (Touch-me-not) family having the following synonyms: Acacia chundra, Mimosa chundra, Acacia sundra. For the possible medicinal usage of khadira, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Khadira in India is the name of a plant defined with Acacia catechu in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Mimosa catechu L.f. (among others).

2) Khadira is also identified with Acacia chundra It has the synonym Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. var. sundra (Roxb.) Prain (etc.).

3) Khadira is also identified with Acacia ferruginea It has the synonym Mimosa ferruginea Roxb. (etc.).

4) Khadira is also identified with Acacia pennata It has the synonym Mimosa torta Roxb. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· London Journal of Botany (1842)
· recueil périodique d’observations botanique, (1980)
· Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam. (1913)
· Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (1986)
· Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew (1915)
· Supplementum Plantarum (1782)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Khadira, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Khadira in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

khadira : (m.) acacia tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Khadira, (Sk. khadira; Gr. kiζsaros, ivy; Lat. hedera, ivy) the tree Acacia catechu, in cpds. —avārā (pl.) embers of (burnt) acacia-wood J. I, 232; PvA. 152; —ghaṭikā a piece of a. -wood J. IV, 88; —tthambha a post of a. -wood DhA. III, 206; —patta a bowl made of a. -wood J. V, 389; —vana a forest of acacias J. II, 162; —sūla an impaling stake of a. -wood J. IV, 29. (Page 232)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

khadira (खदिर).—m (S) A tree, Mimosa catechu. 2 or khadirasāra m Catechu or Terra Japonica.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Khadira (खदिर).—[khad-kirac]

1) Name of a tree, Acacia Catechu; Y.1.32.

2) An epithet of Indra.

3) The moon.

Derivable forms: khadiraḥ (खदिरः).

--- OR ---

Khādira (खादिर).—a. (- f.) [खदिरस्येदं, अण् (khadirasyedaṃ, aṇ)] Made of or coming from, the Khadira tree; खादिरं यूपं कुर्वीत (khādiraṃ yūpaṃ kurvīta); Manusmṛti 2.45.

-raḥ Catechu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Khadira (खदिर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A tree, the resin of which is used in medicine, Khayar Terra japonica or catechu, (Mimosa catechu.) 2. A name of Indra. 3. The moon. f. (-rī) A sensitive plant, (Mimosa pudica.) E. khad to hurt, Unadi affix irac.

--- OR ---

Khādira (खादिर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Derived from the Khayar tree. 2. made of its wood. E. khadira, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Khadira (खदिर).—[khad + ira], m. A tree, Acacia catechu, the resin of which is used in medicine, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 21, 22; [Suśruta] 2, 76, 12.

--- OR ---

Khādira (खादिर).—i. e. khadira + a, adj., f. , Made of Khadira-wood, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 45.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Khadira (खदिर).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree (Acacia Catechu).

--- OR ---

Khādira (खादिर).—[feminine] ī made of Khadira wood.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Khādira (खादिर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—said to be the author of the Drāhyāyaṇagṛhyasūtra. Brl. 56.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Khadira (खदिर):—[from khad] m. Acacia Catechu (having very hard wood, the resin of which is used in medicine, called Catechu, Khayar, Terra japonica), [Ṛg-veda iii, 53, 19; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] Name of Indra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] the moon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a man [gana] aśvādi

5) Khadirā (खदिरा):—[from khadira > khad] f. a sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica; ‘a kind of vegetable’ [Boehtlingk’s Sanskrit-Woerterbuch in kuerzerer fassung]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Khādira (खादिर):—mf(ī)n. ([gana] palāśādi) made of or coming from the Khadira tree (Acacia Catechu), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā iii; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

7) m. = -rasa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Khadira (खदिर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A tree (Mimosa catechu); Indra; the moon. () 3. f. The sensitive plant.

2) Khādira (खादिर):—[(raḥ-rī-raṃ) a.] Of the khayar tree (Mimosa catechu).

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Khadira (खदिर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khaira, Khāira.

[Sanskrit to German]

Khadira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Khadira in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Khadīra (खदीर):—(nm) catechu; cutch.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Khadira (ಖದಿರ):—

1) [noun] the tree Acacia catechu of Mimosae family.

2) [noun] that which is made of, produced from this tree, as its resin; catechu.

3) [noun] another tree of the same family Acacia wallichiana; black catechu.

4) [noun] Indra, the lord of gods.

5) [noun] the moon.

--- OR ---

Khādira (ಖಾದಿರ):—[adjective] of, related, produced from the tree Acacia catechu.

--- OR ---

Khādira (ಖಾದಿರ):—

1) [noun] the tree Acacia catechu of Mimoceae family.

2) [noun] that which is made of or produced from this tree.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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